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  • Even one of the masters in photography, Ansel Adams, didn’t expect to get more than 12 great photographs each year. How can anyone expect more? Take a look at your last year in photos – do you really see 12 photos that stand out from the rest?
  • Photography took over what previously had been one of the main functions of art – the recording of factual visual information. Immense in scale to create the effect of awe and grandor. Beirstadt freely altered details of landscape to create the this effect. "Bierstadt's paintings began to attract adverse criticism in the mid-1860s.
  • There had always been drawings portraying unfamiliar places, but they were an artist’s personal vision. The Pacific Railway Act of 1862 (12 Statutes at Large, 489)[1], as enacted by the United States Congress, was approved and signed into law by the President, Abraham Lincoln, on July 1, 1862. Officially entitled "AN ACT to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes," In the 1860’s the first transcontiental railroad was the greatest most daring engineering effort the country had yet seen. From Omaha to Scaramento the railroad crossed the most difficult terrian, which was considered “ruinous space” by a Boston paper. The road established a transcontinental mechanized transportation network that revolutionized the population and economy of the American West . Thomas Moran who was an established painter had not yet crossed the Miss River and arranged a government-sponsored survey of Yellowstone. Promote the newly completed transcontinental railroad.
  • Photography was a critical marketing tool for financing with transcontinental railroad bonds – both the CPRR and UPRR hired photographers to document the progress of construction. The camera equipment of the day was so large and heavy that a photo wagon was needed. Wet glass plate collodion negatives had to be produced in the field, required long exposures, and albumen paper required 20 minutes in sunlight to make photo prints. Thomas Moran worked with William Henry Jackson, the expedition photographer. Jackson was commissioned by the UPR to document the scenery along their route for promotional purposes. Jackson captured the first photographs of legendary landmarks of he West.
  • As a result of his efforts Jackson came back with photographic evidence of western landscapes that had previously seemed a rumor.
  • William Henry Jackson’s photographs of Yellowstone helped convince Congress to set the area aside as a national park
  • The first thing you see is the face of Half Dome, shining in the late afternoon sun. The low illumination highlights every detail. Across the valley to your left is the shaded silhouette of Washington Column. Between the two shapes, shining white in the evening sky, is the nearly full moon.     Ansel Adams found the scene at the eastern end of Yosemite Valley, in 1963, and reached for his ever ready Hasselblad. Parking his car, he took camera and tripod and walked into the meadow, looking for the exact spot where the three elements would come together and the composition would be perfect. Orange filter. Modest telephoto. Careful metering.     The photograph he took that day became a classic --certainly one of the best loved and most famous black-and-white pictures ever made. Today it bears the title “Moon And Half Dome” and is available in books and posters.     And for the thousands who visit Yosemite National Park with a camera every year, there is always the hope that they can duplicate the picture of the moon and the mountain. “The shot that Ansel Adams made!”     In his book, Examples; The Making of Forty Photographs, Adams tells how he made the shot.     If you want to try for the same scene, there are three elements that must come together for you to be successful. They are: the light, the moon, and the shadow.     The light shining on the face of Half Dome is the easiest of the three; it is present most days in Yosemite the year round. The face of Half Dome, however, looks nearly north, so the crisp, detailed illumination of the Adams shot occurs only when the afternoon sun has come around from behind Glacier Point and is shining up the length of the Valley. Your rule of thumb should be: don’t take pictures of Half Dome before 3:00 or 4:00 pm!     Close examination shows that the moon in the famous scene is less than full; it’s not a perfect circle. The sunshine on the cliffs confirms the fact; the full moon, which is 180 degrees across the sky from the sun, rises as the sun sets. Ansel’s moon is ten or twenty degrees above the horizon; it had risen an hour or two before sunset. If you try to duplicate the scene with a full moon, the mountain will be dark by the time the moon is high enough.      But the nearly-full moon does not always appear at that exact spot. Adams reports that he was on his way to the Ahwahnee Hotel to rehearse for the famous Bracebridge Dinner when he noticed the moon and the sun shining on Half Dome. He made his famous photograph in December!  
  • Geometric shapes – By placing subject at points of geometric shape helps balance the composition. (triangle so three objects in a frame positioned with one to each side and one more in the central) Diagonal Lines – draw the eye into the main focal point (path, line of trees, a fence, river) Rule of Thirds – can create dramatic and interesting shots. Gives balance Framing- Adding points of interest to a foreground is an important technique for adding interest to landscape shots
  • The theory is that if you place points of interest in the intersections or along the lines that your photo becomes more balanced and will enable a viewer of the image to interact with it more naturally. Studies have shown that when viewing images that people’s eyes usually go to one of the intersection points most naturally rather than the center of the shot - using the rule of thirds works with this natural way of viewing an image rather than working against it.
  • Early morning, late evening deepest tones. Try taking dozens of photos. As the sun sinks lower in the sky, larger particles closer to the earth's surface block shorter light wavelengths and scatter longer ones - hence the beautiful yellow and red light at sunrise and sunset! Sunrise sunset are a dime a dozen. Get a reaction from someone watching the sunset. Have them silhouetted. It’s better to underexpose. The colors will be much more vibrant and saturated than a photo overexposed. When light is barely visible
  • When doing night photography, realize that the stars and moon move very quickly. Depending in your lens length, 15 seconds can begin to blur celestial objects.
  • If light is present, limit each exposure to 30 sec.
