Week 3 Lens And Focal Lenghts


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Week 3 Lens And Focal Lenghts

  1. 1. Week 3 Lens and Focal Lengths Joel Kinison “ If I saw something in my viewfinder that looked familiar to me, I would do something to shake it up. – Garry Winogrand Check out more of Hákon’s work at PhotoQuotes.com and www.Imageree.com.
  2. 2. Syllabus Update • Choose to extend 1 week, add an extra day, or go through the material quicker.
  3. 3. Agenda • Part 1 ▫ Exposure settings/reading review ▫ Mode Dial ▫ Responding to photo pg. 170-171 review • Part 2 ▫ Critique Group Creative Mode assignment • Part 3 ▫ All about lens ▫ AF Mode Metering Mode • Assignment
  4. 4. Exposure Settings Review • Aperture • Shutter speed • Film speed- ISO
  5. 5. Aperture
  6. 6. Shutter Speeds The shutter-speed selector controls the length of time that the shutter remains open. Understand that each progression represents half as much light as the preceding number. Common shutter settings are as follows: 1 second, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, and 1/2000 second.
  7. 7. Film Speed Film Speed Rating - ISO All film has a speed rating, whether digital or traditional. The ISO rating describes how quickly the film reacts to light. ▫ Film speed uses stops, just like shutter and aperture For example, going from ISO50 to ISO200 buys you 2 stops more light.
  8. 8. Mode Dial Basic Zone (Pre-Sets) • Portrait Mode Use this mode when you want a subject in the foreground in sharp focus. • Landscape Mode Use this mode when you want a wide-angle shot with the background in focus. • Night Scene (portrait) Mode Use this mode when you're shooting a subject at night. Illuminates the subject with the flash, while keeping the shutter open longer to provide more light for the background. Creates a balance. • Macro (close up ) Mode Use this mode for extreme close-ups. Blurs the background, narrow DPF. • Sports Mode For shooting scenes with lots of motion, which you want to capture without blurring.
  9. 9. Mode Dial Creative Zone • P - Program - Program mode is much like Automatic mode - the camera will still do most of the setup work for you -- but it allows you to manually override some settings • TV - Shutter priority - used for manual shutter speed • AV - Aperture priority - used for manual aperture • M - Manual - used for fully manual control This allows you to manually adjust both shutter speed and aperture for the same shot, as well as focus. • A-DEP = Auto depth of field. All the focus squares are used to find the nearest and farthest objects in your viewfinder. The camera then calculates the best setting to give you the ideal depth of field.
  10. 10. Responding to photo pg. 170-171 review • Focus and depth of field • Motion • Light • Contrast and tone • Texture • Viewpoint and framing • Perspective • Line • Balance
  11. 11. Lens • Good lens is essential for crisp sharp photographs • Lens focal length - interchangeability
  12. 12. Lens
  13. 13. p.27
  14. 14. Basic Differences Between Lens Lens are referred by their focal lengths The focal length of a lens determines its angle of view, and thus also how much the subject will be magnified for a given photographic position. The shorter the focal length of a lens, the more of a scene the lens takes in and the smaller it makes each object in the scene appear in the image
  15. 15. Size of Recording Surface Affects the Angle of View • With the same lens, a smaller sensor will capture less of a scene.
  16. 16. Conversion Factor • Most DSLRs on the market have nominally APS-C-sized image sensors, smaller than the standard 24×36 mm (35 mm) film frame. • While normal film cameras take 35mm film. The main reference point that people therefore use is the 35mm one which is considered ‘full frame’ size.
  17. 17. • Canon cameras such as the Crop Factor 300D/350D/10D/20D all have a 1.6X crop factor. • Nikon cameras such as the D40, D60, D90, D300 have a 1.5X crop factor.
  18. 18. APS-C Sensor Conversion Factor • Multiplying a lens focal length by 1.6 will give the 35mm equivalent A 1.6x crop camera at 50mm is the same angle-of-view as 80mm in film or full-frame digital
  19. 19. Focal Length p.29
  20. 20. p. 36
  21. 21. Focal Length Changing focal length alone does not change perspective Lens-to-subject distance controls perspective p45
  22. 22. Lens Types
  23. 23. IS or VR • Canon's IS (Image Stabilization) and Nikon's VR (Vibration Reduction) • The IS/VR lenses give you a couple extra stops in low light situations • IS and VR are so important to helping get great shots Don’t buy a lens or camera without it, given the choice. • Even a point-and-shoot with IS is sharper than an expensive DSLR camera without IS in some conditions.
