Chapter 9
Power Up #1
1. Name 3 nutrients that the body needs.
2. Define the term “balanced diet”.
IX. Nutrients
A. Food
1. Cells use food for growth and repair.
2. Body uses food as fuel to keep working properly.
3. Nutr...
IX. Nutrients
A. Food
4. The SIX different nutrients:
a. Proteins
b. Fats
c. Carbohydrates
d. Vitamins
e. Minerals
f. water
B. Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates
1. Proteins
a. Nutrients used to build and repair body parts.
b. Make up bone, muscle...
B. Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates
3. Carbohydrates
a. Nutrients that also supply you with energy.
b. Carbs are used fir...
B. Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates
5. Nutrients in body parts
a. Protein:
1. Organs are made of mostly protein.
b. Fats
...
CHAPTER IX NUTRITION
B. Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates
6. Average percentage of each nutrient in males
and females.
a. ...
C. Vitamins
1. Chemical compounds needed in very small amounts
for growth and tissue repair.
2. Certain diseases may occur...
Vitamin Use in body Problems if not
enough
Foods RDA
A (retinol) Vision, healthy
skin
Night blindness,
rough skin
Liver, b...
D. Minerals
1. Nutrients needed to form different cell parts.
a. Like vitamins needed in very small amounts
b. Iron, Calci...
Table 9-2 Minerals (p 190)
MINERAL USED IN BODY PROBLEMS IF NOT
ENOUGH
Iron Form blood cells, helps
blood carry oxygen
Ane...
E. Water
1. Body made up of 50 to 60 percent.
a. Used in cooling, carrying away wastes, and helping
chemical reactions occ...
F. Achieving a Balanced Diet
1. Diet with the right amount of nutrients, including
Grains, Vegetables, Fruits, Milk, Meat ...
F. . Achieving a Balanced Diet (cont’d)
3. Vegetables
a. Eat 2 ½ cups every dayDark green vegetables
(broccoli, spinach), ...
F. Achieving a Balanced Diet (cont’d)
4. Fruits
a. Eat 2 Cups every day.
b. Eat many varieties of fruit, fresh frozen, can...
F. Achieving a Balanced Diet (cont’d)
5. Milk
a. Get 3 cups every day
b. All fluid milk products and many foods made from ...
F. Achieving a Balanced Diet (cont’d)
6. Meat and Beans
a. Eat 5 ½ ounces everyday.
b. All foods made from meat, poultry, ...
Summary Questions
1. Name two nutrients that supply the body with
ENERGY
A. Fats and Carbohydrates
2. How are minerals use...
Summary Questions
5. Name the five food groups we discussed
yesterday and today.
a. Grains, Fruits, Vegetables, Milk, Meat...
Summary Questions
8. What type of vegetables are recommended by
the FDA for the most nutrients?
a. Leafy, dark green veget...
Summary Questions
12. What food group is the major supplier of
calcium?
a. Milk
Food Nutrients
Protein
Build body
parts
Re...
Food Nutrients
Protein
Build body
parts
Repair body
parts
Carbs
First energy
source
Fat
Second energy
source
Vitamins
Used...
SECTION 9:2 (Calories)
A. Energy in Food
1. A Calorie is a measure of the energy in food.
a. High calorie foods= a lot of ...
SECTION 9:2 (Calories)
A. Energy in Food
3. Cellular Respiration
a. Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + Water + 36 ATP
C6H...
SECTION 9:2 (Calories)
B. Calorie Content in Food
1. Foods differ in amt. of energy, or Calories they
contain.
a. Fat supp...
SECTION 9:2 (Calories)
C. Daily Calorie Intake (continued)
1. BMR= Basal Metabolic Rate
a. Your BMR is simply the minimum ...
SECTION 9:2 (Calories)
2. How many calories should you take in on a
daily basis?
a. The General Calculation
For every poun...
SECTION 9:2 (Calories)
3. Daily Calorie Intake– To factor in the amount of activity you do in a
regular day, take the numb...
