Chapter 5 Views of the Earth
 
5.1 Landforms <ul><li>Landform:   general feature on the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic Landforms: </li></u...
Plains <ul><li>Plains are divided into two types : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bro...
Plateaus <ul><li>Relatively flat, raised areas of land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of horizontal bedrock uplifted by na...
Mountains <ul><li>Rise high above the surrounding land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. Everest:  highest mountain peak (Himalaya...
Folded Mountains <ul><li>Form by extreme opposing horizontal pressure (Like squeezing a pimple) </li></ul><ul><li>Layers b...
Upwarped Mountains <ul><li>Form by extreme upward forces </li></ul><ul><li>Erode exposing igneous & metamorphic bedrock </...
Fault-Block Mountains <ul><li>Tilted faults slide diagonally in opposing directions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault:  large cr...
Volcanic Mountains: <ul><li>Lava flows produce a massive cone of igneous rock </li></ul><ul><li>Example:  </li></ul><ul><u...
US ELEVATIONS <ul><li>HIGHEST - Continental US – CALIFORNIA -  MT. WHITNEY 14,494 ft.  </li></ul><ul><li>ALASKA - MT. MCKI...
 
 
5.2 Viewpoints <ul><li>Latitude & Longitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise way of determining location </li></ul></ul><ul><...
 
 
Using Lines of Longitude <ul><li>The  Prime Meridian (0 0 )  runs from pole to pole through Greenwich, England </li></ul><...
 
Earth Time <ul><li>What time is it?   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The answer actually depends on where you are </li></ul></ul><u...
 
Global Time Zones
6 Us Time Zones <ul><li>Eastern – The time zone we are in. </li></ul><ul><li>Central  </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain  </li></u...
 
Calendar Dates: <ul><li>New days begins at 12 midnight for that time zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossing times zones gains...
 
5.3 Maps <ul><li>Used to model the Earth’s Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Made using projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying t...
Other Map Types: <ul><li>Robinson Projection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate continental shapes & areas </li></ul></ul><ul...
Topographic Maps: <ul><li>Map showing detailed elevations for an area </li></ul><ul><li>Project height onto a flat page us...
Using Contour Maps <ul><li>Contour lines never cross </li></ul><ul><li>Contour lines close around hills, basins, or depres...
Typical map Legend
 
 
5.4 Mapping our Planet <ul><li>Remote Sensing from Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landsat Satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
US at night (satellite view)
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Ch 5 View Of Earth Notes

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  • Ch 5 View Of Earth Notes

