Exploring SpaceSection 3: Current Space Missions
A. Current Space Travel1. Currently many nations work together in space travel2. The International Space Station: a. A cooperative effort between many countries to build an extraterrestrial habitat used for research. Started in 1998 and the first person inhabited it on 2000. There have been people there ever since 2000.3. Missions to Mars: a. Several countries are working towards a joint mission b. Possibilities of a Martian base are also being considered
B. Reusable Space Crafts1. NASA (National Aeronautics & Space Administration) realized multistage rockets are expensive and wasteful.2. They designed the Space Shuttle a. A reusable craft capable of carrying people, satellites, and experiments. b. Made up of 3 Main Parts. 1. Orbiter: Plane like ship 2. External Fuel Tank: Largest tank filled with liquid Oxygen and Hydrogen. 3. Two solid rocket boosters: Produce thrust required to launch.
Shuttle Endeavor launch on March 10th, 2008 @ night
C. Shuttle Launch1. Upon launch the solid rocket boosters fire producing lift. a. At 45 km (27 miles) they are depleted and eject (Parachuting back to Earth) b. Recovered and then reused.2. Shuttle flies of fuel from External Tank a. Once it is empty it is ejected (crashing into the ocean). b. External tanks are not reused. (scrapped & recycled)
C. Shuttle Launch3. Once in space the shuttle orbits the Earth. a. Experiments conducted, satellites deployed, etc. b. Upon completion of missions the orbiter returns to Earth. c. Glides into a runway, landing like an Airplane.
D. Space Stations1. Space ships have limited resources and cannot stay in space for long periods of time.2. Space stations are massive complexes that allow humans to stay in space for extended periods of time. a. Provides living quarters, work, and exercise areas for astronauts. b. Carries all equipment and support systems needed for sustained life.
D. Space Stations3. Sky Lab a. US Space Station launched in 1973 b. Crews stationed for 84 day tours. c. Purpose: perform experiments on effects of living in space. d. Scrapped in 1979 (Placed in decaying orbit and burned up in Earth’s atmosphere)4. Mir (Russian Space Station) a. Cosmonauts stayed for 438 days (still a current record for days in space)
E. Cooperation in Space1. Countries realize that pooling resources is cost efficient. (less expensive)2. 1995: US and Russia begin working together on projects.3. Americans now travel in Russian rockets and Russians travel in our Space Shuttles.4. The Atlantis was the first space shuttle to dock with Mir.
E. Cooperation in Space5. The International Space Station a. Project began in 1997 (on going) b. A dozen nations are cooperating to build the station. c. Main components are built on Earth and transported into space. d. The component are assembled in space.
F. International Space Station1. Three phase project a. Phase 1: Shuttle and Mir docking missions. 1. Stockpiling of supplies b. Phase 2: Assembly of main body (Bilateral Station Alpha) c. Phase 3: Crews will permanently inhabit and operate station. 1. NASA will keep astronauts on station for several months at a time. 2. Producing materials to be used on Earth. 3. Potentially begin building space ships for trips to the Moon or Mars.
G. Disasters of the Space Program1. 1986 – Space Shuttle Challenger exploded killing all 7 astronauts on board. Christa McAuliffe was to be the first teacher in space.2. The shuttle exploded because of a fuel leak that reached the engines
3. In 2003 upon re-entry into our atmosphere COLUMBIA the Space Shuttle Columbia exploded, killing all 7 astronauts on board.4. When the Columbia lifted off so foam damaged the heat tiles. So when reentry happened the heat of the atmosphere caused the orbiter to explode.
H. APOLLO 13Apollo 13 was the third manned lunar-landingmission, part of Project Apollo under NASA in theUnited States. It launched on April 11, 1970. Twodays after the launch, the Apollo spacecraft wascrippled by an explosion, caused by a fault in theoxygen tank. The explosion damaged the ServiceModule, resulting in a loss of oxygen and electricalpower. The crew used the Lunar Module as a“lifeboat”. They of course made it back to earthsafely.
Apollo 13 as it looked upon landing in the ocean