Chapter 2 Notes


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Chapter 2 Notes

  1. 1. POWER UP 2-1 <ul><li>1. Explain the difference between an electron and a proton. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the particle that has a neutral charge in an atom. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons and Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 2 Matter & Its Changes PART 1
  4. 4. 2.1 Atoms <ul><li>Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking up space = volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matter comes in 4 states: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solids: matter with definite shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquids: matter that has the ability to flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas: vaporized form of matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma: High Energy state of matter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All matter is made up of atoms </li></ul>Pgs. 32 - 37
  5. 5. The Atom <ul><li>Atom: smallest particle of any element that has the properties of the element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only indirectly observed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make up everything that has mass and volume </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Parts of an Atom <ul><li>Atoms are made up of 3 particles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron: particle that moves around the nucleus forming a cloud of negative charge (-) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proton: particle inside the nucleus with a positive charge (+) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutron: particle inside the nucleus with no charge (neutral) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrons have almost no mass </li></ul><ul><li>Protons & neutrons have the same mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li> 1800 times heavier than an electron </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Electron Cloud <ul><ul><li>Electrons orbit a nucleus in areas known as Electron Clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons are found in energy levels (shells) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The farther from the nucleus a shell is, the higher the energy level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The shell closest to the nucleus can only hold 2 electrons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The second shell holds up to 8 electrons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The third shell holds up to 18 electrons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The fourth shell holds up to 32 electrons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shells farther out hold up to 64 electrons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons try to arrange in pairs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Helium Neon Krypton
  8. 9. Ex: Magnesium (Mg)  Atomic Number = 12 12 protons, 12 electrons <ul><li>Shell #1 = 2 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Shell #2 = 8 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Shell #3 = 2 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Total = 12 electrons </li></ul><ul><li>We can draw all atoms </li></ul><ul><li>in a similar style </li></ul>
  9. 10. Elements <ul><li>Elements: substance made up of only 1 kind of atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Symbols to represent elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H  Hydrogen Fe  Iron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He  Helium Au  Gold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C  Carbon Na  Sodium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are 1 letter, others are 2 or 3 letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First letter is ALWAYS capitalized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd and 3 rd are lower case </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents confusion: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co  Cobalt (element) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO  Carbon Monoxide (Compound of Carbon (C) & Oxygen (O) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Elements’ Names and Symbols: <ul><li>Some symbols come from the common name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O  Oxygen N  Nitrogen Ne  Neon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some symbols come from the Latin name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe  Iron (from Ferris) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Na  Sodium (from Natrium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pb  Lead (from Plumbum) “Plumber  Lead smith” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newest elements are produced in Labs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Names given by creator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols usually 3 letters </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. All atoms of the same element must have the same number of protons <ul><li>We use the number of protons to classify elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons is called: the atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: All Hydrogen atoms have 1 proton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All Carbon atoms have 6 protons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Atoms tend to be electrically neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of electrons = number of protons ( -’s = +’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of neutrons can be different </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons and Neutrons are made up of quarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 quarks = 1 proton or 1 neutron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quarks have silly names: up/down, happy/sad, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Elements are arranged on the Periodic Table of Elements
  13. 14. The Periodic Table <ul><li>Dimitri Mendeleev: </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Chemist (1869) </li></ul><ul><li>Classified all known elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranged elements by mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noticed repeating patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began a new row every time pattern began </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Called arrangement: Periodic Table of Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic means “to repeat” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic Table: elements arranged in rows according to atomic number and in columns by properties </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Mendeleev’s Table
  15. 16. Element info. <ul><li>Atomic Number : # of Protons = # of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Mass number : Protons + Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass : Average mass of all isotopes for an element </li></ul><ul><li>NOT TO BE CONFUSED with Mass Number </li></ul><ul><li>(Protons + Neutrons) </li></ul>5 B 10.81 Atomic Number Atomic Symbol Atomic Mass
  16. 17. Dimitri had some blanks in his table. He predicted these were undiscovered elements <ul><li>From the pattern on his table, he was able to predict properties about the missing elements </li></ul><ul><li>The Periodic Table gives information about each element </li></ul>1 H Hydrogen 1.00794 Atomic Number Atomic Symbol Element Name Atomic Mass
