Chapter 1: The Nature of Science Section 1: Science All Around
A. Scientific Method 1. Steps of the scientific method a. Identify the problem b. Gather information c. Make a hypothesis i. Hypothesis: an educated guess d. Test the hypothesis; experiment e. Analyze the results. f. Draw a conclusion
B. What is Science? 1. Science means having knowledge. a. Process of observing, studying, and thinking about things to gain knowledge. b. Every time you attempt to find out how and why things look and behave the way the do, you are performing science. 2. Examples of how you use Science everyday:
C. Types of Science 1. Chemistry: Study of chemical matter 2. Life Science: The study of living things. 3. Physics: Study of physical properties, motion, etc. 4. Earth Science: Study of Earth and space.
D. The 4 Branches of Earth Science 1. Geology 2. Meteorology 3. Astronomy 4. Oceanography
E. Geology 1. The study of Earth and its matter, processes, and history. (p 8) a. Death Valley California
F. Astronomy 1. The study of objects in space, including stars, planets, comets, and their origins.
G. Meteorology 1. The study of Earth’s weather and the forces that it causes.
H. Oceanography 1. The study of Earth’s oceans, their processes and life within them.
I. Working in the Lab (Experiments) 1. Designing an experiment a. Test only one variable at a time. 2. What is a variable?: different factors that can change in an experiment. a. Independent variable is the ONE thing you change in an experiment. b. Dependent Variable is the variable that you are testing. 3. Constants: variables that DO NOT CHANGE in and experiment. 4. Control: a standard to which your results can be compared.
5. Example: Growing trees in a reclaimed mine area a. Variable: using bio-solids as a fertilizer for the vegetation. b. Constant: native soil, sun exposure, amount of rain. c. Control: Plot of land near the site that was not fertilized with bio-solids. d. **Why would a control be needed in an experiment?
J. Repeating Experiments 1. For results to be valid or reliable, your tests should be repeated many times to see whether you can confirm your original results.
K. Technology 1. Technology is the use of scientific discoveries for practical purposes; can have positive and negative affects on Earth. a. Cave men using rocks as weapons is an example of primitive technology. b. Plumbing is an example of technology. (thank goodness!!) 2. What are some ways technology affects your life? a. Cars, Plans, TV’s, I-Pods, Computers, Water Filtration, etc.
L. Transferable Technology 1. Most technology can be designed for one use, but applied to new situations. 2. Examples of transferable technology: Radar and Sonar: from military use to civilian use. a. Satellite use: from military to civillian b. Medicine: from one species to another