Urban Villages of Delhi: Case study Kotla Mubarakpur
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Documentation and analysis of surveys and mapping conducted in 3 urban villages of Delhi, namely, Kotla Mubarakpur, Mohammedpur and Hauz Khaz. Comparative analysis of their stages of urbanization and ...

Documentation and analysis of surveys and mapping conducted in 3 urban villages of Delhi, namely, Kotla Mubarakpur, Mohammedpur and Hauz Khaz. Comparative analysis of their stages of urbanization and a proposal for Kotla Mubarakpur.

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Urban Villages of Delhi: Case study Kotla Mubarakpur Presentation Transcript

  • 1. U R B A N V I L L A G E S PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS (Focus area: Kotla Mubarakpur) D E L H I Joel Michael (11AR 60 R 17) Thesis Guide: Dr. S. Chattopadhyay Masters of City Planning IIT KHARAGPUR
  • 2. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S “Urban village typically would mean a well-planned set-up with a village- concept of being fairly self-sufficient and not having the need to travel long distances to get daily things done. What is most important, perhaps, is that it’s intended to tackle the problem of increasing population in cities.” -Gaigongmei Gangmei “The Delhi urban villages have some of these salient features, especially mixed-use zoning. What has become more apparent, though, is how each urban village here also differs from the other.” - Kapil Chaudhery (Urban Planner, and Director of Spatial Designs)
  • 3. This thesis aims on the planning for the betterment of Kotla Mubarakpur village, as a model to achieve a sustainable coexistence of the present and upcoming urbanized villages with the rest of the planned Delhi. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S  Analysis of present scenario through primary survey. (Issues identification)  Comparisons analyses: a. Hauz Khaz b. Mohammedpur c. Kotla Mubarakpur  Review of the Development Control regulations and Building Bye-laws.  Self help and high-density housing initiatives.  Heritage significance and maintenance.  Preparation of a practical model and planning guidelines for development of centralized villages.
  • 4. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Primary survey analysis Comparative Analysis Hauz Khaz Mohammedpur DCR Policies and schemes Secondary survey analysis IDENTIFICATION OF ISSUES STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES Review & modification of rules and regulations Proposal of strategies and schemes for urban village model MASTER PLAN FOR KOTLA MUBARAKPUR LEGAL DRAWBACKS INTEGRATION OF PROPER LEGAL MEASURES AND STRENGTHS OF URBAN VILLAGES Demographic Profile Socio-economic data Urban mobility Vulnerability Assessment Building condition Building Height Width of road Employment status Commercial links Reconnaissance survey Comparisons of rules and regulations (secondary data) with existing scenario (primary data) DCR Building bye-laws and permits, sanctioning Self help housing High density housing Route Characteristics Area of influence Families’ profile Physical characteristics Heritage area specs.
  • 5. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 6. TYPE EVOLUTION POPULATION DWELLING STANDARD INFRASTRUCTURE STATUS Unauthorized Colonies Developed on agricultural land by illegal means (land assembling, division and disposal) 0.74 mn (5.7%) Haphazard but not fully dilapidated with no tenure security Minimal Regularized Unauthorized Colonies Advanced form of unauthorized colonies 1.75 mn (12.7%) Improved condition with greater tenure security Govt. intervention into regularization has improved the condition Urban Villages Rural villages that got urbanized due to city expanding around them 0.88 mn (6.4%) High degree of tenure security but congested living Haphazard layouts creates difficulties in extension of amenities Rural Villages Rural villages inside the city boundaries which have not been yet urbanized 5% Almost nil but not essential too Juggi Jhopdi Clusters Arisen by encroachment on public and private lands 2.07 mn (14.8%) Extremely poor Rarely exist Notified Slums Improved version of JJ clusters 2.66 mn (19.4%) Improvements in the form of tenure security Meager improvements Juggi Jhopdi Resettlement Colonies Formed by relocating squatters and slum households from the heart of the city to its periphery in order to improve their living condition 1.75 mn (12.7%) Same as it is in Rural Villages Basic amenities (water supply and sewage disposal) provided PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 7. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S  Rural villages: 227  Rural population: 6.82% in 37.64% of land  Urbanized Villages: 135  Urban Population: 8.47 million in 1991 to 16.75 million in 2011 (more than 55% growth) putting pressure and increasing risks.  Government in the process to urbanize the rural villages to reduce migration and pressure thus instigating sprawl.  Unplanned and haphazard urban growth. According to census data from 2001, Delhi’s urbanization level was 93.01 per cent, and numerous studies and governments documents reveal that more than half of these residents live in unplanned settlements. The term “LAL DORA” was used for the first time in the year 1908. It is a name classification given to that part of the village land which is part of the village “Abadi” (habitation). The urban villages in Delhi today are these “protected” habitation lands which have been exempted from the urban development authorities.