  17. 18. Atomic Mass Number <ul><li>Mass of an atom depends on the number of protons (Atomic Number) and neutrons in its nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Protons + Neutrons = Mass Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Carbon (C) P = 6 N = 6 Mass = 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium (Na) P = 11 N = 12 Mass = 23 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron (Fe) P = 26 N = 30 Mass = 56 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By using mass number and Atomic Number, the number of neutrons can be found </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium (K) Mass = 39 Atomic Number = 19 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Number – Atomic Number = Neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>39 – 19 = 20 Potassium has 20 neutrons </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Isotopes <ul><li>All atoms of the same element must have the same number of protons (Atomic Number) </li></ul><ul><li>But, their number of neutrons can be different </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes: atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Hydrogen has 1 proton, but can have 0, 1, or 2 neutrons = 3 isotopes (each having different masses) </li></ul></ul>Hydrogen Deuterium Tritium
  19. 20. Carbon Isotopes: <ul><li>Carbon has 6 protons; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some have 6 neutrons, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others have 8 neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon – 12 (6 + 6) is normal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon – 14 (6 + 8) is an isotope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon – 14 is radioactive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in carbon dating </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>                                                                          
  20. 22. Drawing Atomic Models <ul><li>Name Atom </li></ul><ul><li>Write number of protons </li></ul><ul><li>Write number of neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Draw shells and electron pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember how many electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each shell can hold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (2, 8, 18, 32, etc.) </li></ul></ul>Carbon P = 6 N = 6
  21. 24. 2.2 Combining Atoms <ul><li>Atoms join by chemical bonds to form unique substances </li></ul><ul><li>How they join is important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen (H)  elemental gas ( Explosive ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O)  elemental gas ( Needed for combustion ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 0  water ( puts out fires ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 0 2  Hydrogen Peroxide ( Antiseptic & bleach ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How atoms combine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds form during chemical changes only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms rearrange positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes depend on Chemical Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on electrons in outer shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms will always try to form stable bonds </li></ul></ul>Pgs. 38 - 43
  22. 25. <ul><ul><li>Covalent bonding produces molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic bonding produces compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Y E S , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there is a difference !!!! </li></ul></ul>Special Note
  23. 26. Molecules <ul><li>Covalent bond: formed by atoms sharing electrons producing a molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Molecule: Neutral particle formed by sharing of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>This differs from ionic bonding in that it forms a new particle; ionic bonding is just an ordered grouping of ions held together by charges </li></ul><ul><li>Many elements exist in nature as molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 , N 2 , H 2 , any halogen (diatomic molecules) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O, HCl, and H 2 O 2 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Electron Sharing <ul><li>Atoms can share electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Chlorine gas (Cl 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Chlorines have 7 electrons in their outer shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both want 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons fit together like puzzle pieces, forming covalent bonds </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Compounds <ul><li>Compound: unique substance formed when 2 or more elements combine chemically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to be separated by physical means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms new substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compound properties differ from the elements making it up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: H 2 0, NaCl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements always combine in specific ratios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO  Carbon Monoxide 1:1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2  Carbon Dioxide 1:2 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Electron Loss and Gain <ul><li>Compounds are formed by losing or gaining electrons from their outer shells </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Sodium Chloride (NaCl) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium (Na) has 1 electron in its outside shell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Number = 11 (2, 8, 1) {Wants to lose 1} </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine (Cl) has 7 electrons in its valence level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic number = 17 (2, 8, 7) {Wants to gain 1} </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Na loses 1 electron it will become stable (2, 8) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Cl gains 1 electron it will become stable (2, 8, 8) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>Na’s electrons is transferred to Cl </li></ul><ul><li>Na now has 11 protons and 10 electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving Na a positive charge (+1) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cl now has 18 electrons and 17 protons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving Cl a negative charge (-1) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Na (+1) and Cl (-1) now have opposite charges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have become ions and opposites attract </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Rule of 8 <ul><li>Atoms always try to form stable shells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either they fill the outside shell or they get 8 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By sharing, gaining or losing electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full shells or 8 electrons in the outside shell makes atoms happy </li></ul>
  29. 32. Table Salt: Sodium Chloride (NaCl) <ul><li>Sodium (Na): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiny; clay like metal; reacts violently in water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chlorine (Cl): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow-green gas, very toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sodium Chloride (NaCl): white, crystallized solid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasoning for foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservative & used for dehydration (water removal) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 33. Chemical formula: a group of symbols that represent a compound <ul><ul><li>Shows elements along with ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The small “2” is called a subscript </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is a number that shows how many atoms of each element combine to form a compound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of a subscript means one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 Carbon 2 oxygen </li></ul>
