Chapter 21: Exploring Space
I.  Radiation from Space (pg 584) <ul><li>Electromagnetic Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light from the past </li></ul></ul><...
I. Radiation from Space (pg 585) <ul><li>Electromagnetic Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound waves, a type of mechanical...
I.  Radiation from Space (pg 585) <ul><li>Electromagnetic Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of electromagnetic radiati...
Wavelength
Frequency
I.  Radiation from Space (pg 585) <ul><li>Electromagnetic Spectrum  </li></ul>
I.  Radiation from Space (pg 585) <ul><li>Speed of Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light is part electricity and part magnetis...
I.  Radiation from Space (pg 585 )
I.  Radiation from Space (pg 585) <ul><li>Speed of Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One tool used for observing electromagnetic...
Water Found on Mars!
21.1 Radiation from Space <ul><li>J.  Electromagnetic Waves (Quick Review) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Light from the Past <...
 
Electromagnetic spectrum: (Review) <ul><li>Radio waves:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest wavelength:10 5  to 10  -1  meters...
<ul><li>Visible Light: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength: 10  -7  meters & Frequency: 10 15  Hertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Telescopes </li></ul><ul><li>We use the electromagnetic spectrum to observe space </li></ul><ul><li>Optical telesc...
<ul><li>Refracting Telescope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light from an object passes through a  convex objective lens  and is be...
Diagram of a Refracting Telescope Focal Point Convex Lens  Eyepiece
<ul><li>Reflecting telescopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light passes trough the telescope housing to a concave mirror </li></u...
Diagram of a Reflecting Telescope
<ul><li>Optical Telescope Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Most “home” use telescopes are optical </li></ul><ul><li>Used to see moo...
<ul><li>Radio telescopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to pick up radio waves emitted from stars </li></ul><ul><li>Usable in...
Radio Telescopes
<ul><ul><li>Hubble Telescope (Reflecting telescope) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Launched in 1990 by the space shuttle D...
End of Day #2 Lecture!! <ul><li>Homework Vocabulary Quiz Friday!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Blended Schools Chapter 21 </li></ul>...
21.2 Light Pollution <ul><li>Light pollution & stargazing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Night time sky from the city </li></ul></u...
Night View from Space
2 Points of View <ul><li>Right to have security lighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime & Safety is a unilateral concern </li...
21.3 Artificial Satellites & Space Probes <ul><li>The first steps into space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telescopes view objects...
How Satellites stay in orbit <ul><li>Orbital Motion  is a combination of two forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inertial motion ...
<ul><li>Modern Satellites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today thousands of artificial satellites orbit the Earth </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>Space Probes: </li></ul><ul><li>Not all objects in space become satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists use space ...
<ul><li>The Voyagers </li></ul><ul><li>Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launched in 1977 </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Jupiter by Voyager 1
Saturn by Voyager 2
Neptune by Voyager 2
<ul><li>Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo was a two phase probe sent to Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Launched in 1989 it reac...
Galileo’s View as it Approaches Jupiter <ul><li>http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/countdown/impact.html </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Race to the Moon </li></ul><ul><li>Sputnik I  was the beginning of the “Space Race” between the US and Soviet ...
<ul><li>Project Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Orbit a craft around the Earth & return it safely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ga...
 
<ul><li>Project Gemini </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Team of two will spend 10 days in space </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted of 10 m...
Project Apollo <ul><li>Series of missions to reach, land on & explore the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo 11: first to reach...
The Apollo Rocket <ul><li>The Apollo program use multistage rockets  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a small part of the rocket...
Images of Apollo
Current Space Travel <ul><li>Currently many nations work together in space travel </li></ul><ul><li>The International Spac...
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION
 
21.4 The Space Shuttle & the Future <ul><li>The Reusable Spacecraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA ( National Aeronautics & Sp...
 
