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  • We are always looking for reasons for not taking good pictures. Cartier-Bresson used film camera, same lens, no flash, same shutter speed – he didn’t need the newest digital equipment to take great photos. We all have access to some subjects that no one else has access to – look at your friends’ hobbies, the workplaces of friends and family, and any place you have access to to find a vision that comes uniquely from your access. Many people would dream of having the same access you have, and you might not have considered how valuable your access is.
  • Theme –universal message Wedding (concept of love & marriage) Nature (simplicity of a flower) Something everyone can relate to Focus attention on the main subject
  • Theme –universal message Wedding (concept of love & marriage) Nature (simplicity of a flower) Something everyone can relate to Focus attention on the main subject
  • Window Analogy
  • Each next f/stop (aperture) setting reduces the amount of light entering the camera by half. We can use the terms f/stop and aperture interchangeably as for our purposes they mean the same thing. The larger the number, the smaller the aperture, the smaller the number, the larger the aperture, and, the larger the aperture, the more light enters the camera. The aperture selector adjusts the size of the lens opening. F/4 lets in twice as much light as f/5.6 etc.. The lower the f-number, the larger the lens aperture.
  • Depth of Field: Lens opening (f-stop) The smaller the aperture, the greater the depth of field. Focus distance The greater the focus distance from camera to subject, the greater the depth of field. Focal length of lens The shorter the focal length, the greater depth of field.
  • It is also important to understand that focusing works according to the distance from the camera to the subject. You cannot focus on the left part of a scene and leave the right part blurry, but you can focus on something at a certain distance from the camera and leave everything else blurry. For example, you can focus on the foreground and leave the background blurry. The distance in front of and behind the focusing point, in which everything appears to be “acceptably sharp”, is referred to as the depth of field.
  • The shutter-speed selector controls the length of time that the shutter remains open. The shorter that time is, the less likely a moving object will appear blurred.
  • Your shutter speed should always be shorter than the reciprocal of twice your lens length.
  • Slower films are less sensitive and generally require longer exposures / more light. Faster films react rapidly, and can be used in low light situations. Film speed ratings double each time the sensitivity of the film doubles. An ISO 100 film is one stop slower than an ISO 200 film. It needs twice as much light as the ISO 200 film for correct exposure. The more sensitive the film, the more “grainy” it is.
  • Film speed (or ISO) is a measurement of how sensitive your camera's sensor (or in the case of a film camera, your camera's film) is to light. The larger the ISO (higher number), the more sensitive it is to light. The smaller the ISO (smaller number), the less sensitive it is to light. Each step up in ISO doubles the amount of light sensitivity (ISO 400 is 2x as sensitive to light as ISO 200). Using a higher ISO, you can sometimes get shots in low light that would have required a longer shutter speed or a larger aperture if you were using a lower ISO. However, this does not come without its setbacks. The higher the ISO is set, the grainier your picture will appear. At higher ISOs, you will notice some extremely substantial grain. ISO noise is much less noticable in DSLR and other large sensor cameras than it is in point and shoot cameras.
  • Large apertures (small f/ratio numbers) are subject to lens unsharpness. Some lenses are worse than others at full aperture, but as a rule you should use a lens at apertures of 2 or 3 stops smaller than wide open, if the available light permits. Aperture determines the depth of focus . With landscape photography this is usually not an issue since most subjects are at infinity, so the depth of focus is irrelevant. But for macro photography, for example, it is very important. Long exposure times require a tripod , and will usually blur the photo if you photograph moving subjects. With film, long exposure times will also suffer from reciprocity errors. Short exposure times however are not always possible because the light may be too low. Low film sensitivities (low ISO number) require longer exposures, which is not always possible, and high film sensitivities suffer from coarse film grain (or, with digital sensors, from thermal noise).
  • Now that we see how exposure is controlled by aperture, shutter and film speed, now we need to know how to control it. Fortunately, with DSLRs, they have what is called pre-sets. These are preset/calculated/programed setting for different situations a photographer my encounter. These settings are commonly located on the control dial.