  • 8. Haphazard construction the village turns into a slum with the old villagers as slum-lords. Farmers sell land to govt/developer They make use of exemptions from municipal and building codes. STAGE 1 PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Narrow streets and haphazard structures of Kotla Mubarakpur Khirki Village near Chirag Dilli and amidst various monuments.
  • 9. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Migrants slowly become permanent Interesting supply- side response (For eg. English medium school) Construction workers drift away and new migrants move in Commercial establishments go through parallel transformation STAGE 2 Migrant population of Nathupur that abuts DLF phase III Nathupur, Gurgaon
  • 10. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Old owners invest in improving properties. Economic dynamism and upgradation through public investments Surrounding areas are well settled and agricultural fields minimal. Students, salesmen, businessmen move in STAGE 3 Sikanderpur chowk Metro running along Sikanderpur and beyond to sector 55
  • 11. Hotels, boutiques, galleries and trendy restaurants Problems like inadequate parking The village starts to gentrify Old villagers encash their real estate and ownership pattern becomes more mixed FINAL STAGE PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Areas of Hauz Khaz & Green Park
  • 12. Urban Village: Western concept Urban Villages: Delhi Medium density development Extremely high density development compared to rest of the city. Mixed use zoning Mixed use zoning Provision of efficient public transit Public transit is not sufficient in some cases. Emphasis on urban design - pedestrianization and public squares Forced pedestrianization and no public squares due to unplanned, haywire situation of the village Alternative to decentralization and sprawl and thus intrusion into the countryside. Decentralization and urban sprawl still prevail. Rural villages are thus getting urbanized. High level of self containment (people working, recreating in the same area) Mostly migrants in search for job opportunities. Houses majorly on rent. Concept born in the 1980’s in Britain. Concept born in 1908 by the British while planning Delhi. Earlier known as ‘lal dora’ PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 13. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Principles:  Walkability  Connectivity  Mixed Use & Diversity  Mixed Housing  Quality Architecture & Design  Traditional Neighborhood structure  High Density  Smart transportation  Sustainability  Quality of Life
  • 14. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S ASPECTS RESIDENTS BUSINESSES DEVELOPERS MUNICIPALITIES Fiscal Advantages Stable property values Economies of scale in marketing due to close proximity and cooperation More income potential from higher density mixed-use projects due to more leasable Increased tax base due to more buildings packed into a tighter area Foot traffic Less traffic congestion & less driving & Pedestrian friendly Increased sales due to foot traffic & Cooperation with other local businesses Less impact on roads/ traffic, which can result in lower impact fees Easy to install transit where it's not, and improve it Compactness Close proximity to main services Live-work units save time Lower cost of utilities due to compact nature of New Urbanist design Less spent per capita on infrastructure and utilities Savings Great savings Low rents due to small spaces & Little or no expense needed for ads Faster approvals in communities saving cost/time Less crime and less spent on policing due to the presence of more people Community & Identity Better sense of place and identity More community involvement Greater acceptance by the public and less resistance Better overall community image and sense of place Tax Efficient use of tax money Stable, appreciating tax base
  • 15. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S CLASSFICATION OF ISSUES Location Issues Demographic Issues Infrastructural Issues Legal Issues Environmental Issues Planning Issues CASE STUDIES Comparative Analysis Hauz Khaz Mohammedpur DETAILS OF STUDY AREA Background HH survey details Land Use Strengths and Weaknesses HOUSING INDICATORS Condition Availability Population APPLICATION OF TOOLS Analytic Hierarchy Process Indicators Housing Upgrade Infrastructure & Environment Scores RANKING AND STATUS OF THE 3 VILLAGES IN MUTUAL COMPARISON Occupational mobility
  • 16. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Shakarpur is a pre-independence village located along the banks of river Yamuna. The East Delhi village earlier consisted of a very small community of farmers solely dependent on agriculture. Other than the issues common to many other villages like water and electricity scarcity, Shakarpur comprises of a few factories and industries which release toxic chemicals harmful for the old and asthmatic patients. Settled Village Residents Migrating population
  • 17. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 18. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 19. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Late Smt. Budho Devi residence Total area: 50.5 sqmt. No. of stories: 3 No. of rooms: 7 rooms (3 on ground floor, 2 on first and second floor each) No. of people: 24 (four families).
  • 20. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Fun‐xin village is a comparably small village surrounded by urban park and other new developed residential apartment buildings in Shenzhen. It is composed of 5 to 10 storied residential buildings in an extremely high density.