  24. 24. Normal Focal Length • 50mm,(35mm full frame) • Called Prime lenses • Normal lenses are faster • Dim light photography • More compact • Canon EF 50mm f/1.8 II Camera Lens • Niklor AF-S DX 35mm F/1.8 Most exciting is the speed of this lens - f/1.8 - that’s fast enough for many low light situations
  25. 25. Long Focal Length • Telephoto • 100mm – 400mm • The angle narrows • What is shown enlarges • Relatively little DOF • Focal length increases, DOF decreases • Longer, heavier, expensive
  26. 26. Short Focal Length • Wide angle • 18mm, 28mm • Shorter the focal length, the more of the scene will be sharp. • Wide-angle distortion
  27. 27. Zoom Lens • A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements with the ability to vary its focal length (and thus angle of view), as opposed to a prime lens. • Zoom lenses are often described by the ratio of their longest to shortest focal lengths. For example, a zoom lens with focal lengths ranging from 100 mm to 400 mm ▫ Canon 70 -300mm (112-480mm) $550 ▫ Tamron 18-270mm (24-420mm), $700
  28. 28. Nikon 16-85mm • Wide –to Mid angle, General purpose • Vibration Reduction (VR) • 24-127mm DSLR • 1:3.5-5.6 • $600
  29. 29. Wide Angle Lens • Canon 10-22mm $710 ▫ 16-35mm field of view ▫ f/3.5-4.5 SLR Lens for EOS • Nikon 12-24mm $895
  30. 30. Using wide-angle lenses to create dramatic, effective images 1. Get Close 2. It’s all about Foreground 3. Watch those verticals 4. Leading lines 5. Focusing Nordenskjöld Lake, Torres Del Paine National Park, Chile. Image Copyright Joe Decker
  31. 31. How to Buy a Lens What type of shooting can’t you do? ▫ Far-away wildlife ▫ Action too fast ▫ Low-light pictures ▫ Scenic shots ▫ Portraits Handout
  32. 32. Olympus 7-14 • Wide Non-fish eye angel • 14-28mm DSLR • Broad stretches of distant bkgd • Tight interiors • 1:4.0 • price tag of $1500
  33. 33. Zoom, Macro & Fisheye • Zoom – combine a range of focal lengths ▫ More expensive, bulkier & heavier ▫ Relatively small max aperture • Macro-Close-up photography ▫ Smaller max aperture ▫ Expensive • Fisheye lens ▫ Very wide angle
  34. 34. Tamron DI 70-200 • Wildlife, close-ups • High-speed F2.8 • 70-200mm full-frame • 109-310mm DSLR • Costly glass • Heavy • $700 Digitally Integrated' (i.e. optimized for DSLR use, but still covering the full-frame 35mm format),
  35. 35. Other lens • Fisheye view 10-17 $430 • All around Tamron 70-200 $700 • Close-up – portraits Tokina 100mm ▫ Bright-fast F2.8 ▫ Is capable of life-size (1:1) magnification ▫ $400
  36. 36. Prime vs Zoom Lens • Zoom ▫ Range of focal lengths ▫ Portability ▫ Price in comparison to buying multiple lens ▫ Flexibility ▫ Less elements
  37. 37. Prime vs Zoom Lens • Prime ▫ Quality – produce clean, crisp and precise shots. ▫ Price – generally simpler ▫ Weight – typically lighter ▫ Speed – In general faster ▫ Hazard weather
  38. 38. Automatic Focus Lock the Focus p.41
  39. 39. The Perfect Focus Selecting Focus Mode ▫ One-shot - Suitable for still subjects. Press the shutter halfway and the camera will focus only once. If the subject moves or you want to recompose the shot, you need to refocus. ▫ AI Servo- “artificial intelligence” keep a continuous focus on moving subjects until the shutter is pressed all the way. ▫ Al Focus- AI Focus mode starts with normal one-shot focusing but if the subject starts moving, it will switch to AI Servo mode.
  40. 40. The Perfect Focus Selecting the AF Area ▫ Spot metering- useful if you often follow the rule of thirds – specific part of subject ▫ Evaluative metering – all around ▫ Center-weighted – weighted to the center
  41. 41. Reasons Not to Use Auto Focus 1. Not enough light 2. Not enough contrast 3. Shooting wildlife 4. Landscapes and “hyperfocal distance” 5. Fast moving objects 6. Macro 7. Rules of Thirds
  42. 42. Making an Exposure of an Average Scene • Underexposed – too dark • Overexposed – too light
  43. 43. Manually Making the Fix
  44. 44. Meter Measures Light Subject Overexposed Subject Exposed properly Automatic – average scene Fooled by reducing the exposure 1 stop
  45. 45. Assignment: Angle of View Angle of View Post two photos Changing focal length alone does not change perspective