  31. 34. We use prefixes when naming compounds <ul><li>Prefix tells the number of atoms per element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Mono xide (CO) Vs. Carbon Di oxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triethyl, DiMethyl Tolueen: (Moth Balls) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 ethyl groups, 2 methyl groups & the compound Tolueen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prefix List: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mono = 1 Tetra = 4 Hepta = 7 Deca = 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Di = 2 Penta = 5 Octa = 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tri = 3 Hexa = 6 Nona = 9 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. Chemical Formulas <ul><li>Use symbols to represent a compound </li></ul><ul><li>Shows elements & ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: C 6 H 12 O 6  Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> C 6 = 6 Carbons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> H 12 = 12 Hydrogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> O 6 = 6 Oxygens </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Ions and Ionic Bonding <ul><li>Ion: a charged particle formed when an atom gains or loses electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic Bonding: the attraction between ions of opposite charges </li></ul><ul><li>Na (+1) joins with Cl (-1) = NaCl </li></ul>
  34. 37. Calcium (Ca) also combines with Chlorine (Cl) to form ionic compounds <ul><li>Calcium Carbonate (Ca Cl 2 ): chalk </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium loses 2 electrons = +2 charge </li></ul><ul><li>2 Chlorines each gain one electron = -1 charges </li></ul><ul><li>Cl (-1) Ca (+2) Cl (-1) </li></ul>
  35. 38. Naming Binary Compounds <ul><li>Binary Compound: two element compound </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Name of positive ion (metal) written first </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Negative ion name changed to end in “ide” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HCl  Hydrogen Chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KBr  Potassium Bromide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NaCl  Sodium Chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KI  Potassium Iodide </li></ul></ul>
  36. 39. Composition of Matter <ul><li>Substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements: a piece of matter made up of all the same kind of atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are 90 natural elements and over 20 man-made elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elements are listed on the Periodic Table of Elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds: a substance made up more than one kind of atom, in a specific ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water is always 2 Hydrogen & 1 Oxygen (H 2 0) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This 2:1 ratio never changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia: 1 Nitrogen & 3 Hydrogens (NH 3 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements & Compounds are Substances , because they have a definite composition </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>MIXTURE: When 2 or more substances are combined </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtures keeps the properties of each substance </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtures do not have specific ratios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice Tea  Mixture (Tea mix, sugar, water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing  Mixture (Cotton, Polyester, Wool, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 42. 2 Types of Mixtures <ul><li>Heterogeneous mixture: Substances not evenly spread out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Italian Salad Dressing (parts separate into layers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous mixture: Substances evenly spread out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called a Solution  dissolved in liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Ice Tea, Sea water, soda </li></ul></ul>
  39. 44. Solutions <ul><li>Homogenous mixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Particles do not settle out </li></ul><ul><li>Particles very small (.1 to 1 nanometer) </li></ul><ul><li>Particles cannot be filtered out </li></ul><ul><li>Will not scatter light </li></ul><ul><li>Particles will never separate </li></ul><ul><li>We call it being dissolved </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Soda, Ice tea, Salt water </li></ul>
  40. 45. Suspension: <ul><li>Heterogeneous mixture </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are 1000 nm or bigger (dirt, sand, pebbles, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Particles can be seen with a microscope or unaided eye </li></ul><ul><li>Particles will settle out over time (By gravity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Italian Salad Dressing, Muddy water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can scatter light (We see light rays) </li></ul>
  41. 46. Colloids <ul><li>Homogenous Mixture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evenly distributed when viewed with a microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particle size between solutions & suspensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 1 & 1000 nm (Dust, Fine dirt, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particles will scatter light </li></ul><ul><li>Colloids have 2 interesting properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tyndall effect: ability of colloids to scatter light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When light passes thru colloids the beam can be seen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dust, Smoke, and fog all have Tyndall effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Search light, Movie theater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brownian Motion: constant zig zag movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dust randomly floating through the air </li></ul></ul></ul>Tyndall Effect
  42. 47. <ul><li>CHAPTER 1 – PART 2 </li></ul>
  43. 48. 2.3 Matter <ul><li>Property: a characteristics of a substance </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Property: anything that can be seen or measured without changing the make up of a substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Weight, Color, Odor, Hardness, Density, Magnetic, Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed by using the senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(See, hear, touch, taste, smell) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No 2 substances have exactly the same properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Properties are used to separate mixtures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sand and Marbles  pick out biggest objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sand and Iron Filings  use a magnet </li></ul></ul></ul>Pgs. 44 - 51 Elemental Sulfur Chlorine Gas
  44. 49. Physical Change <ul><li>Physical change: process that does not change the chemical composition of a substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in size, shape, etc. but NOT what it is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking Glass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting wood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixtures & solutions can be separated by physical means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Salt water  boil water and salt will be left </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wire screen can be used to separate pebbles from sand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 50. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Chemical properties: a characteristic that shows how a substance reacts to form other substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to burn is a Chemical Property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion (rusting, oxidizing, etc.) = Chemical Properties </li></ul></ul>
  46. 51. Chemical Change <ul><li>Substance changes to a new substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has totally different properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood Burning: changes into ash, gives off heat & Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel Rusting: iron joins with oxygen  Iron oxide forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum forming Aluminum oxide (similar to rusting) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Changes always cause physical changes </li></ul>