SECTION 9:2 (Calories)
D. Major Factors that Affect Daily Caloric Need
1. Age- BMR decreases 2% for every decade beyond
th...
SECTION 9:2 (Calories)
4. Malnutrition-Eating too few calories, like when
dieters severely restrict calories, slows down t...
SECTION 9:2 (Calories)
E. Using BMR for weight loss
1. One pound of fat is equal to 3500 calories.
2. You would need to ha...
Chapter 9 Lab
Create your personal Nutritional Plan.
1. List your body weight
2. List your goal. (Amount of weight you wan...
Chapter 9 Lab
Create your personal Nutritional Plan.
4. Determine how many more/fewer calories
you will need to gain/lose ...
Chapter 9 Review
1. Turn to page 200 in your textbook
2. Chapter 9 Testing yourself 1-25
3. This is part two of three of y...
1. Study of how your body uses food.
a. Nutrtition
2. Measure of food energy
a. Calorie
3. Nutrient used to build and repa...
5. Type of chemical in food needed by all living
cells.
a. Nutrient
6. Amount of a vitamin needed each day.
a. Recommended...
9. body’s main source of energy.
a. Carbohydrates
10.Nutrients such as calcium or iron.
a. Minerals
11.Why the number of c...
12.How to find the total number of calories in a
meal.
a. Multiply the mass of each food by the number of
calories in a kn...
14.Why is water important?
a. Used for cooling the body, dissolving chemicals in
chemical processes, and for carrying away...
16. What happens to unused calories in the body?
a. They are stored as fat.
17. How do vitamins differ from minerals.
a. V...
19.How do the number of calories used change
as activity increases.
a. As activity increases, the number of calories used
...
21. What does it mean if a certain food gives you 20 percent of your
RDA for niacin?
a. The food supplies 20 percent of th...
24.How many calories are in equal masses of
a. Fat and Carbohydrates==Fat has more calories
b. Fat and protein= fat has mo...
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Chapter 9 nutrition

  1. 1. Chapter 9
  2. 2. Power Up #1 1. Name 3 nutrients that the body needs. 2. Define the term “balanced diet”.
  3. 3. IX. Nutrients A. Food 1. Cells use food for growth and repair. 2. Body uses food as fuel to keep working properly. 3. Nutrients are the chemicals in food that your cells need. a. Nutrition is the study of nutrient s and how your body uses them.
  4. 4. IX. Nutrients A. Food 4. The SIX different nutrients: a. Proteins b. Fats c. Carbohydrates d. Vitamins e. Minerals f. water
  5. 5. B. Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates 1. Proteins a. Nutrients used to build and repair body parts. b. Make up bone, muscle and skin c. Found in meats, eggs, fish, nuts , and chicken. 2. Fats a. Used as a source of energy. b. Compounds that STORE large amounts of energy. c. Cooking oils, salad dressing, and butter are high in fat content.
  6. 6. B. Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates 3. Carbohydrates a. Nutrients that also supply you with energy. b. Carbs are used first for energy. c. Fats are used after it uses up all of your carb supply. d. Foods with starches and sugars (bread, fruit) 4. Balanced Diet a. 55 to 65 % carbohydrates b. 30 % from fats c. 10 to 15 % from proteins.
  7. 7. B. Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates 5. Nutrients in body parts a. Protein: 1. Organs are made of mostly protein. b. Fats 1. Found under skin and around body organs. c. Carbohydrates 1. Stored in the liver and blood.
