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Ch  5 View Of Earth Notes
 

Ch 5 View Of Earth Notes

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Ch  5 View Of Earth Notes Ch 5 View Of Earth Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 5 Views of the Earth
  •  
  • 5.1 Landforms
    • Landform: general feature on the Earth’s surface
    • Three basic Landforms:
      • Plains : Large, relatively flat areas
      • Plateaus: Relatively flat, raised areas
      • Mountains: Elevated surface features
    Pgs. 120 - 125
  • Plains
    • Plains are divided into two types :
      • Coastal Plains
        • Broad areas along the ocean’s shore
        • As sediment dropped to the ocean floor the continental shelf formed.
        • Sometimes referred to as “lowlands” due to minimal elevation
          • Elevation is determined from Sea Level (0 elevation)
        • Characterized by rolling hills, swamps, & marshes
        • Rivers tend to carve water ways to the Ocean
      • Interior Plains
        • Land locked, relatively flat, lowland areas
        • Usually between mountain ranges
        • Land is fertile so it is ideal for farming.
        • The Great Plains in the central United States, consist of nearly horizontal layers of sedimentary rock.
  • Plateaus
    • Relatively flat, raised areas of land
      • Composed of horizontal bedrock uplifted by natural forces
      • Characterized by high, vertical cliff boarders
      • They differ from plains in that their edges rise steeply above the land around them.
      • River valleys and canyons often cut through these high, horizontal rock layers.
      • Ex: Colorado Plateau
        • Most famous for Grand Canyon
  • Mountains
    • Rise high above the surrounding land
      • Mt. Everest: highest mountain peak (Himalayan Mountains) 8800 m above Sea Level 29,029 FT
      • Four main ways that mountain forms
        • Folding
        • Upwarping (upwarped)
        • Fault-block
        • Volcanic
  • Folded Mountains
    • Form by extreme opposing horizontal pressure (Like squeezing a pimple)
    • Layers buckle & fold
    • This type of mountain often shows spectacular layers of rock that look like they have been pushed together or folded.
      • EX: Appalachian Mountains
        • Formed 300 to 250 million years ago
        • Oldest & longest mountain range in North America
        • Originally higher than the Rocky Mountains
        • Weathering & Erosion have reduced the height below 2000 m (1200 ft)
        • Minersville is here – 1184 ft.
  • Upwarped Mountains
    • Form by extreme upward forces
    • Erode exposing igneous & metamorphic bedrock
    • Characterized by high peaks & sharp ridges
    • Examples:
      • Southern Rocky Mountains
      • Black Hills (South Dakota)
      • Adirondack Mountains (New York)
  • Fault-Block Mountains
    • Tilted faults slide diagonally in opposing directions
      • Fault: large cracks in the Earth’s crust producing motion
    • Characterized by jagged peaks and steep slopes.
    • Separated from surrounding rock by faults, or huge fractures in the rock.
    • Examples:
      • Grand Tetons (Wyoming)
      • Sierra Nevadas (California)
  • Volcanic Mountains:
    • Lava flows produce a massive cone of igneous rock
    • Example:
      • Mount St. Helens (Washington)
      • Mauna Loa (Hawaii)
      • Mt. Rainer (Washington)
  • US ELEVATIONS
    • HIGHEST - Continental US – CALIFORNIA - MT. WHITNEY 14,494 ft.
    • ALASKA - MT. MCKINLEY 20,320 ft.
    • LOWEST – DEATH VALLEY, CA -282 feet below
    • NEW ORLEANS, LA -64 feet below
    • HIGHEST PA POINT – MT. DAVIS 3213 ft.
    • HIGHEST WORLD ELEVATION – MT. EVEREST 29,029 ft.
