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7th grade life science chapter 1 (revised)

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Minersville Area School District 7th Grade Life Science: Chapter 1 Mr. Motuk

Minersville Area School District 7th Grade Life Science: Chapter 1 Mr. Motuk


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  • 1. CHAPTER 1 EXPLORING AND CLASSIFYING LIFE
  • 2. Chapter 1: Section 1 WhatisScience?
  • 3. SECTION 1- What is Science? A. SCIENCE – An organized way of studying things and answering questions. B. Some types of science: • 1) PHYSICS – The study of energy, matter and motion. • 2) CHEMISTRY – Study of elements and how they behave • 3) EARTH SCIENCE – Study of the universe and how it all works.
  • 4. • 4. LIFE SCIENCE – The study of living things (organisms) • Types of Life Science: a. ZOOLOGY – Study of animals b. BOTANY – study of plants c. ECOLOGY – Study of organisms and their relationship with the environment. d. GENETICS- Study of how traits are passed between generations.
  • 5. • SCIENTIFIC METHOD – Series of steps used to try and solve problems. • STEPS: • 1. State a PROBLEM – Something that needs to be solved. • 2. Gather Information – DATA • 3. Form a HYPOTHESIS – Prediction or educated guess • 4. Test the hypothesis – EXPERIMENT • Parts of an experiment: • CONTROL – Something that stays the same • VARIABLE – something that changes • Each Experiment should have only 1 VARIABLE.
  • 6. • 5. Analyze results • 6. Draw CONCLUSIONS – A logical answer to the problem. • THEORY – Explanation of things based on many observations/ experiments. • EX: Theory of Evolution, Theory of relativity • LAW – Statements that explains how things work in nature. They seem to be true all the time. • EX: Law of Gravity, Newton’s Laws of Motion
  • 7. NEWTON’S LAW OF GRAVITY
  • 8. • Scientists got together in the 1970’s and came up with a universal system of measurement that every country in the world would use. • That system was called the INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI). • This system is based on the #10 • All countries are currently using this system except the USA. • This system uses several terms that we need to learn.
  • 9. • MASS – SI Measure of the amount of matter in an object. Doesn’t change much daily. • SI uses GRAMS to measure mass • WEIGHT – The measure of the amount of gravity holding an object down. Changes daily or depending on your location on earth. The closer to the earth’s core you are the more you will weigh. • We use pounds to measure weight. • VOLUME – The amount of space occupied by an object. • SI uses LITERS • LENGTH – A measure of distance • SI uses METERS
  • 10. USING SI • SI uses 3 main units: Liters, Meters and Grams. • Prefixes are also used to help convert between units. • THE PREFIXES IN SI • Prefix Abbreviation Multiplier • Kilo k 1000 • Hecto h 100 • Deka da 10 • Base unit (Meter, Liter, Gram) (m,l,g) 1 • Deci d .1 • Centi c .01 • Milli m .001
  • 11. • How to convert in the SI system • K-H-D-Base Unit-d-c-m • Whenever you go from large to small, you move the decimal that many places to the right. • When you go from small to large, you move the decimal that many places to the left. King-Henry-Died –By-drinking- chocolate-milk
  • 12. Converting Temperatures • The US is the only country to use the temperature scale Fahrenheit. (F) • All other countries use Celsius (C) to measure temperature. • You need to be able to convert in between the 2 scales if you will ever travel outside the US
  • 13. • Anytime you start with a Fahrenheit temperature and you want to change it into Celsius use the following: F – 32 1.8 • So lets do an example: Say it is 56oF and you want to change it into C. • First you take 56 – 32 and get 24. • Then you take the 24 and divide it by 1.8 • Your answer in Celsius is 13.3o
  • 14. • Now let’s go the other way from Celsius into Fahrenheit (C x 1.8) + 32 • Let’s say you are going on vacation to Haiti and the temperature there is 46oC, what is that equal to in Fahrenheit. • First you take 46 x 1.8 and get 82.8 • Next you take the 82.8 and + 32 = 114.8 oF. • HOT HOT HOT!!!
  • 15. CHAPTER 1: SECTION 2 LIVING THINGS
  • 16. • SECTION 2- LIVING THINGS • ORGANISM – Any living thing • What does it mean to be alive?? • CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE • 1) Organisms must show some level of organization, here are the levels: • A) CELL – Basic unit of life • B) TISSUE – Cells working together to do a certain job. Ex: Heart tissue, brain tissue, bone tissue, etc. • C) ORGANS – Tissue working together to do a certain job. EX: Heart, Kidney, Brain, etc. • D) SYSTEM – Organs working together to do a certain job. • There are 10 human body systems • E) ORGANISM – A complete living thing
  • 17. • HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS • 1. RESPIRATORY – help breathing EX: Lungs, windpipe, nose • 2. SKELETAL – support EX: Femur, Skull, Ribs • 3. INTEGUMENTARY – protection EX: Skin, Fingernails, Hair • 4) DIGESTIVE – helps break down food and get rid of solid waste. – EX: Stomach, Large Intestine, Mouth • 5) MUSCULAR – controls all movement • EX: Biceps, Triceps, Tongue • 6) EXCRETORY – gets rid of liquid waste EX: Kidneys, Bladder • 7) REPRODUCTIVE – Make babies EX: Testes, Ovaries • 8) NERVOUS – Controls feeling EX: Brain, Spinal Cord
  • 18. • 9) ENDOCRINE – Controls all hormones and chemicals EX: Thyroid, Pituitary, Ovaries • 10) CARDIOVASCULAR (CIRCULATORY) – Moves blood EX: Heart, Veins, Capillaries, Arteries • 2) Must respond to changes in environment. • A) STIMULUS – Something an organism responds to. • Ex: Weather getting colder • B) RESPONSE – The reaction of an organism to a stimulus. • EX: Hummingbirds flying south for the winter • C) HOMEOSTASTIS – The regulation of an organism’s inside despite outside changes • EX: Sweating when hot, Fever when sick, etc.
