Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Earth Science Chapter 22

5,431

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Comment
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • It is highly informative and useful.
    t
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,431
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
627
Comments
1
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Stop Period 1 (Wednesday October 21)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 22 Sun-Earth-Moon System
    • 2.  
    • 3. 22.1 Planet Earth
      • Planet Earth Data
        • The position of the Earth, Sun, and moon affect us daily
        • Seasons change, day turns to night, tides rise & fall
        • The Earth’s Shape
          • The Earth was once believed to be flat (YES, it is roundish)
          • Aristotle reasoned that the Earth was round because it cast a round shadow (Not flat) on the Moon during eclipses
          • Sailors used line of sight to show the Earth was curved
      Pgs. 613 - 622
    • 4. Earth the Oblique spheroid
      • Today we know the Earth is almost round
        • It is a slightly flattened sphere (Oblique Spheroid)
          • Sphere: round three dimensional object
          • Slightly bulged at the Equator, Flatter at the poles
        • The axis runs through the poles
          • Axis: line around which the Earth spins (Rotation)
          • Rotation causes day and night
        • The Equator: line bisecting the Earth (90 O from Poles)
      • Only known planet to have liquid water
      • Made up of 70% water.
      • 97% of all water is salted.
      • Only known planet to have life
    • 5. Earth Data (the Specifics)
      • Diameter: (Pole to Pole) = 7,901 mi.
      • Diameter: (at Equator) = 7,926 mi
      • Earth rotates at about 1000 mi/hr.
      • Mass: 5.98 x 10 27 g = 5.98 x 10 23 kg
      • Density: 5.52 g/cm 3
      • Average distance from the Sun = 149,600,000 km
      • Period of Rotation (1 day) = 23hr. 56 min.
      • Pd. of Revolution (1 year) = 365 days 6 hr. 9 min.
      • Polar tilt: 23.5 0 from vertical
      • Average Temperature is 60 o F
      • Hottest Temperature: 134 o F in Death Valley California (1913)
      • Coldest Temperature: -129 o F in Vostok, Antartica (1983)
      • This means the earth is constantly moving around the sun.
    • 6.  
    • 7. Earth’s Rotation
      • The Earth rotates, the sun appears to move across the sky (from East to West)
      • Night is caused by ½ the Earth being in shadow
    • 8. Earth’s Magnetic Field
      • The Earth acts as a giant magnet
        • It produces a magnetic field just like a bar magnet
        • The Magnetic field is produced from under the surface
        • It radiates out into space
        • It is affected by energy from the sun (causes distortion)
    • 9. Magnetic North
      • Earth’s magnetic axis, does not line up with it’s polar axis
        • A compass points to magnetic North (not North Pole)
        • Difference is 11.5 0 from polar North
    • 10. Earth’s Orbit
      • REVOLUTION – Yearly orbit around the sun.
      • Just like the Moon is a satellite of the Earth, the Earth is a satellite of the sun.
      • The Earth revolves around the sun
      • Earth’s orbit is an ellipse
        • Ellipse: off center oval (elongated closed curve)
        • Distance from the sun changes during the year
          • Closest to the sun = Perihelion Jan 3 rd and is about 91,500,000 miles from the sun.
          • Farthest from the sun = Aphelion July 4 th and is about 94,500,000 miles from the sun.
    • 11.  
    • 12. The Seasons
      • Seasons: Annual change in climate
        • Due to the Earth’s tilt on it’s axis 23.5 0
        • Seasons are opposite between hemispheres
          • Daylight hrs are longer for the pole pointed toward the sun
          • More solar energy = warmer temperatures
    • 13. Equinoxes
      • Equinox: Equal amounts of sunlight
        • Daylight = 12 hrs; Night = 12 hrs.
        • Sunlight hits directly on the Equator
        • Northern Hemisphere:
          • Spring (VERNAL) Equinox (Marks beginning of Spring) March 20 th or 21 st
          • Autumn Equinox (Beginning of Fall) September 22 nd or 23 rd
        • Reversed for the Southern Hemisphere
    • 14. Solstices
      • Solstice: “longest” of the year
        • Sun reaches its farthest point North or South
        • Summer Solstice: (Northern Hemisphere)
          • Occurs on June 21 st or 22 nd (Beginning of Summer)
          • Sunlight reaches the Tropic of Cancer
          • “ Longest day of the year” = 16 hrs. of sunlight
          • North Pole = 24 hrs of daylight
          • South Pole = 24 hrs of night
    • 15. Winter Solstices
      • Sun directly on Tropic of Capricorn
        • Occurs on December 21 st or 22 nd
          • Northern Hemisphere = Beginning of Winter
          • “ Longest night of the Year” (16 hrs. of night)
          • North Pole: 24 hrs. of night
          • South Pole: 24 hrs. of daylight
    • 16. 22.2 Earth’s Moon
      • You know the moon looks different over the month
        • You see different amounts visible
        • It rises at different times (sometimes even during the day)
      • The Moon’s Rotation & Revolution
        • The moon rotates on its axis (27.3 days = 1 rotation)
        • It revolves around the Earth (27.3 days = 1 revolution)
        • Unique situation: We always see the same side of the moon
      Pgs. 623 - 631
    • 17. Why the Moon Shines
      • The moon is not like the sun
      • It does not create it’s own light
      • It reflects sunlight = Moon light
        • Only the side of the moon facing the sun can be seen
        • Other side in shadow
    • 18. Moon Phases
      • Phases: Daily change in the moon’s appearance
        • Occur because the moon reflects sunlight & orbiting Earth