  • Basic Zone (Pre-Sets) Portrait Mode – icon- a head in profile. Use this mode when you want a subject in the foreground in sharp focus. Landscape Mode - Icon = mountains. Use this mode when you want a wide-angle shot with the background in focus. Night Scene (portrait) Mode - Icon = starry field. Use this mode when you're shooting a subject at night. Illuminates the subject with the flash, while keeping the shutter open longer to provide more light for the background. Creates a balance. Black and White Mode - Icon = a figure in contrast. Use this mode to take pictures in black and white Macro (close up ) Mode - Icon = a flower. Use this mode for extreme close-ups. Blurs the background, narrow DPF. Sports Mode - Icon = a running figure. For shooting scenes with lots of motion, which you want to capture without blurring .
  • All the focus squares are used to find the nearest and farthest objects in your viewfinder. The camera then calculates the best setting to give you the ideal depth of field.

Transcript

  • 1. Week 2: Aperture, Shutter Speed, Film Speed Joel Kinison
  • 2.
    • “ You’ve got to push yourself harder. You’ve got to start looking for pictures nobody else could take. You’ve got to take the tools you have and probe deeper. – William Albert Allard
    Check out more of Hákon’s work at PhotoQuotes.com and www.Imageree.com .
  • 3. Agenda
    • Hour 1
    • Understanding the Process
    • Basic Photographic Principles
    • Hour 2
    • Aperture, Shutter Speed and Film Speed
    • The Mode Dial
    • Hour 3
    • Share what you learned reading your instructions
    • Assignment & Responding to a photograph
    • Flickr or camera help
  • 4. Reading Review
    • Pg. 9: What will you Photograph
    • Pg.10-11: Using a Digital Camera
    • Pg. 12-13: Types of Cameras
    • Pg. 14-15: Basic Camera Controls
  • 5. Five Basic Photographic Principles
  • 6. Basic Photographic Principles
    • 1. Focus attention on the main subject
      • Rule of thirds (tic tac toe)
      • Placement of subject (Empire State Building – center of attention)
      • Framing (we are conditioned to looking through a frame)
    • 2. Simplify subject through focus
      • Clutter in background
      • Focus on the subject (eyes)
      • Depth of field (aperture lowest number)
    Reading pg 9
  • 7. Waterway to Castle at Killarney – Scott1346 http://www.flickr.com/photos/bluecorvette/3921016569/in/pool-1200867@N20
  • 8.  
  • 9. Basic Photographic Principles
    • 3 . Emphasis on Motion
      • Blurred, froze or panning
      • More interesting and alive
      • Shutter speed
      • Panning (1/15 – 1/30)
      • Blurring subject or blurring background
      • Freezing an expression (jumping in a pool)
  • 10. Basic Photographic Principles
    • 4 . Selective lighting
      • Subject should be the most lit portion of the photo
      • Can be done in post processing
      • Vignetting
      • Filters and lens baby
  • 11. Basic Photographic Principles
    • 5. Color
      • Saturated vs unsaturated
      • Over saturation
      • Under saturate to emphasize subject
  • 12. Recap
    • Emphasize your subject by placing them off center
    • Make your subject larger
    • Think about how your framing your subject
    • Use of lighting
    • Making sure the subject is in focus
    • Use motion pg.15
    • Use of color
  • 13. Aperture, Shutter Speed and Film Speed Joel Kinison
  • 14. Exposure Settings
    • Aperture
    • Shutter speed
    • Film speed- ISO
    International Standard Organization
  • 15. The Window: Imagine
    • 1 . Aperture is the size of the window. If it’s bigger more light gets through and the room is brighter.
  • 16.
    • 2. Shutter Speed is the amount of time that the shutters of the window are open. The longer you leave them open the more comes in.
  • 17.
    • 3. Now imagine that you’re inside the room and are wearing sunglasses. Your eyes become desensitized to the light that comes in (it’s like a low ISO ).