  • 19. • D) ADAPTATION – Characteristic an organism has which makes it better able to survive in it’s surroundings. • EX: Tree’s losing leaves in fall, Dog’s shedding fur, Robins migrating for the winter, etc. • 3) Must use ENERGY – Ability to do work. • Most energy comes either directly or indirectly from the SUN • 4) Must Grow and Develop • GROWTH – to increase in size • DEVELOPMENT – to change form in becoming an adult. • EX: Caterpillar to a butterfly, tadpole to a frog
  • 20. • LIFE SPAN – The length of time an organism is expected to live. • EX: Humans - 80 years • Mayfly 1 day • 5) REPRODUCTION – The ability to make similar offspring to the parents. • 6) A Place to live – when the environment becomes to crowded the competition for space costs lives. • 7) Raw Materials – Every organism needs water, oxygen, food • Most organisms are at least 50 % water. • You are made up of 70 %.
  • 21. CHAPTER 1: SECTION 3 WHERE DOES LIFE COME FROM
  • 22. SECTION 3 – Where does life come from? • SPONTANEOUS GENERATION – The theory that living things could come from nonliving things. • EX: Rained worms, meat made maggots • Scientists of course did not believe in this and had to prove it wrong. • 1668 – Francesco Redi- tested the maggots and meat belief. Here is his experiment: • 1) Took 2 identical raw pieces of meat and put them into 2 identical jars. • Covered one of them with a piece of light cloth (so the air could get through). • Waited • Upon his return he found that the uncovered jar had maggots on the meat, but the covered jar did not. • Since both jars did not have maggots, he stated that SG had to be wrong.
  • 23. REDI’S EXPERIMENT
  • 24. • LOUIS PASTEUR – tested broth (meat juice). • 1) He boiled the broth to make it free of all germs (sterile). • 2) Then he place it into an s-shaped flask. These flasks allowed the air to enter the broth not the dust. All the dust gets caught in the curve of the s. • 3) When he returned he found no contamination to any of the flasks. • 4) For fun he then tilted the flasks so the dust could enter the broth, within days the broth was contaminated. • He concluded that since the first test showed no contamination, broth doesn’t make germs but air carries them.
  • 25. • Where did life come from? • Earth is believed to be 4.6 billion years old. • The oldest found life is about 3.3 billion years old. • ALEX OPARIN – suggests that the Earth’s early atmosphere had no oxygen in it but had ammonia, hydrogen, methane and water vapor. • He believes that these gases combined to form the simplest of life (Bacteria) and then the cycle began.
  • 26. CHAPTER 1: SECTION 4 How Are Living Things Classified?
  • 27. Section 4 – How are living things classified? • Hundreds of new organisms are discovered and named each year. • Most of these new critters are plants or insects. • Most are found in the tropical rain forest. • CLASSIFY – to group things based on similarities. • EX: Grocery Stores are grouped by the type of food. • Libraries are grouped by the type of book • Record Stores are grouped by the CD, tape and then by the type of music.
  • 28. • ARISTOTLE – was the first person ever to classify living things. • He developed a science of classifying and naming organisms called TAXONOMY. • He divided all living things into 2 large groups which he called KINGDOMS. • Those 2 groups were called PLANTS and ANIMALS. • He used 2 main characteristics to figure out which kingdom the organism should be placed. • Those 2 traits were color and movement. • If it was green and didn’t move it was a plant • If it wasn’t green and moved it was an animal.
  • 29. • Inside the Plant Kingdom there were 3 subgroups. (SIZE) • 1)The Small plants- HERBS • 2)The medium plants – SHRUBS • 3)The large plants – TREES • Inside the Animal kingdom there were 3 subgroups. (HABITAT) • 1)The air animals – AVIAN • 2)The water animals – AQUATIC • 3)The land animals - TERRESTRIAL
  • 30. ANIMAL GROUPS
  • 31. • Kingdom is the largest of all the taxonomic categories. • There were many problems with Aristotle’s system. • EX: Frogs – they are green and moved. • Red Maple Trees- red and don’t move • Ducks- fly through the air, float in water and nest on land. • So improvements had to be made.