  8. 8. CHAPTER IX NUTRITION B. Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates 6. Average percentage of each nutrient in males and females. a. Carbohydratres= 2%(male) –----2% (female) b. Fat= 18% (male)-----30 % (female) c. Protein= 20% (male) ------ 18 % (female) d. Water= 60 % (male) ------50% (female)
  9. 9. C. Vitamins 1. Chemical compounds needed in very small amounts for growth and tissue repair. 2. Certain diseases may occur if too much or too little of a specific vitamin is in your diet. a. Example: Too much vitamin A will cause hair loss or liver problems. (p 188)
  10. 10. Vitamin Use in body Problems if not enough Foods RDA A (retinol) Vision, healthy skin Night blindness, rough skin Liver, broccoli, carrots 5000 IU B1 (thiamine) Allows cells to use carbs Digestive problems, muscle paralysis Ham, eggs, raisins 1.5 mg B2 (riboflavin) Allows cells to use carbs and proteins Eye problems, cracking skin Milk, yeast, eggs 1.7 mg B3 (Niacin) Allows cells to carry out respiration Mental problems, skin rash, diarrhea Peanuts, tuna, chicken 20 mg C (ascorbic acid) Healthy membranes, wound healing Sore mouth and bleeding gums, bruises Green peppers, oranges, lemons, tomatoes 60 mg D (calciferol) Bone growth Bowed legs, poor teeth Egg yolk, shrimp, milk, yeast 400 IU
  11. 11. D. Minerals 1. Nutrients needed to form different cell parts. a. Like vitamins needed in very small amounts b. Iron, Calcium, Magnesium, Iodine, Sodium are common minerals. 2. Copy first three columns. a. See Chart page 190 in your book!
  12. 12. Table 9-2 Minerals (p 190) MINERAL USED IN BODY PROBLEMS IF NOT ENOUGH Iron Form blood cells, helps blood carry oxygen Anemia, feeling tired Calcium Helps form bones and teeth Bone and teeth become weak and brittle Magnesium Helps form bones and teeth Muscles twitch Iodine Helps thyroid gland chemicals Causes thyroid gland to become enlarged. Sodium Muscle contractions, nerve messages Dizziness, tired feeling, CRAMPS..(just ask chark!)
  13. 13. E. Water 1. Body made up of 50 to 60 percent. a. Used in cooling, carrying away wastes, and helping chemical reactions occur in the body. b. The average adult needs about two liters of water each day.
  14. 14. F. Achieving a Balanced Diet 1. Diet with the right amount of nutrients, including Grains, Vegetables, Fruits, Milk, Meat and Beans. 2. Grains a. 6oz every day, whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, pasta b. Grains are important sources of many nutrients, including dietary fiber, several B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate), and minerals (iron, magnesium, and selenium).
  15. 15. F. . Achieving a Balanced Diet (cont’d) 3. Vegetables a. Eat 2 ½ cups every dayDark green vegetables (broccoli, spinach), orange vegetables, beans, and peas b. Vegetables are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, folate (folic acid), vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin C.
  16. 16. F. Achieving a Balanced Diet (cont’d) 4. Fruits a. Eat 2 Cups every day. b. Eat many varieties of fruit, fresh frozen, canned or dried. c. Fruits are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, and folate (folic acid).
  17. 17. F. Achieving a Balanced Diet (cont’d) 5. Milk a. Get 3 cups every day b. All fluid milk products and many foods made from milk are considered part of this food group. Foods made from milk that retain their calcium content are part of the group, while foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not. Most milk group choices should be fat-free or low-fat. c. Foods in the milk group provide nutrients that are vital for health and maintenance of your body. These nutrients include calcium, potassium, vitamin D, and protein.
  18. 18. F. Achieving a Balanced Diet (cont’d) 6. Meat and Beans a. Eat 5 ½ ounces everyday. b. All foods made from meat, poultry, fish, dry beans or peas, eggs, nuts, and seeds are considered part of this group. Dry beans and peas are part of this group as well as the vegetable group c. Major provider of protein in the diet.
  19. 19. Summary Questions 1. Name two nutrients that supply the body with ENERGY A. Fats and Carbohydrates 2. How are minerals used by the body. A. They help form certain cell parts and chemicals. 3. How can you be sure that your diet is balanced. A. Choose foods from the milk, meat, fruit, vegetable, and grain groups. 4. Why does the body need more carbs then proteins or fat in their diet. A. Carbs are the first source of energy and are used quickly.