 
Night Launch
Shuttle Endeavor launch on March 10 th , 2008 @ night
LANDING
PART OF THE ORBITER
Shuttle Launch <ul><li>Upon Launch the solid rocket boosters fire producing lift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At 45 km (27 miles)...
The Orbiter
Space Stations <ul><li>Space Ships only limited resources, & cannot stay in space for long periods of time </li></ul><ul><...
Cooperation in Space <ul><li>Countries realize that pooling resources = less expense </li></ul><ul><li>1995: US & Russia b...
 
 
International Space Station <ul><li>Three Phase Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Shuttle & Mir docking missions (Sto...
Disasters of the Space Program <ul><li>1986 – Space Shuttle Challenger exploded killing all 7 astronauts on board.  Christ...
 
 
COLUMBIA <ul><li>In 2003 upon re-entry into our atmosphere the Space Shuttle  Columbia  exploded, killing all 7 astronauts...
APOLLO 13 <ul><li>Apollo 13  was the third manned lunar-landing mission, part of  Project Apollo  under  NASA  in the Unit...
Apollo 13 as it looked upon landing in the ocean
 
 
Future Space Missions
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Ch. 21 Exploring Space 2010

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Ch. 21 Exploring Space 2010

  1. 1. Chapter 21: Exploring Space
  2. 2. I. Radiation from Space (pg 584) <ul><li>Electromagnetic Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light from the past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light seen from stars, may have left that star many years ago. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light and other energy leaving a star are forms of radiation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation is energy that’s transmitted from one place to another by electromagnetic waves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because of this radiation, its called electromagnetic radiation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. I. Radiation from Space (pg 585) <ul><li>Electromagnetic Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound waves, a type of mechanical waves can’t travel through empty space. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then how do we hear the voices of astronauts while they are in space? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When they speak into a microphone, the sound is converted into electromagnetic waves called radio waves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They are then converted back into sound by electronic equipment and audio speakers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. I. Radiation from Space (pg 585) <ul><li>Electromagnetic Radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of electromagnetic radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio waves, visible light, gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, and microwaves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in wavelength and frequency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength is the distance from the top of one wave to the next. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency is the number of wavelengths that pass by a certain point in one second. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As wavelength increases; frequency decreases and vice versa. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Wavelength
  6. 6. Frequency
  7. 7. I. Radiation from Space (pg 585) <ul><li>Electromagnetic Spectrum </li></ul>
  8. 8. I. Radiation from Space (pg 585) <ul><li>Speed of Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light is part electricity and part magnetism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of light is 3.8 X 10 8 m/s or 300,000 km/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universe is so large it takes millions of years from the light from some stars to reach the Earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once electromagnetic radiation from stars and other objects reach Earth, we can use it to learn about the source of the electromagnetic radiation. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. I. Radiation from Space (pg 585 )
  10. 10. I. Radiation from Space (pg 585) <ul><li>Speed of Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One tool used for observing electromagnetic radiation from distant sources is a TELESCOPE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End Day One Lecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOMEWORK: Monday January 4 th , 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due: Wednesday January 6 th , 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Science Words--pg 609-- (a to n) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework Quiz Friday January 8 th , 2010 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Water Found on Mars!
  12. 12. 21.1 Radiation from Space <ul><li>J. Electromagnetic Waves (Quick Review) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Light from the Past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Stars are images of the past </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light from stars takes time to travel through space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our sun = 150 Million Km away = 8 minutes travel time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha Centauri (our closest neighboring star) = 40 Trillion Km away = 4.2 years travel time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light travels at 300,000 km per sec/ 186,000,miles/sec. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light travels 9.5 Trillion km in a year = 1 light year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Light year measures both distance & time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Electromagnetic spectrum: (Review) <ul><li>Radio waves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest wavelength:10 5 to 10 -1 meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest frequency: 10 3 to 10 9 Hertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for communication & information transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microwaves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength: 10 -1 to 10 -3 meters & Frequency: 10 9 to 10 11 Hertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for communication, Info. Transfer & cooking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrared: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength: 10 -3 to 10 -6 meters & Frequency: 10 11 to 10 14 Hertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for heat production & Thermography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Seen” by some insects & animals </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Visible Light: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength: 10 -7 meters & Frequency: 10 15 Hertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colors seen by human eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength: 10 -7 to 10 -9 meters & Frequency: 10 15 to 10 17 Hertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Seen” by some insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause of tanning, sunburn, skin cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degrades rubber & plastic materials (fades cloth & paper) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>X – Rays: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wavelength: 10 -9 to 10 -11 meters & Frequency: 10 17 to 10 19 Hertz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone scans, Information transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gamma Rays: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High level radiation (Very Dangerous) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortest wavelength: 10 -11 to 10 -15 Meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest frequency : 10 19 to 10 23 Hertz </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Telescopes </li></ul><ul><li>We use the electromagnetic spectrum to observe space </li></ul><ul><li>Optical telescopes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce magnified images of objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible light is collected by mirrors or lenses & focused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are two main types of telescopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Telescopes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Telescopes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Refracting Telescope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light from an object passes through a convex objective lens and is bent to from an image on the focal point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The images is then magnified by the eyepiece. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited in size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worlds refracting mirror is Yerkes Refracting Telescope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Just over a meter in diameter (distance across) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Diagram of a Refracting Telescope Focal Point Convex Lens Eyepiece
  18. 19. <ul><li>Reflecting telescopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light passes trough the telescope housing to a concave mirror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirror reflects light to a flat mirror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat mirror redirects light to a focal point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light passes through the focal point, to the eyepiece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyepiece magnifies image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest in the world = 10 meters wide </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Diagram of a Reflecting Telescope
  20. 21. <ul><li>Optical Telescope Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Most “home” use telescopes are optical </li></ul><ul><li>Used to see moon features & close planets </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific optical telescopes are housed in observatories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observatories have dome shaped roofs that open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observatories built on mountains or deserts, far away from cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents city light interference & pollution blurring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases “down time” due to poor weather </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all optical telescopes are housed in observatories </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Radio telescopes: </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to pick up radio waves emitted from stars </li></ul><ul><li>Usable in any weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio waves concentrated by dish shaped body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrated waves directed to focal point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focal point fixed with a receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver transmits information to computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detects objects deep in space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maps the Universe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searches for intelligent life out in space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Largest in the world = 300 m wide dish </li></ul>
  22. 23. Radio Telescopes
  23. 24. <ul><ul><li>Hubble Telescope (Reflecting telescope) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Launched in 1990 by the space shuttle Discovery. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Since Hubble did not have to view space through the Earth’s atmosphere, it should have produced very clear images. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However there was a mistake in the largest mirror used in the Hubble Telescope. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Images were not as clear as expected. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>December 1993 first set of repairs were fixed by astronauts. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has been repaired numerous times since. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hubble Telescope </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. End of Day #2 Lecture!! <ul><li>Homework Vocabulary Quiz Friday!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Blended Schools Chapter 21 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework/StudyGuides Folder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture Day #1 Worksheet due Friday </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You will have time to work on this in class Wednesday </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Video: All about Telescopes </li></ul>
  25. 26. 21.2 Light Pollution <ul><li>Light pollution & stargazing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Night time sky from the city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazy, glowing sky with a few bright stars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Night time sky from far away from cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crisp, black sky with many stars of different brightness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The difference = Light Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City lights & bright moon light cover the dimmer stars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large US cities are reducing light pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low pressure sodium lights replacing mercury vapor lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces glare, improves over all visibility, cheaper to run </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hooding” large light sources </li></ul></ul>Pgs: 591 - 593
  26. 27. Night View from Space
  27. 28. 2 Points of View <ul><li>Right to have security lighting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime & Safety is a unilateral concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting is a main tactic for prevention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Property owners use lights to protect people & property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Right to Dark Sky Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural phenomena should be viewable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meteor showers are everyone’s right to see </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security lighting too bright, and drowns out your view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Who’s right’s are more important (Your’s or Their’s)? </li></ul>
