Week 2: Aperture, Shutter Speed, Film Speed Joel Kinison
Check out more of Hákon’s work at PhotoQuotes.com and www.Imageree.com .
“ You’ve got to push yourself harder. You’ve got to start looking for pictures nobody else could take. You’ve got to take the tools you have and probe deeper. – William Albert Allard
Agenda Understanding the Process Basic Photographic Principles Aperture, Shutter Speed and Film Speed Share what you learned reading your instructions
Assignment & Responding to a photograph
Reading Review Pg. 9: What will you Photograph Pg.10-11: Using a Digital Camera Pg. 12-13: Types of Cameras
Pg. 14-15: Basic Camera Controls
Five Basic Photographic Principles
Basic Photographic Principles 1. Focus attention on the main subject Rule of thirds (tic tac toe) Placement of subject (Empire State Building – center of attention) Framing (we are conditioned to looking through a frame) 2. Simplify subject through focus Focus on the subject (eyes) Reading pg 9
Depth of field (aperture lowest number)
Waterway to Castle at Killarney – Scott1346 http://www.flickr.com/photos/bluecorvette/3921016569/in/pool-1200867@N20
Basic Photographic Principles Blurred, froze or panning More interesting and alive Blurring subject or blurring background
Freezing an expression (jumping in a pool)
Basic Photographic Principles Subject should be the most lit portion of the photo
Can be done in post processing
Basic Photographic Principles
Under saturate to emphasize subject
Recap Emphasize your subject by placing them off center Think about how your framing your subject
Making sure the subject is in focus
Aperture, Shutter Speed and Film Speed Joel Kinison
Exposure Settings International Standard Organization
The Window: Imagine
1 . Aperture is the size of the window. If it’s bigger more light gets through and the room is brighter.
2. Shutter Speed is the amount of time that the shutters of the window are open. The longer you leave them open the more comes in.
3. Now imagine that you’re inside the room and are wearing sunglasses. Your eyes become desensitized to the light that comes in (it’s like a low ISO ).
The Big Three
Aperture (f-stops) Aperture refers to the size of the opening inside the lens that the light must go through to reach the film. Aperture is measured in f/stops as indicated in the series below:
1, 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, 45
Depth of Field Used to describe the region in front and behind the focus point that appears sharp in the final photograph.
It is controlled by lens length, subject distance, and aperture setting.
Depth of Field
Shallow Depth of Field
Large Depth of Field
See the Difference
Depth of Field Preview A 'depth of field preview' button is one that closes down the aperture without engaging the mirror or shutter.
Using the DOF button, you can see what will be sharp in the final photograph.
Shutter Speeds The shutter-speed selector controls the length of time that the shutter remains open. Understand that each progression represents half as much light as the preceding number. Common shutter settings are as follows:
1 second, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, and 1/2000 second.
Shutter Speed Pg.18-21 Use it creatively
Shutter Speed and Sharpness
When hand holding your camera, be sure that your shutter speed is fast enough to produce a sharp photo.
Film Speed Film Speed Rating - ISO All film has a speed rating, whether digital or traditional. The ISO rating describes how quickly the film reacts to light.
Film speed uses stops, just like shutter and aperture For example, going from ISO50 to ISO200 buys you 2 stops more light.
ISO guidelines you can follow
Trade Offs in Exposure Settings Large and small apertures (small f/ratio numbers) are subject to lens unsharpness. Aperture determines the depth of focus. Long exposure times require a tripod, and will usually blur the photo if you photograph moving subjects.
Low film sensitivities (low ISO number) require longer exposures.
So What Does This Mean?
Night Scene (portrait) Mode
Mode Dial Portrait Mode Use this mode when you want a subject in the foreground in sharp focus. Landscape Mode Use this mode when you want a wide-angle shot with the background in focus. Night Scene (portrait) Mode Use this mode when you're shooting a subject at night. Illuminates the subject with the flash, while keeping the shutter open longer to provide more light for the background. Creates a balance. Black and White Mode Use this mode to take pictures in black and white Macro (close up ) Mode Use this mode for extreme close-ups. Blurs the background, narrow DPF.
Sports Mode For shooting scenes with lots of motion, which you want to capture without blurring .
Mode Dial P - Program - Program mode is much like Automatic mode - the camera will still do most of the setup work for you -- but it allows you to manually override some settings TV - Shutter priority - used for manual shutter speed AV - Aperture priority - used for manual aperture M - Manual - used for fully manual control This allows you to manually adjust both shutter speed and aperture for the same shot, as well as focus.
A-DEP = Auto depth of field*
Respond to Photograph
Take a photo using the Creative Mode, and explain the effect on the exposure.