    1. 1. Chapter 5 Views of the Earth
    2. 3. 5.1 Landforms <ul><li>Landform: general feature on the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic Landforms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plains : Large, relatively flat areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plateaus: Relatively flat, raised areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains: Elevated surface features </li></ul></ul>Pgs. 120 - 125
    3. 4. Plains <ul><li>Plains are divided into two types : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broad areas along the ocean’s shore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As sediment dropped to the ocean floor the continental shelf formed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes referred to as “lowlands” due to minimal elevation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation is determined from Sea Level (0 elevation) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by rolling hills, swamps, & marshes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers tend to carve water ways to the Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior Plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land locked, relatively flat, lowland areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually between mountain ranges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land is fertile so it is ideal for farming. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Plains in the central United States, consist of nearly horizontal layers of sedimentary rock. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Plateaus <ul><li>Relatively flat, raised areas of land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of horizontal bedrock uplifted by natural forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by high, vertical cliff boarders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They differ from plains in that their edges rise steeply above the land around them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River valleys and canyons often cut through these high, horizontal rock layers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Colorado Plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous for Grand Canyon </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Mountains <ul><li>Rise high above the surrounding land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. Everest: highest mountain peak (Himalayan Mountains) 8800 m above Sea Level 29,029 FT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four main ways that mountain forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upwarping (upwarped) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fault-block </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Folded Mountains <ul><li>Form by extreme opposing horizontal pressure (Like squeezing a pimple) </li></ul><ul><li>Layers buckle & fold </li></ul><ul><li>This type of mountain often shows spectacular layers of rock that look like they have been pushed together or folded. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX: Appalachian Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed 300 to 250 million years ago </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest & longest mountain range in North America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally higher than the Rocky Mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weathering & Erosion have reduced the height below 2000 m (1200 ft) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minersville is here – 1184 ft. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Upwarped Mountains <ul><li>Form by extreme upward forces </li></ul><ul><li>Erode exposing igneous & metamorphic bedrock </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by high peaks & sharp ridges </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Rocky Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Hills (South Dakota) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adirondack Mountains (New York) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Fault-Block Mountains <ul><li>Tilted faults slide diagonally in opposing directions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault: large cracks in the Earth’s crust producing motion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characterized by jagged peaks and steep slopes. </li></ul><ul><li>Separated from surrounding rock by faults, or huge fractures in the rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Tetons (Wyoming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sierra Nevadas (California) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Volcanic Mountains: <ul><li>Lava flows produce a massive cone of igneous rock </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount St. Helens (Washington) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mauna Loa (Hawaii) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. Rainer (Washington) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. US ELEVATIONS <ul><li>HIGHEST - Continental US – CALIFORNIA - MT. WHITNEY 14,494 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>ALASKA - MT. MCKINLEY 20,320 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>LOWEST – DEATH VALLEY, CA -282 feet below </li></ul><ul><li>NEW ORLEANS, LA -64 feet below </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHEST PA POINT – MT. DAVIS 3213 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHEST WORLD ELEVATION – MT. EVEREST 29,029 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>LOWEST WORLD ELEVATION – DEAD SEA -1349 ft below </li></ul>
    11. 14. 5.2 Viewpoints <ul><li>Latitude & Longitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise way of determining location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System of imaginary gridlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal lines paralleling the Equator (0 0 Latitude) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equator divides Earth into 2 halves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Above the Equator = Northern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Below the Equator = Southern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure position North & South </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poles = 90 0 North & South </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitude: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical lines (called meridians) intersecting at the poles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure position East & West </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with the Prime Meridian (0 0 Longitude) </li></ul></ul></ul>Pgs. 126 -129
    12. 17. Using Lines of Longitude <ul><li>The Prime Meridian (0 0 ) runs from pole to pole through Greenwich, England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West of Prime Meridian measure from 1 to 180 0 West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East of Prime Meridian measure from 1 to 180 0 East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 180 0 meridian = International Date Line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite side of Earth to Prime Meridian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Latitude and Longitude can be broken down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degrees are the largest measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degrees are divided into minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minutes are divided into seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When writing coordinates latitude is always first </li></ul>
    13. 19. Earth Time <ul><li>What time is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The answer actually depends on where you are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth is divided into 24 Time Zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each time zone is one hour different to the ones beside it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every time zone is 15 0 longitude wide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 time zones cover the US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every time you cross a time zone going west you lose an hour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every time you cross a time zone going east you gain an hour. (Lose part of that day) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Going East is like moving the clock ahead. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Going West is like going back in time, not really but it should help you remember. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 21. Global Time Zones
    15. 22. 6 Us Time Zones <ul><li>Eastern – The time zone we are in. </li></ul><ul><li>Central </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Alaskan </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s say you are going to London on business. If you leave @ 3:00 PM what time is it in London? </li></ul>
    16. 24. Calendar Dates: <ul><li>New days begins at 12 midnight for that time zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossing times zones gains or loses an hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traveling West (Minersville to LA = gain 3 hrs.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traveling East (LA to Minersville = lose 3 hrs.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossing the International Date Line gains or loses a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traveling West (from US to Asia) = gain one day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traveling East (from Asia to US) = lose one day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Messing with your mind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You leave New York City at noon, your plane trip lasts 5 hours, you land in Hawaii at 11 am (the same day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You have become a time traveler (Kinda’) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The time in New York is actually 5 pm </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 26. 5.3 Maps <ul><li>Used to model the Earth’s Surface </li></ul><ul><li>Made using projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to place a round sphere on flat paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All maps have some type of distortion (shape or area) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mercator Projection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents continental shapes correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas are distorted (Polar regions get stretched) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms a grid of parallel lines of latitude & longitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly used for navigation (airplanes & boats) </li></ul></ul>Pgs. 130 - 136
    18. 27. Other Map Types: <ul><li>Robinson Projection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate continental shapes & areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorts polar region only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displays Earth as a flat top & bottom oval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conic Projection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to project maps of small areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly Road & Weather maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by projecting latitude & longitude onto a cone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorts latitudinal lines (they arc) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 28. Topographic Maps: <ul><li>Map showing detailed elevations for an area </li></ul><ul><li>Project height onto a flat page using contour lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour lines: connect areas of equal elevation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour interval: difference between contour lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index contours: lines marked with elevation </li></ul></ul>
    20. 29. Using Contour Maps <ul><li>Contour lines never cross </li></ul><ul><li>Contour lines close around hills, basins, or depressions </li></ul><ul><li>Contour lines form V’s that point upstream </li></ul><ul><li>Map Legend tells common symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Map scale tells ratio for determining distance </li></ul>
    21. 30. Typical map Legend
    22. 33. 5.4 Mapping our Planet <ul><li>Remote Sensing from Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landsat Satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detect different wavelengths of energy reflected or emitted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Mirror with detectors to measure intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce digital image of surface features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topex-Poseidon Satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topex = Topographical Experiment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses RADAR to detect underwater ocean features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop maps of the ocean floor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote Sensing Under Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea Beam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses SONAR to map the ocean floor </li></ul></ul></ul>Pgs. 138 - 139
    23. 34. US at night (satellite view)

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