  28. 29. 21.3 Artificial Satellites & Space Probes <ul><li>The first steps into space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telescopes view objects from a distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists want to get closer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satellites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space exploration began in 1957 ( Sputnik I ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USSR placed Sputnik I in a low level orbit (visible from Earth) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orbited Earth for 3 months </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused major panic in the US </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began the “Space Race” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellites are any object that revolve (orbit) around a larger object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orbit: curved path of satellites around a star, planet, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>Pgs. 594 - 599
  29. 30. How Satellites stay in orbit <ul><li>Orbital Motion is a combination of two forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inertial motion : force moving the object in a straight line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity : force pulling the object back toward Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The forces are at right angles to each other resulting in a curved path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much Inertia = satellite spirals away from Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too little Inertia = satellite spirals back to Earth (decaying orbit) </li></ul></ul></ul>Watch as the Rope is cut 
  30. 31. <ul><li>Modern Satellites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today thousands of artificial satellites orbit the Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have many different functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military : “Spy” satellites observe & record images & communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communications : Transmit & relay telephone, radio, and T.V. signals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weather : Monitor storms, winds, temperatures, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific : Collect data from space & Earth (wide range of uses) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Space Probes: </li></ul><ul><li>Not all objects in space become satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists use space probes to gather information also </li></ul><ul><li>Space Probe : Electronic equipment designed to gather information and transmit it back to Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel through (and out of) the Solar System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry cameras, radio transmitters & receivers, sensors, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>The Voyagers </li></ul><ul><li>Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launched in 1977 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyager 1 designed to fly by Jupiter & Saturn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyager 2 designed to fly past Jupiter & Saturn to Uranus & Neptune </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both have left our immediate solar system and are still transmitting today </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Jupiter by Voyager 1
  34. 35. Saturn by Voyager 2
  35. 36. Neptune by Voyager 2
  36. 37. <ul><li>Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo was a two phase probe sent to Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Launched in 1989 it reached Jupiter in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>It then released a smaller probe that parachuted through Jupiter’s atmosphere until crushed by the intense gravity </li></ul><ul><li>The small probe sent back info. about atmospheric temperature, pressure, and composition </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo studied Jupiter’s moons, rings, & magnetic field </li></ul>
  37. 38. Galileo’s View as it Approaches Jupiter <ul><li>http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/countdown/impact.html </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>The Race to the Moon </li></ul><ul><li>Sputnik I was the beginning of the “Space Race” between the US and Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>In 1961, Russian Cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin became the first human into space </li></ul><ul><li>President John F. Kennedy calls for the US to be the first to land on the moon </li></ul><ul><li>The US had several programs to reach the goal </li></ul><ul><li>Each program was designed to reach a step to the moon </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Project Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Orbit a craft around the Earth & return it safely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave valuable information about space travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States program to reach the moon began with Project Mercury. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consisted of 9 missions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 5, 1961: Alan B. Shepard = First American in space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15 minutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1962: John Glenn = First American to orbit Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 hours, 55 minutes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>Project Gemini </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Team of two will spend 10 days in space </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted of 10 missions </li></ul><ul><li>Learned skills needed for the trip to the moon </li></ul><ul><li>One team docked with another ship while in space </li></ul><ul><li>During the ongoing Gemini project, several probes were sent to the moon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranger: Proved reaching the moon was possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveyor : Proved a lunar landing was possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbiter : Took pictures of the moon’s surface </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Project Apollo <ul><li>Series of missions to reach, land on & explore the moon </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo 11: first to reach the moon (July 20, 1969) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neil Armstrong: first person to walk on the moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ One small step for man, One giant leap for mankind” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin joined Armstrong exploring for 2 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michael Collins remained in the Command Module (orbiting moon) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 other Apollo Missions also landed on the moon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All total more than 2000 samples of lunar rocks & soil was collected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The program ended in 1972 </li></ul>