    • LOWEST WORLD ELEVATION – DEAD SEA -1349 ft below
  •  
  •  
  • 5.2 Viewpoints
    • Latitude & Longitude
      • Precise way of determining location
      • System of imaginary gridlines
      • Latitude:
        • Horizontal lines paralleling the Equator (0 0 Latitude)
          • Equator divides Earth into 2 halves
          • Above the Equator = Northern Hemisphere
          • Below the Equator = Southern Hemisphere
        • Measure position North & South
        • Poles = 90 0 North & South
      • Longitude:
        • Vertical lines (called meridians) intersecting at the poles
        • Measure position East & West
        • Begin with the Prime Meridian (0 0 Longitude)
    Pgs. 126 -129
  •  
  •  
  • Using Lines of Longitude
    • The Prime Meridian (0 0 ) runs from pole to pole through Greenwich, England
      • West of Prime Meridian measure from 1 to 180 0 West
      • East of Prime Meridian measure from 1 to 180 0 East
      • The 180 0 meridian = International Date Line
        • Opposite side of Earth to Prime Meridian
    • Latitude and Longitude can be broken down
      • Degrees are the largest measure
      • Degrees are divided into minutes
      • Minutes are divided into seconds
    • When writing coordinates latitude is always first
  •  
  • Earth Time
    • What time is it?
      • The answer actually depends on where you are
      • The Earth is divided into 24 Time Zones
        • Each time zone is one hour different to the ones beside it
        • Every time zone is 15 0 longitude wide
        • 6 time zones cover the US
        • Every time you cross a time zone going west you lose an hour
        • Every time you cross a time zone going east you gain an hour. (Lose part of that day)
          • Going East is like moving the clock ahead.
          • Going West is like going back in time, not really but it should help you remember.
  •  
  • Global Time Zones
  • 6 Us Time Zones
    • Eastern – The time zone we are in.
    • Central
    • Mountain
    • Pacific
    • Alaskan
    • Hawaiian
    • Let’s say you are going to London on business. If you leave @ 3:00 PM what time is it in London?
  •  
  • Calendar Dates:
    • New days begins at 12 midnight for that time zone
      • Crossing times zones gains or loses an hour
        • Traveling West (Minersville to LA = gain 3 hrs.)
        • Traveling East (LA to Minersville = lose 3 hrs.)
      • Crossing the International Date Line gains or loses a day
        • Traveling West (from US to Asia) = gain one day
        • Traveling East (from Asia to US) = lose one day
    • Messing with your mind:
      • You leave New York City at noon, your plane trip lasts 5 hours, you land in Hawaii at 11 am (the same day)
        • You have become a time traveler (Kinda’)
        • The time in New York is actually 5 pm
  •  
  • 5.3 Maps
    • Used to model the Earth’s Surface
    • Made using projections
      • Trying to place a round sphere on flat paper
      • All maps have some type of distortion (shape or area)
    • Mercator Projection:
      • Represents continental shapes correctly
      • Areas are distorted (Polar regions get stretched)
      • Forms a grid of parallel lines of latitude & longitude
      • Mainly used for navigation (airplanes & boats)
    Pgs. 130 - 136
  • Other Map Types:
    • Robinson Projection:
      • Accurate continental shapes & areas
      • Distorts polar region only
      • Displays Earth as a flat top & bottom oval
    • Conic Projection:
      • Used to project maps of small areas
      • Mainly Road & Weather maps
      • Produced by projecting latitude & longitude onto a cone
      • Distorts latitudinal lines (they arc)
  • Topographic Maps:
    • Map showing detailed elevations for an area
    • Project height onto a flat page using contour lines
      • Contour lines: connect areas of equal elevation
      • Contour interval: difference between contour lines
      • Index contours: lines marked with elevation
  • Using Contour Maps
    • Contour lines never cross
    • Contour lines close around hills, basins, or depressions
    • Contour lines form V’s that point upstream
    • Map Legend tells common symbols
    • Map scale tells ratio for determining distance
  • Typical map Legend
  •  
  •  
  • 5.4 Mapping our Planet
    • Remote Sensing from Space
      • Landsat Satellites
        • Detect different wavelengths of energy reflected or emitted
        • Use Mirror with detectors to measure intensity
        • Produce digital image of surface features
      • Topex-Poseidon Satellites
        • Topex = Topographical Experiment
        • Uses RADAR to detect underwater ocean features
        • Develop maps of the ocean floor
    • Remote Sensing Under Water
      • Sea Beam
        • Uses SONAR to map the ocean floor
    Pgs. 138 - 139
  • US at night (satellite view)