  20. 20. Summary Questions 5. Name the five food groups we discussed yesterday and today. a. Grains, Fruits, Vegetables, Milk, Meat and Beans 6. What is the recommended amount of grains in your daily diet? a. 6oz 7. Name two vitamins and two minerals that grains supply to your body. a. Vitamins (Niacin, riboflavin, thiamin) b. Minerals (Iron, magnesium, selenium
  21. 21. Summary Questions 8. What type of vegetables are recommended by the FDA for the most nutrients? a. Leafy, dark green vegetables or orange vegetables, peas and beans. 9. Name two vitamins that vegetables supply. a. Vitamin A, E, C 10. How many cups of vegetables does the FDA recommend. a. 2 ½ cups 11. What food group is the major provider of protein in the diet? a. Meat and Beans
  22. 22. Summary Questions 12. What food group is the major supplier of calcium? a. Milk Food Nutrients Protein Build body parts Repair body parts Carbs First energy source Fat Second energy source Vitamins Used for cell processes Minerals Used to form cell parts Water Cools body Carries away waste Mixes with chemicals
  23. 23. Food Nutrients Protein Build body parts Repair body parts Carbs First energy source Fat Second energy source Vitamins Used for cell processes Minerals Used to form cell parts Water Cools body Carries away waste Mixes with chemicals
  24. 24. SECTION 9:2 (Calories) A. Energy in Food 1. A Calorie is a measure of the energy in food. a. High calorie foods= a lot of energy b. Low calorie foods= provide less energy a. Diet Soda vs. Candy Bar 2. Food energy is used to: a. Keep body temp close to 37 C (98.6F) b. Move muscles, pump blood and send messages to nerves. c. Food energy is released when your cells carry on respiration.
  25. 25. SECTION 9:2 (Calories) A. Energy in Food 3. Cellular Respiration a. Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + Water + 36 ATP C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP b. ATP is chemical energy for the body.
  26. 26. SECTION 9:2 (Calories) B. Calorie Content in Food 1. Foods differ in amt. of energy, or Calories they contain. a. Fat supplies the most calories
  27. 27. SECTION 9:2 (Calories) C. Daily Calorie Intake (continued) 1. BMR= Basal Metabolic Rate a. Your BMR is simply the minimum amount of calories your body requires on a daily basis to complete its basic functions, like keeping your heart beating or regulating your internal temperature. b. Once you know your BMR, you can also factor in the body’s caloric use during digestion, and your daily caloric expenditure based on your activity level.
  28. 28. SECTION 9:2 (Calories) 2. How many calories should you take in on a daily basis? a. The General Calculation For every pound of body weight you carry, your body burns about 10 calories each day. Therefore, a person weighing 130 pounds would need to take in at least 1,300 calories (130 x 10 = 1,300) every day, just to meet their body’s basic needs.
  29. 29. SECTION 9:2 (Calories) 3. Daily Calorie Intake– To factor in the amount of activity you do in a regular day, take the number you just calculated and multiply it by your Activity Level: a. Sedentary: 20% Sitting most of the day b. Lightly Active: 30% Walking here and there; daily chores c. Moderately Active: 40% Constantly moving around; daily exercise d. Very Active: 50% Heavy exercise for prolonged periods of time, such as training for a sport Example: 1,300 calories x 0.30 = 390 calories Then, add together your BMR and calories burned by your activity level: Example: 1,300 calories + 390 calories = 1,690 calories
  30. 30. SECTION 9:2 (Calories) D. Major Factors that Affect Daily Caloric Need 1. Age- BMR decreases 2% for every decade beyond the age of 20 2. Sex- Men generally have more muscle than women, and lean mass burns calories while fat mass doesn’t burn any calories 3. Genetic Build-Tall thin people generally have higher metabolisms than short heavy people.
  31. 31. SECTION 9:2 (Calories) 4. Malnutrition-Eating too few calories, like when dieters severely restrict calories, slows down the metabolism, by up to 30% 5. Thyroid disorders 6. Pregnancy- Elevates BMR which increases caloric need. a. Generally need about 300 extra calories.