  42. 44. The Apollo Rocket <ul><li>The Apollo program use multistage rockets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a small part of the rocket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>returned to Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the Lunar module descended to the moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service module and command module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remained in lunar orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Command module returned to Earth </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Images of Apollo
  44. 46. Current Space Travel <ul><li>Currently many nations work together in space travel </li></ul><ul><li>The International Space Station: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A cooperative effort between many countries to build an extraterrestrial habitat used for research. Started in 1998 and the first person inhabited it on 2000 . There have been people there ever since 2000. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Missions to Mars: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several countries are working towards a joint mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibilities of a Martian base are also being considered </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION
  46. 49. 21.4 The Space Shuttle & the Future <ul><li>The Reusable Spacecraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA ( National Aeronautics & Space Administration ) realizes Multistage rockets are expensive & wasteful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed the Space Shuttle: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A reusable craft capable of carrying people, satellites, and experiments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of 3 main parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orbiter : Plane like ship </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External fuel tank : Largest tank filled with liquid Oxygen & Hydrogen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 solid rocket boosters : Produces thrust required to launch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Pgs. 604 - 608
  47. 52. Night Launch
  48. 53. Shuttle Endeavor launch on March 10 th , 2008 @ night
  49. 54. LANDING
  50. 55. PART OF THE ORBITER
  51. 56. Shuttle Launch <ul><li>Upon Launch the solid rocket boosters fire producing lift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At 45 km (27 miles), they are depleted & eject (parachuting back to Earth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovered & Reused </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shuttle flies on fuel from the External Tank </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once it is empty it is ejected (crashing into the Ocean) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External Tanks are not reused (scrapped & recycled) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once in space the shuttle orbits the Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments conducted, Satellites deployed, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon completion of mission the Orbiter returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glides into a runway, landing like an Airplane </li></ul></ul>
  52. 57. The Orbiter
  53. 58. Space Stations <ul><li>Space Ships only limited resources, & cannot stay in space for long periods of time </li></ul><ul><li>Space stations are massive complexes that allow humans to stay in space for extended periods of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides living quarters, work & exercise areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries all equipment & support systems needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sky Lab : US Space Station launched in 1973 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crews stationed for 84 day tours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: Perform experiments on effects of living in space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrapped in 1979 (Placed in decaying orbit & burned up) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mir : Russian space station </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cosmonauts stay for 438 days (current record) </li></ul></ul>
  54. 59. Cooperation in Space <ul><li>Countries realize that pooling resources = less expense </li></ul><ul><li>1995: US & Russia begin working together on projects </li></ul><ul><li>Americans now travel in Russian rockets & Russians travel in the Space Shuttle </li></ul><ul><li>The Atlantis was the first shuttle to dock with Mir </li></ul><ul><li>The International Space Station </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project began in 1997 (on going) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A dozen nations are cooperating to build the station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main components built on Earth & transported into space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The components will be assembled in space </li></ul></ul>
  55. 62. International Space Station <ul><li>Three Phase Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Shuttle & Mir docking missions (Stockpiling of supplies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Assembly of main body (Bilateral Station Alpha) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Crews will permanently inhabit & operate station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NASA will keep astronauts on the station for several months at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producing materials to be used on Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially begin building space ships for trips to the Moon or Mars </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 63. Disasters of the Space Program <ul><li>1986 – Space Shuttle Challenger exploded killing all 7 astronauts on board. Christa McAuliffe was to be the first teacher in space. </li></ul><ul><li>The shuttle exploded because of a fuel leak that reached the engines </li></ul>
  57. 66. COLUMBIA <ul><li>In 2003 upon re-entry into our atmosphere the Space Shuttle Columbia exploded, killing all 7 astronauts on board. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Columbia lifted off so foam damaged the heat tiles. So when reentry happened the heat of the atmosphere caused the orbiter to explode. </li></ul>
  58. 67. APOLLO 13 <ul><li>Apollo 13 was the third manned lunar-landing mission, part of Project Apollo under NASA in the United States. It launched on April 11 , 1970 . Two days after the launch, the Apollo spacecraft was crippled by an explosion, caused by a fault in the oxygen tank. The explosion damaged the Service Module , resulting in a loss of oxygen and electrical power. The crew used the Lunar Module as a “lifeboat”. They of course made it back to earth safely. </li></ul>
  59. 68. Apollo 13 as it looked upon landing in the ocean
  60. 71. Future Space Missions

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