        • Our view point & Moon’s position determines what we see
      • Waxing: More & more of the moon becomes visible
        • Occurs between New moon and Full moon
      • Waning: Less & less of the moon is visible
        • Occurs between Full moon and New Moon
      • There are Eight Main Phases:
      • 1.) New Moon 5.) Full Moon
      • 2.) Waxing Crescent 6.) Waning Gibbous
      • 3.) First Quarter 7.) Last Quarter
      • 4.) Waxing Gibbous 8.) Waning Crescent
    • 19. Phases of the Moon
      • 1.) NEW MOON – When the moon is completely in shadow
      • 2.) WAXING CRESCENT – Right side of moon begins to become visible, Left side in shadow.
      • 3.)FIRST QUARTER – Right half is visible, left half in shadow.
      • 4.)WAXING GIBBOUS – More than half of the lit side is visible, moon takes on an egg shape
      • 5.)FULL MOON – When all of the moon’s surface facing earth is lit up and visible.
      • 6.)WANING GIBBOUS – Moon begins to appear less lit up, takes on an egg shape again (Left side still shines, Right side in shadow)
      • 7)THIRD (LAST) QUARTER – Left half of moon visible
      • 8) WANING CRESCENT – only a sliver of the left side is visible.
    • 20.
      • NEW MOON
      • WAXING CRESCENT
      • FIRST QUARTER
      • WAXING GIBBOUS
      • FULL MOON
      • WANING GIBBOUS
      • THIRD QUARTER
      • WANING CRESCENT
    • 21. Phases of the Moon
    • 22.  
    • 23.
      • Average Distance from the Earth to the Moon: 238,857 miles
      • The Harvest Moon is the FULL MOON nearest to the AUTUMNAL EQUINOX , which occurs (in the NORTHERN HEMISPHERE) on or about SEPT. 23rd
    • 24.
      • The Harvest Moon is also known as the Wine Moon, the Singing Moon and the Elk Call Moon. In MYTH and FOLKLORE the full moon of each month is given a name. There are many variations but the following list gives the most widely known names:
      • January – Wolf Moon July – Hay Moon
      • February – Ice Moon August – Corn Moon
      • March – Storm Moon Sept. – HARVEST MOON
      • April – Growing Moon Oct. – Hunter’s Moon
      • May – Hare Moon Nov. Snow Moon
      • June – Mead Moon Dec. – Winter Moon
      • When there are 2 full moons in a month the second is called a BLUE MOON .
    • 25.  
    • 26. Eclipses:
      • Eclipses occur when the sun, Earth, & Moon align
      • Caused by the position of the moon
        • The moon’s orbit is not on the same plane as Earth’s
        • Can only occur when orbits cross
        • Shadows are the reason for the phenomena
        • The Moon’s orbit is tilted about 5 degrees from the Earth’s
    • 27. Parts of a Shadow:
      • Shadows have 2 parts:
        • Umbra: Darkest part (center)
        • Penumbra: Lighter part (outside)
    • 28. Solar Eclipses
      • Solar Eclipse: Moon’s shadow covers part of the Earth
        • Blocks view of the sun
        • Only occur during New Moon
        • Occur every year, only seen in specific areas
      • Total Solar Eclipse:
        • The moon blocks out the sun
        • Only the Corona is seen glowing
      • Partial Solar Eclipse:
        • Moon’s penumbra shades part of sun
    • 29.
      • Total Solar Eclipse Partial Solar Eclipse
    • 30. Lunar Eclipses
      • When the moon passes into the Earth’s Shadow
        • Partial eclipse occur when the moon is in the Penumbra
        • Total eclipse occur when the moon is in the Umbra
        • Total Eclipse must occur during Full moons (about once a year)
        • Moon turns blood red in color
    • 31. Stages of a Lunar Eclipse
    • 32. Moon’s Surface Tycho Mare Imbrium Copernicus Mare Serenitatis Mare Tranquillitatus Notice the rays from Tycho Kepler
    • 33. Moon Surface Features
      • We can see light and dark parts with our eyes
        • Maria- Dark colored lava plains with circular basins
        • Highlands- Areas of light colored crust
      • Lunar Highlands- made up of mountain chains
        • Found around maria edges, and extinct volcanoes
      • The Moon is riddled with craters
      • Lunar Dirt: Called Regolith (rock particles and dust)
        • Not soil- contains no water or organic material
    • 34. The Moon’s Interior
      • Apollo Missions left instruments to study the moon
        • Learned about what is below the moon’s surface
        • Surface:
          • 35 miles thick facing the Earth
          • 90 miles on other side
        • Solid Mantle: Lies below the surface (600 miles deep)
        • Partially molten zone: Lies below solid mantle
        • Core: Iron-rich & solid
      • The Moon is prone to Moonquakes due to structure
    • 35.  
    • 36. Origin of the Moon
        • Impact theory:
          • A Mars sized object collided with the Earth (6.4 b.y.a.)
          • Vaporized material thrown into space
          • Material condensed & formed the moon
    • 37. 22.3 Exploration of the Moon
      • No manned missions to the moon since Apollo
      • None scheduled missions either
        • In 1994, one spacecraft was placed in lunar orbit
        • Clementine: two month mission to survey the moon
      • Clementine the Spacecraft
        • Carried & tested sensors to track cold objects in space
          • Cold objects include satellites, warheads & Asteroids
        • Also compiled detailed maps of the moon’s surface
      Pgs. 632-633
    • 38.
      • Moon’s average day time temperature is 214 o F
      • Moon’s average night time temperature is -300 o F
      • Moon’s Gravity is 6x lighter than the Earths.
      • Moon has not atmosphere so it is always black there.
      • Moon’s diameter is 2160 miles
    • 39. Moon Missions
      • 12 Americans landed on the moon between 1969-1972 during the Apollo Program
      • July 20,1969 – Apollo 11 first manned lunar landing. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the moon.
    • 40.  

    ×