Chapter 12 Part Two<br />Pages 254 to 261<br />
12:3 Blood Types <br />Blood Types Differ<br />Four main blood types<br />A, B, AB, and O<br />Difference in blood types is due to proteins found on red blood cells and blood plasma. <br />Protein on red blood cell is called RBC protein. <br />Protein on plasma is called Plasma Protein. <br />
SEE FIGURE 12-10 (pg 254)<br />Red Blood Cell Protein shape is different on type A and B blood. <br />Type AB is a combination of the two. <br />Type O blood does not have a protein present. <br />Plasma Protein Shape<br />A and B are different<br />AB has none. <br />O has a combination of A and B. <br />
B. Mixing Blood Types<br />The red blood cell proteins determine which blood types can be mixed. <br />
Do not Copy<br />In response to the antigens on the surface of blood cells, our bodies produce complementary antibodies. Individuals usually develop these antibodies by six months of age in order to protect themselves from foreign antigens. An antibody's function is to recognize and destroy foreign molecules<br />
Do not Copy<br />. For example, a type A individual would produce antibodies against the B antigen. Therefore when type B blood is introduced to a type A individual, the antibodies will recognize the B antigen and destroy it. In essence, the type A individual will reject type B blood, and vice versa. A type AB individual has both antigens present in their blood so as a result they do not secrete any antibodies, and can successfully receive type A, type B and type AB blood. Conversely, a type O individual does not contain any antigens in the blood and therefore has antibodies against both antigens A and B. People with type O blood can only receive type O blood.<br />
C. Mixing Blood Types <br />A Blood <br />Can receive A and O types of blood. <br />B Blood<br />Can receive B and O types of Blood<br />AB Blood<br />Can receive A, B, and O blood. <br />Called Universal Receiver<br />O Blood<br />a. Can only receive Blood. <br />
C. (Mixing Blood Type)<br />A Blood can be received by: <br />A and AB<br />B Blood can be received by: <br />B and AB can receive <br />AB Blood can be received by: <br />Only AB<br />O blood can be received by all blood types. <br />a. Universal Donor <br />
D. What happens when Blood types Mix<br />Type A blood receiving Type B blood. <br />Protein in the plasma of type A blood fit like a puzzle into the red cell protein shape of type B blood. <br />When this happens clotting forms. <br />See figure 12-11 in your textbook.<br />When this happens the clumps are too large to pass through capillaries. <br />See Handouts for today!!!<br />
12:4 Immunity<br />Immune System<br />Made of proteins, cells, and tissues that identify and defend the body against foreign chemicals and organisms. <br />Keeps you free of disease<br />Teardrops, Mucus, and skin are part of Immune System<br />a. Keeps Disease causing organisms from entering your body. <br />
Common parts of the Immune System<br />Tonsils: located back of throat, make and store white blood cells. <br />Thymus Gland: located in the upper part of the chest; produces white blood cells in infants. <br />Lymph Nodes: located throughout the body; store white blood cells. <br />
Spleen: Located near stomach; rids body of old red blood cells; stores red blood cells; makes white blood cells. <br />Lymph Vessels and Fluid: connect all Lymph glands; carry white blood cells throughout the body. <br />Bone Marrow: located in center of long bones; makes red and white blood cells. <br />
How the Immune System Works<br />Made up of many different kinds of white blood cells; each having its own job. <br />Some make ANTIBODIES.<br />Antibodies are chemicals that help destroy bacteria or viruses.<br />Bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances are examples of ANTIGENS.<br />ANTIGENS are foreign substances, usually proteins, that invade the body and cause disease. <br />
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