Chapter 5 section 1 notes

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7th Grade Life Science
Chapter 5: Heredity
Section 1 Genetics

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Chapter 5 section 1 notes

  1. 1. Chapter 5: HereditySection 1: Genetics<br />Minersville Area School District<br />Mr. Motuk<br />Room 124<br />
  2. 2. Genetics<br />Heredity: The passing of traits from parent to offspring. <br />Genes on chromosomes control the traits that show up in an organism. <br />The different forms of a trait that a gene may have are alleles. <br />During meiosis a pair of chromosomes separates and the alleles move into separate sex cells. <br />Each sex cell now contains one allele for each trait. <br />The study of how traits are inherited is genetics. <br />
  3. 3. Gregor Mendel-The father of Genetics<br />Mendel was the first to use mathematics of probability to explain heredity and to trace one trait for several generations. <br />Hybrid: receives different genetic information for a trait from each parent. <br />Dominant allele: covers up or dominates the other trait. <br />Recessive allele: The trait seems to disappear, is covered up by the dominant allele. <br />Probabilityhelps you predict the chance something will happen. <br />
  4. 4. A Punnett Square can help predict what an offspring will look like. <br />Upper case letters stand for dominant alleles. <br />Lower case letters stand for recessive alleles. <br />Y= Yellow<br />y= Green<br />Yy= Heterozygous<br />yy= Homozygous<br />
  5. 5. Genotype: The genetic makeup of an organism.<br />Homozygous: An organism with two alleles for one trait that are the same. (YY or yy)<br />Heterozygous: An organism with two alleles for one trait that are different. (Yy)<br />Y= Yellow<br />y= Green<br />Yy= Heterozygous<br />yy= Homozygous<br />
  6. 6. Phenotype: The way an organism looks and behaves as a result of its genotype. <br />YY and Yy would physically appear to be yellow, even though their genotype is different, they share the same phenotype. <br />yy would physically appear to be green. <br />Y= Yellow<br />y= Green<br />Yy= Heterozygous<br />yy= Homozygous<br />

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