  • 21. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S URBANUS’s design is to connect most of the existing buildings with proportioned pedestrian route, making it as an untied architecture complex rather than the existing individual building, so that they can create an active mixed use district. These routes include different programs, such as entertainment line, garden line, commercial line, art line and kid line, which traverse throughout each block at different levels, connecting each public space within each individual building. These routes are like the subway lines, and they are also vertically connected with each other at certain spots.
  • 22. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Each pedestrian route includes three parts: • The public space intervention in the existing buildings, • The program within the existing buildings, • The new constructed connections between the buildings.
  • 23. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 24. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 25. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 26. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S South Extension - 1 East Kidwai Nagar Defence Colony Lodhi Estate KOTLA MUBARAKPUR  Kotla Mubarakpur: medieval village in Zone D. Classified by DDA as urban village in 1971.  Area: 96 acres Population: 26949 (2011) Density: 710 PPH  Consists of 5 villages: Kotla, Pilanji, Khairpur, Aliganj & Jodbagh. 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Population 2164 4691 8581 17321 26949 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Population S T U D Y A R E A
  • 27. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Holdings Built-up area Waste land Cultivated land Well Drain Pathways Garden Ponds 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 • Slow change in traditional economy reflected in the land-use changes may be attributed to the fact that urban economy of Delhi till 1940s did not generate many demands • Kotla Mubarakpur was serving a limited urban market. • New Delhi grew mainly as a governmental city. LAND USE PERCENTAGE AREA (Ha) Residential 43.3% 16.7 Mixed 37.7 14.5 Non Residential 2.4% 0.92 Community Facility 3.4% 1.27 Parks & Open spaces 10.2% 3.92 Circulation 2.3% 0.87 Others 0.7% 0.26 Total 100% 38.44 LAND USE PERCENTAGE AREA (Ha) Residential 68% 8.25 Non Residential 1% 0.39 Community Facility 10% 1.27 Parks & Open spaces 12% 1.52 Circulation 6% 0.76 Others 3% 0.39 Total 100% 12.7 Village Development Plan, 1971 (MCD) Source: Sundaram, 1977 Land Use change
  • 28. S T U D Y A R E A Inner Gallis: 1.5 – 3m Village motorable roads: 3.5 – 7m South Ex motorable roads: 7 – 10m Main roads: 6 – 10m Metro Line STREET LAYOUT MAP EXISTING LAND-USE MAP
  • 29.  For a majority of the population, their jobs are service sector based Occupation Percentage Service 60% Self-employed 38% Dairy activity 2% 60% 38% 2% Service Self-employed Dairy activity Growth of New Delhi in 1930s, encouraged cultivators to start growing vegetables and other crops for the city market. A few sought employment in the city. RESULT: • Diversification of occupations in the village • Mobility in occupations • Preponderance of unskilled and manual workers in the occupational structure. 1% 9% 16% 13% 17% 3% 41% Occupational structure Cultivators Livestock & allied activities Manufacturing & HH industries Construction Trade and Commerce Transport Services Source: Census, 1961 S T U D Y A R E A
  • 30. A study of the inter- and intra-generational mobility of occupations shows that while some occupational groups stagnate, others show greater mobility. • Traditional service castes have shown least tendency to change. • Barber caste appears to be more mobile than the rest. • Farming community show greatest mobility. S T U D Y A R E A A1- Farming A2- Gardening B1- Trade B2- Business C1- Customary Service C2- Shop D- Weaving E-labourer S1- washer man S2- Barber S3- potter S4-sweeper S5- carpenter
  • 31. Structural Condition:  Maximum permanent structures.  No kutcha structures at present.  There are some temporary residential ‘G’ structures built on govt land.  Some pucca structures are dangerously stacked together. 98% 2% Pucca Semi-Pucca PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S S T U D Y A R E A
  • 32. Heritage points: S T U D Y A R E A
  • 33. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Location Issues • Surrounded by pressures of well developed colonies • Population pressure and thus haphazard construction Demographic Issues • Low literacy rate: less awareness • Higher population density • Larger family sizes: lesser floor area/person Legal Issues • Uncertain property taxes • Illegal encroachments • Land deals unaccounted Infrastructural Issues Lack of basic civic amenities Structural weaknesses Narrowing lanes Poor drainage and sewage conditions Environmental Issues Reduced green and open spaces Unprotected heritage areas Unorganized waste disposal
  • 34. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Planning Issues • Record of ownership of individual plots is generally not available (or updated) by the Revenue authorities • Building Control policy given by DDA not strictly followed • Lal Dora exemptions continue to be taken advantage of by unscrupulous elements and unauthorized colonies start mushrooming and factories start working. • Unchanging attitude of the residents: Insecurity • Land mafia issues: No transparency • No demolition, no free space. • Serious shortage of parking spaces • Encroachments on public roads creating access issues and congestion