  47. 52. 3 Specific Chemical Changes <ul><li>Electrolysis: electricity producing chemical changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water separated into Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corrosion: metals chemically changed by combining with other materials (usually oxygen) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver tarnishing: silver reacts with water and oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combustion: materials burning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic matter contains Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6  Energy, CO 2 & H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat and Light are produced by the atoms rearranging, and forming new compounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6  Glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2  Carbon Dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O  Water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 53. States of Matter <ul><li>There are four states of matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solids, Liquids, gases, plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each states is determined by amount of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid: minimal thermal energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma: highly energized, electrically charged particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma naturally occurs on the sun and as lightning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We create plasma in fluorescent lights </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 54. The Normal States of Matter <ul><li>Solids: definite shape, definite volume, definite mass </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids: definite volume, definite mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No definite shape (takes the shape of a container) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gases: No definite shape, No definite volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fills entire space it is placed in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only has definite mass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plasma: like gas, has no definite shape or volume </li></ul>E N E R G Y I N C R E A S E S D E N S I T Y D E C R E A S E S Bornite
  50. 55. Kinetic Theory of matter <ul><li>All matter is made of tiny particles </li></ul><ul><li>The particles are in constant motion </li></ul><ul><li>Motion and spacing determine state </li></ul><ul><li>Higher temperature; more Kinetic Energy causes faster the motion </li></ul>
  51. 56. Solids <ul><li>Particles are packed very closely together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles vibrate back and forth but do not change position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most solids form crystals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>particles form a repeating pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: snow, salt, sugar, diamonds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crystals break forming flat sides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amorphus solids: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particles do not form repeating patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Glass, Butter, Wax </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 57. Liquids <ul><li>Particles close together, but free to move around </li></ul><ul><li>Allows liquids to flow </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity: describes how fast a liquid can flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High viscosity = very thick, flows slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tar, honey, cold syrup  High Viscosity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low viscosity = runny, flows quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water, gasoline, milk  Low Viscosity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 58. Gases <ul><li>Gas have a lot of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles move freely in a straight line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly empty space between particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles change directions when they encounter obstructions (they bounce) </li></ul></ul>
  54. 59. Plasma <ul><li>Highest energy state of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Formed from intense heat or electricity ionizing gas </li></ul><ul><li>Ironically it is the most common state in the universe </li></ul><ul><li>On Earth lightning is the only natural form of plasma </li></ul>
  55. 60. Change of State <ul><li>All Changes in state are physical changes </li></ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul><ul><li>Solid to Liquid  melting point </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid to Solid  freezing point </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid to Gas  evaporation point </li></ul><ul><li>Gas to Liquid  condensation point </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Temp at which a liquid boils: boiling point </li></ul>SAME Temp SAME Temp
  56. 61. Special Case: <ul><li>Sublimation: when a solid goes directly to a gas without becoming a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>A gas becoming a solid without being a liquid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Frost, snow, dry ice </li></ul></ul>
  57. 62. 2.4 Energy from Atoms <ul><li>Nuclear Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most electricity in the US is produced from burning fossil fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Power is an alternative to fossil fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear energy is produced from splitting large atoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FISSION : Splitting of large atoms into smaller atoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uranium Fission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uranium-235 is a fissionable isotope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After refining, it is placed in fuel rods to be used in power plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rods are placed in the reactor core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons are fired at the rods  splitting the atoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A chain reaction begins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High amounts of heat is released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The heat is used to boil water  producing steam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Steam turns a turbine connected to a generator = electricity </li></ul></ul></ul>Pgs. 54 & 55
  58. 63. Nuclear Power Plant Typical Nuclear Power Plant Design
  59. 64. 2 Points of View <ul><li>Storing Nuclear Waste in Yucca Mountain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One major problem with nuclear energy is the waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Waste: highly radioactive materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can remain radioactive for thousands of years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be stored safely </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yucca Mountain, Nevada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selected as a possible Nuclear Waste disposal site </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for selection: Remote, Very little rain fall, Water table very far below surface, & Land owned by US government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Search for Other locations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geologists have theories that water movement is very active in the area (percolation & upwelling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially could move toxic waste down to water table, or up to the surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes are also a concern (damaging containers) </li></ul></ul>