  • 32. • CAROLUS LINNAEUS – created a better system to classify organisms. • His system was based on similarities in body structures and systems, size, shape, color and the method of obtaining food. • He also created a system for naming organisms. • BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE – the 2 word naming system used to name all organisms. • This is also called the Scientific Name The first word is called the GENUS • The second word is called the SPECIES
  • 33. • When organisms are named there are several rules that must be followed: • 1) The Genus always comes first, is capitalized and either italicized or underlined. • 2) The Species always is second, is lowercase and either italicized or underlined. • Only organisms of the same species can successfully reproduce without any problems. • EX: Horse + Donkey = Mule • Ligers • Zedonk
  • 34. • Some examples of the scientific name in use are: • Canis familiaris – Dog • Felis domesticus – Cat • Homo sapiens – Humans • Canis lupus – Wolf • Since dogs and wolves share the same genus name they are cousins. But they still do not share species names, there is difficulty interbreeding them • All the different breeds of dogs are all Canis familiaris. So they can interbreed – MUTT.
  • 35. • These are always written in LATIN – because when this system was created all educated folk WORLDWIDE spoke Latin. • PHYLOGENY – An organism’s evolutionary history • TODAYS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM: • Based on several things: • Presence of a nucleus • How many cells are present • Ability to make food • Ability to move • DNA • Body structure • Phylogeny
  • 36. • The current classification has been expanded to 6 kingdoms. • Lets discuss the kingdoms in order from simplest to most advanced. • 1) ARCHAEBACTERIA – one celled bacteria that live in extreme environments. EX: Salt water, volcanoes, sulfur springs • Prokaryotes • Some make own food some do not
  • 37. • 2) EUBACTERIA – 1 celled bacteria that live in normal environments, prokaryotes • EX: streptococcus, cyanobacteria (green), E. Coli • 3) PROTISTA – 1 or many cells, most live in water. Eukaryotes EX: Paramecium, Amoeba, Euglena
  • 38. • 4) Fungi – Have 1 or many cells. Eukaryotes EX: Mushrooms, molds, and yeasts • 5)Plants – many cells Eukaryotes EX: roses, grass, apple tree, moss
  • 39. • 6) Animal – many celled and most advanced kingdom EX: Humans, monkeys, sponges • DO THE CHART ON THE BOARD!!!!!
  • 40. • PROKARYOTE – Organisms without a true nucleus. The nuclear material (DNA) is there but the membrane around it is missing. • EX: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria • EUKARYOTE – Organisms with a true nucleus. Have a membrane plus all nuclear material. • EX: Animals, protists, fungus, plants
  • 41. Ways organisms get food • 1) Producers – Can make their own food by photosynthesis • EX: Plants, green bacteria, green protists • 2) Consumers – Can not make their own food so they must go and get it somehow. • 3 TYPES OF CONSUMERS: • 1) PARASITE – Feed off of another living thing. Usually just harms the host. • EX: Fleas, Ticks, Leech
  • 42. • 2) DECOMPOSER (SAPROPHYTE) – Feed off of already dead things • EX: Humans, Flies, Crows, Turkey Vultures • 3) PREDATOR – Hunts, kills and eats it’s prey immediately • EX: Tigers, Grizzly Bears, Eagles, Red Tailed Hawks
  • 43. • THE TAXONOMIC GROUPS • From biggest to smallest •KINGDOM •PHYLUM •CLASS • ORDER • FAMILY • GENUS • SPECIES
  • 44. • 1.5 million species have been identified so far. • Scientists believe there are between 5-30 million total species on Earth. • SUMMARY OF CLASSIFICATION • 1) Aristotle started out with 2 – plant and animal • 2)Then when the microscope was created a third kingdom, the protist evolved. • 3) The # went to 5 – animals, plants, fungi, protist and bacteria (Moneran) • 4) Now there are 6 – animals, plants, fungi, protists, eubacteria, and archaebacteria. • In the future a 7th??? - Viral
  • 45. • Species Diversity – Great Variety of plants, animals and other species living in an area. • The more diverse an area is, the more stable it is. • In 1 hectare (50 acres) of rain forest there are around 200 species of plants and 1000 species of animals. • So this is a region of excellent species diversity. • Unfortunately every minute there are about 1000 acres of rain forest cut down by humans.
  • 46. • Extinction – When a species no longer exists. • Examples of extinct species: Dodo bird, passenger pigeon, Carolina Parakeet, Tasmanian Wolf, Dinosaurs
  • 47. • Endangered – Animals that are close to becoming extinct. • EX: Florida Panther, Bog Turtle, Gray Wolf, Manatee
  • 48. • IDENTIFYING ORGANISMS • Common names – scientists do not use common names because they can be very confusing. Often there are to many names for the same organism. • EX: Groundhog and woodchuck • Puma, Cougar and Mtn. Lion all the same. • Instead scientists only use scientific names
  • 49. • Other tools that help identify organisms • Field Guide – A book of traits and pictures to identify organisms. • Dichotomous Keys – A detailed list of traits used to classify organisms

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