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The Outer Planets...

The Outer Planets
Unit7: Astronomy
Chapter 24: The Solar System
Section 3: The Outer Planets

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  • 1. Chapter 24 Section 3: Outer Planets
  • 2. 23.4 The Outer Planets
    • Outer Planets: Description
      • Outer Planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
        • Pluto is no longer considered a planet.
      • 4 planets are gaseous giants ( Jovian Planets )
      • Pluto and Xenon are frozen spheres
        • Voyager 1 & 2 probed the 4 gaseous giants
          • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
    Pgs. 654 - 659
  • 3. Jupiter:
    • Jupiter
      • Largest Planet in our Solar System
      • Fifth planet in order
      • Revolution = 11.9 years to orbit
      • Rotation = 10 hrs. (fastest of all planets)
      • Voyager 1 & 2 (1979) probed Jupiter
        • Gathered information about Jupiter’s Moons’ Atmospheres
        • Discovered 3 more moons
        • Discovered a faint dust ring orbiting Jupiter
  • 4.
    • Jupiter’s Composition:
      • Hydrogen, Helium, Ammonia, Methane, & water vapor
      • Gaseous Atmosphere, Liquid Mantle, & Solid Core
      • Clouds form color bands; Winds up to 400 km/hr.
      • Great Red Spot : Continuous Atmospheric Storm
      • Lightning has been observed in the atmosphere
      • Radiates 2x as much heat as it receives
      • Believed to be a star “that just didn’t make it”
  • 5. Images of Jupiter
  • 6. Jupiter’s Moons
    • Jupiter’s Moons
      • Jupiter has at least 16 moons
        • Four Largest = Galilean Moons (Discovered in 1610)
        • Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
      • Io: Closest of the Large moons to Jupiter
        • Most volcanic objects in out Solar System
        • Sulfuric Lava produces Reddish/Orange color
        • Holds a thin sulfur dioxide atmosphere
      • Europa: Composed of solid rock covered with ice
        • Tectonic activity
        • Thin oxygen atmosphere
  • 7.
      • Ganymede:
        • Largest moon in the Solar System
        • Larger than Mercury, Surface covered in Ice
        • Slushy Mantle, Solid rock core
      • Callisto:
        • Composed of heavily cratered Rock/Ice Crust
        • Water/Ice mantle with a rocky core
  • 8. Galilean Moons Io with eruption Europa Ganymede Callisto
  • 9.
    • Saturn
      • Sixth planet; 30 year orbit; 11 hr rotation
      • 1980 & 1981 surveyed by the Voyagers
        • “ Ringed Planet”
        • Second Largest planet
        • Very low density (would float in water)
      • Atmospheric composition:
        • Mostly hydrogen & helium; also ammonia, methane
        • Liquid Hydrogen/helium mantle
        • Small rocky core
  • 10. Saturn:
    • Rings composed of 100’s of ringlets
      • Ringlets are made up of ice & rock particles
    • At least 18 moon orbit Saturn (Most of any planet)
      • Largest moon = Titan (2 nd largest in Solar System)
        • Real atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, & methane
        • Thick, smog clouds cover Titan
        • Surface temp. = -180 0 C (-292 o F)
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • Uranus
      • Smallest of the gas planets
      • Discovered in 1781
      • 7 th planet, 84 year orbit, 17 hour rotation **
      • Average Temp. = -328 o F
  • 13. Uranus:
    • Voyager 2 surveyed (1986)
      • Discovered 10 unknown moons (making 15 total)
        • 5 largest almost identical
        • Dark color, lack atmosphere, crater riddled
      • Discovered several dark rings
      • Detected a magnetic field tilted 60 0 from axis
      • Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium & Methane
        • Methane gives planet a blue/green tint
        • Liquid mantle of water, methane, & ammonia
        • Rocky core
      • ** Rotational axis lays on its side (Spins like a tire)
  • 14.
    • Neptune
      • Last of the gas planets; discovered in 1846
      • Orbit overlaps Pluto’s at 2 points
        • Change position 8  9 & 9  8
        • 1 orbit = 165 years; 1 rotation = 16 hrs
      • Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium, Methane
        • Methane gives Neptune bluish tint
        • Winds = 2200 km/hr; Temperature = -417 0 F
        • Has a dark spot = storm in it’s atmosphere
        • Liquid mantle: water, methane, & ammonia
        • Core: solid rock
  • 15.
    • F. Neptune (continued)
      • Voyager 2 detected 6 moons (Totaling 8)
        • Largest moon = Triton
          • Has a thin nitrogen atmosphere
          • Constantly erupting methane geysers
        • Neptune also has rings (thin & thicken at different places)
  • 16.  
  • 17. Pluto:
    • G. Pluto
      • Discovered in 1930; smallest planetoid
      • Between 1979 & 1999 Pluto orbited inside Neptune
        • Rest of the time the ninth planet
        • Orbit = 248 years
        • Has a different orbital plane (tilted 17 0 from other planets)
  • 18. Pluto:
    • Pluto (continued)
      • Surrounded by a minimal atmosphere
        • Temperature = -364 o F
      • Solid rocky crust
      • One Moon, Charon (½ diameter of Pluto)
        • Orbits very close to Pluto
        • Sometimes considered “a double planet” with Pluto
  • 19.
    • H. Xenon
      • Discovered January 8 th , 2005
        • 20 % larger than Pluto
        • Orbital time unknown; Rotational time unknown
        • Has one known moon
        • Dark & cold (below -225 0 C or -373 o F)
        • Has not been “officially” named yet
  • 20. Kuiper Belt
    • Kuiper Belt
      • Discovered by the Hubble Telescope
      • Vast disk of icy comets
      • Located near Neptune’s orbit
  • 21.
    • Voyagers’ Continuing Mission
      • After passing Saturn in 1980 Voyager 1 headed out of our Solar System
      • After passing Pluto in 2000 Voyager 2 headed out of our Solar System
      • Both are still transmitting information back to Earth about deep space, and our sun’s long range influence of charged particles
  • 22.