  32. 32. SECTION 9:2 (Calories) E. Using BMR for weight loss 1. One pound of fat is equal to 3500 calories. 2. You would need to have 500 negative calories per day. 3. Healthiest way to lose one pound of fat per week: a. Eat 250 calories less than what your BMR requires. b. Burn 250 calories a day by exercising. c. Losing more than 1-2 lbs per week is not recommended
  33. 33. Chapter 9 Lab Create your personal Nutritional Plan. 1. List your body weight 2. List your goal. (Amount of weight you want to lose or gain) a. Remember, the most we want to change is 1 to 2 lbs per week. 3. Determine the amount of calories you will need to intake for your BMR. (review handouts)
  34. 34. Chapter 9 Lab Create your personal Nutritional Plan. 4. Determine how many more/fewer calories you will need to gain/lose 1 pound per week. a. Remember one pound of fat is about 3500 calories. 5. Determine the duration and amount of time you will exercise.
  35. 35. Chapter 9 Review 1. Turn to page 200 in your textbook 2. Chapter 9 Testing yourself 1-25 3. This is part two of three of your study guide for the next test (FRIDAY Sept. 25th) 4. Must copy the question/statement. 5. We will go over this today!!!!!
  36. 36. 1. Study of how your body uses food. a. Nutrtition 2. Measure of food energy a. Calorie 3. Nutrient used to build and repair body parts, such as skin and bone. a. Protein 4. Eating the proper amount of all nutrients each day. a. Balanced diet
  37. 37. 5. Type of chemical in food needed by all living cells. a. Nutrient 6. Amount of a vitamin needed each day. a. Recommended daily allowance 7. Energy, food, such as oil or butter a. Fat 8. Nutrient, such as niacin, that aids a cell with its chemical work. a. Vitamin
  38. 38. 9. body’s main source of energy. a. Carbohydrates 10.Nutrients such as calcium or iron. a. Minerals 11.Why the number of calories used during an activity is different for each person. a. Calorie used depends upon a persons size as well as how active the person is.
  39. 39. 12.How to find the total number of calories in a meal. a. Multiply the mass of each food by the number of calories in a known mass and then add the mass of each food together. 13.The roles of Vitamin C and Vitamin D a. Vit. C is used for healthy membranes and wound healing; Vitamin D is used for bone growth.
  40. 40. 14.Why is water important? a. Used for cooling the body, dissolving chemicals in chemical processes, and for carrying away body wastes. 15.What type of nutrients do dairy foods contain? a. Carbs, fat, protein, water, minerals, and vitamins.
  41. 41. 16. What happens to unused calories in the body? a. They are stored as fat. 17. How do vitamins differ from minerals. a. Vitamins are needed for growth and tissue repair, minerals are needed to form cell parts. 18. Which food group supplies the body with Vitamin C, carbohydrates,water, and magnesium. a. Vit C= fruit vegetable group b. Carbohydrates= all groups except meat c. Water is supplied by all of the food groups d. Magnesium is supplied by the fruit , vegetable, and grain groups.
  42. 42. 19.How do the number of calories used change as activity increases. a. As activity increases, the number of calories used increases. 20.Which nutrients are used for growth and repair of skin and bones. a. Proteins are nutrients that build and repair body parts.
  43. 43. 21. What does it mean if a certain food gives you 20 percent of your RDA for niacin? a. The food supplies 20 percent of the amount of niacin needed each day to stay in good health. 22. What happens to body weight when a. More calories are used then taken in= weight loss b. More calories taken in the used= weight gain 23. Which foods would you suggest a person with anemia and muscle twitches eat in an attempt to correct the condition? a. Liver, eggs, peas, enriched cereals, and whole grains. (iron deficiency) b. Twitches= potatoes, fruit, and whole grain cereal. (magnesium deficiency)
  44. 44. 24.How many calories are in equal masses of a. Fat and Carbohydrates==Fat has more calories b. Fat and protein= fat has more calories c. Protein and Carbohydrates= about equal calories. 25.What are the six important nutrients found in food? a. Proteins, minerals, water, vitamins, carbohydrate s, and fats.

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