  • 18. The Big Three
    • http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=enjoying%20digital%20photography&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wv#
  • 19. Aperture (f-stops)
    • Aperture refers to the size of the opening inside the lens that the light must go through to reach the film. Aperture is measured in f/stops as indicated in the series below:
    • 1, 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, 45
  • 20. Aperture (f-stops)
  • 21. Depth of Field
    • Used to describe the region in front and behind the focus point that appears sharp in the final photograph.
    • It is controlled by lens length, subject distance, and aperture setting.
  • 22. Depth of Field
  • 23.  
  • 24. Pg. 22-23
  • 25. Shallow Depth of Field
  • 26. Large Depth of Field
  • 27. See the Difference
  • 28.  
  • 29. Depth of Field Preview
    • A 'depth of field preview' button is one that closes down the aperture without engaging the mirror or shutter.
    • Using the DOF button, you can see what will be sharp in the final photograph.
  • 30. Shutter Speeds
    • The shutter-speed selector controls the length of time that the shutter remains open.
    • Understand that each progression represents half as much light as the preceding number. Common shutter settings are as follows:
    • 1 second, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, and 1/2000 second.
  • 31. Shutter Operation
  • 32. Shutter Speed Pg.18-21 Use it creatively
  • 33. Waterfalls Example
  • 34. Shutter Speed and Sharpness
    • When hand holding your camera, be sure that your shutter speed is fast enough to produce a sharp photo.
    • 1/60
  • 35. Film Speed
    • Film Speed Rating - ISO All film has a speed rating, whether digital or traditional. The ISO rating describes how quickly the film reacts to light.
      • Film speed uses stops, just like shutter and aperture For example, going from ISO50 to ISO200 buys you 2 stops more light.
  • 36. Film Speed
  • 37. ISO guidelines you can follow
  • 38. Trade Offs in Exposure Settings
    • Large and small apertures (small f/ratio numbers) are subject to lens unsharpness.
    • Aperture determines the depth of focus.
    • Long exposure times require a tripod, and will usually blur the photo if you photograph moving subjects.
    • Low film sensitivities (low ISO number) require longer exposures.
  • 39. Exposure Calculator
    • http://www.robert-barrett.com/photo/exposure_calculator.html
  • 40. Flickr Favorites
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/seanettles/favorites/
  • 41. So What Does This Mean?
    • Pg.24-25
    • Blur vs DOF
  • 42. Mode Dial
    • Basic Zone (Pre-Sets)
    • Portrait Mode
    • Landscape Mode
    • Night Scene (portrait) Mode
    • Black and White Mode
    • Macro (close up ) Mode
    • Sports Mode
    • Creative Zone
    • P - Program
    • TV - Shutter priority
    • AV - Aperture priority
    • M - Manual
  • 43. Mode Dial
    • Basic Zone (Pre-Sets)
    • Portrait Mode Use this mode when you want a subject in the foreground in sharp focus.
    • Landscape Mode Use this mode when you want a wide-angle shot with the background in focus.
    • Night Scene (portrait) Mode Use this mode when you're shooting a subject at night. Illuminates the subject with the flash, while keeping the shutter open longer to provide more light for the background. Creates a balance.
    • Black and White Mode Use this mode to take pictures in black and white
    • Macro (close up ) Mode Use this mode for extreme close-ups. Blurs the background, narrow DPF.
    • Sports Mode For shooting scenes with lots of motion, which you want to capture without blurring .
  • 44. Mode Dial
    • Creative Zone
    • P - Program - Program mode is much like Automatic mode - the camera will still do most of the setup work for you -- but it allows you to manually override some settings
    • TV - Shutter priority - used for manual shutter speed
    • AV - Aperture priority - used for manual aperture
    • M - Manual - used for fully manual control This allows you to manually adjust both shutter speed and aperture for the same shot, as well as focus.
    • A-DEP = Auto depth of field*
  • 45. Respond to Photograph
    • Pg. 170-171
  • 46. Assignment
    • Take a photo using the Creative Mode, and explain the effect on the exposure.
    • Reading
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/jnovek/2528932423/