  • 35. 42% 39% 19% Joint Nuclear Bachelors 48% 39% 13% Joint Nuclear Bachelors 35% 45% 20% Joint Nuclear Bachelors PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Mohammedpur Hauz Khaz The joint family system is has almost broken down in a number of cases; where it exists, it does so with some changes The household type distribution changes drastically for Hauz Khaz in comparison to rest In most cases, joint families have broken down but living under the same roof. Each family with independent kitchen but counted as one joint family HOUSEHOLD TYPE: Kotla Mubarakpur Village Single Family housing Kotla Mubarakpur 0% Mohammedpur 0% Hauz Khaz 18% C O M P A R I S O N
  • 36. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Kotla Mubarakpur Mohammedpur Hauz Khaz Row House Semi-detached Cluster 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% Kotla Mubarakpur Mohammedpur Hauz Khaz Mixed Land-Use C O M P A R I S O N
  • 37. For max. population, property rent is the reason for physical transformations of their dwelling and thus, their main source of income. Small businesses form the main share of alternate income.0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Rent Business None/Other Mohammedpur Alternate Income Reason for bldg transformation 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Rent Business None/Other Kotla Mubarakpur Alternate Income Reason for bldg transformation 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rent Business None/Other Hauz Khaz Alternate Income Reason for bldg transformation High Density Housing Mutual Self-Help Housing Programs
  • 38. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Population Density POPULATION INDICATORS Migration Gain/Loss Literacy rate House price to income ratio AVAILABILITY INDICATORS Home ownership rate Single family housing Floor area/person CONDITION INDICATORS Low-income housing Overcrowding Percent of dwellings in need of major repair Costs more than 30% of income SUSTAINABLE MEASURES: HOUSING INDICATORS Source: ‘Sustainable Measures – Housing Indicators’ By Maureen Hart 5 6 8 9 5 5 5 5 6 8 9 T O O L S
  • 39. VILLAGE SCORE Kotla mubarakpur 19.56% Mohammedpur 17.28% Hauz Khaz 63.18% CONDITION 1 VILLAGE SCORE Kotla mubarakpur 33% Mohammedpur 10.8% Hauz Khaz 55.8% VILLAGE SCORE Kotla mubarakpur 10.3% Mohammedpur 33.2% Hauz Khaz 56.53% POPULATION 3 AVAILABILITY 2 PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 40. Proposed metro line connecting all the major markets like Lajpat Nagar, Sarojini Nagar, South Ex & Janak Puri. Direct rapid linkages with other urban villages. Greater accessablity to Kotla Mubarakpur village. South Extension metro station area
  • 41. Existing Low Income Communities should be given a range of choices – the cheapest option being that families upgrade their homes with the help of local groups and subsidized material provided. In case they prefer to live in larger formalized homes –they would have the choice to relocate to a location distant from their current location but close to rapid transit and other employment centres. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 42. Major commercial intensities South Extension markets Gurudwara road Market area
  • 43. Different types of markets in Kotla Mubarakpur Construction materials Daily goods Dairy products Electronic equipments Paper related industries and printing
  • 44. Use of manually pulled carts or rickshaws inside the village to transport goods and people. Re-establish the village identity
  • 45. Lane for non- motorable transport Lane for pedestrians only
  • 46. Due to the lack of open spaces, the vertical spaces can be utilized for the greens
  • 47. DEMOLITION  Encroachments  Dilpaidated structures RESTRICTION  Continuation  Discontinuation RELOCATION TRAFFIC CONTROL & MANAGEMENT  Pedestrian precinct  Parking PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S
  • 48. PLANNING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING & LIVING STANDARDS U R B A N V I L L A G E S Location Issues • Surrounded by pressures of well developed colonies • Population pressure and thus haphazard construction Demographic Issues • Low literacy rate: less awareness • Higher population density • Larger family sizes: lesser floor area/person Legal Issues • Uncertain property taxes • Illegal encroachments • Land deals unaccounted Infrastructural Issues Lack of basic civic amenities Structural weaknesses Narrowing lanes Poor drainage and sewage conditions Environmental Issues Reduced green and open spaces Unprotected heritage areas Unorganized waste disposal Proposed metro line New modified housing opportunities More schools proposed in the area High density housing approach Self help housing Self sufficiency and efficiency FAR changes Demolition of encroached construction Proper land records maintenance Stricter taxation Collaboration of architects/engineers, govt officials village officials and stakeholders Traffic diversion Pedestrianization of inner village lanes Urban design solutions – village centre/square Vertical greens Identification and direction signs for heritage spots