  • One of the most challenging problems in photography is getting a photo in a dimly lit stadiums. Increase ISO Open Aperture Fast lens
  • hj

    1. 1. Week 8 Landscape Compositions “ Twelve significant photographs in any one year is a good crop. – Ansel Adams
    2. 2. <ul><li>If you truly love nature, you will find beauty everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>-Vincent Van Gogh </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment Review </li></ul><ul><li>Photo Fixes in Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Camera RAW </li></ul>
    4. 4. History of Landscape Photography
    5. 5. Main Function of Art Albert Bierstadt's Among the Sierra Nevada, California symbols of hearth and abundance http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/bierstadt.html#images
    6. 6. Union Pacific Railroad- 1869 <ul><li>Document the scenery along for promotional purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Moran – painter </li></ul><ul><li>Expeditions meant to chart the largely unexplored west </li></ul>
    7. 7. William Henry Jackson <ul><li>Worked with multiple cameras and plate sizes, under conditions that were often incredibly difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Coated, exposed, and developed onsite </li></ul><ul><li>Exposures were guesswork </li></ul>
    8. 8. William Henry Jackson <ul><li>Photographic evidence of western landmarks that had previously seemed a rumor </li></ul>William Henry Jackson, The Behive Group of Geysers/Yellowstone Park
    9. 9. William Henry Jackson: Tower Falls, Yellowstone National Park, c.1892. Albumen print
    10. 10. William Henry Jackson Mirror Lake, Yellowstone
    11. 11. Moon and Half Dome, Yosemite Valley Ansel Adams
    12. 12. Full Moon over Half Dome&quot; Yosemite John Harrison http://www.jharrisonphoto.com/gallery/2742949_XSVvV/1/146002306_L98mR/Medium
    13. 13. Overview <ul><li>More about Flickr: Organize </li></ul><ul><li>SmugMug </li></ul><ul><li>Review Flash or Not assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of Adobe Photoshop Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Guided fixes </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Break </li></ul>
    14. 14. Photo Sharing <ul><li>Online Digital Photo Sharing Reviews CNET Reviews: http://reviews.cnet.com/4520-6451_7-6245099-1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>Photobucket </li></ul><ul><li>Webshots </li></ul><ul><li>Snapfish </li></ul><ul><li>SmugMug </li></ul><ul><li>Fotki </li></ul><ul><li>Shutterfly </li></ul><ul><li>IFP3 </li></ul>
    15. 15. SmugMug <ul><li>Free, Power & Pro </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited storage </li></ul><ul><li>Backups </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy controls </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Brand as your own </li></ul><ul><li>Sell and make 85% back – includes shopping cart </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Moon River Photography http://www.moonriverphotography.com </li></ul>
    16. 16. Selections <ul><li>Selecting a part of an image </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selected area is like a separate picture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The selection can be edited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustments can be made only in that area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quick Selection Tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selection Brush Tool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magic Wand Tool </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Retouching <ul><li>Disguising dust spots, dust on lens and photo edge problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot Healing Tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healing Brush Tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clone Stamp </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. How to take landscape pictures
    19. 19. Responding to a photograph <ul><li>Visual Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Focus and Depth of Field </li></ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast & Tone </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Line </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul>
    20. 20. Elements of Design <ul><li>Yes, Landscape Photography is about: </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Thirds </li></ul><ul><li>Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric Shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Those patterns in nature, the elements of design are what we often drawn on </li></ul>
    21. 21. Rule of Thirds <ul><li>Guidelines for off centered subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Used by painters for years </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul>Ansel Adams
    22. 22. Rule of Thirds <ul><li>The basic principle behind the rule of thirds is to imagine breaking an image down into thirds (both horizontally and vertically) so that you have 9 parts. </li></ul><ul><li>With this grid in mind the ‘rule of thirds’ now identifies four important parts of the image that you should consider placing points of interest in as you frame your image. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Lines <ul><li>Horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical </li></ul><ul><li>Converging </li></ul><ul><li>Curved </li></ul><ul><li>Straight </li></ul>Ansel Adams
    24. 24. Cluttered Backgrounds <ul><li>Depth of Field </li></ul>
    25. 25. Infinite Depth of Field <ul><li>Ansel Adams </li></ul>
    26. 26. Not So Infinite Depth of Field
    27. 27. Fill the frame for dramatic effect <ul><li>Experiment by moving the camera up and down, side to side. </li></ul><ul><li>Tilt the camera to various angles and see what it shows you. Fill the frame with the object that interests you most. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of potential exposure problems. Consider bracking. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for trees and branches </li></ul>
    28. 28. Change your perspective <ul><li>There’s no need to shoot everything from a standing position. Sometimes sitting, crouching or getting higher can produce a more interesting shot. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Framing
    30. 30. Rick Sammon <ul><li>Top ten digital photography tips </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W1Unv6DPJiU </li></ul>
    31. 31. Color and light <ul><li>Great photography potential </li></ul><ul><li>Red is the most pleasant color for the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up your tripod </li></ul><ul><li>See more lighting examples at http://www.skychasers.net/ </li></ul>
    32. 32. Sunrise Sunset <ul><li>Be patient and prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Underexpose </li></ul><ul><li>Look for a frame or landmark </li></ul><ul><li>Again, use a tripod </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot! Shoot! Shoot! </li></ul><ul><li>Post editing is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Rick Sammon: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MesymjGwuHo&feature=related </li></ul>
    33. 33. Christmas Displays <ul><li>Auto mode setting for night or low light photography. </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to AV mode for more control over the shot. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a tripod, </li></ul><ul><li>Set the ISO to 200. </li></ul><ul><li>Set the aperture to f5.6 or f8 </li></ul><ul><li>Take a few pictures, adjust the shutter speed, and keep shooting. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Moon <ul><li>Best when the moon is close to the horizon and there is something else in the shot, like a landmark or a tree. Similar to outdoor Holiday light displays, shooting at twilight is best. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a tripod, and zoom in as much as you can. </li></ul><ul><li>Digitally enhance </li></ul>F 6.3 1/640 ISO 200
    35. 35. Night & Stars <ul><li>Shutter Priority - For many cameras, the maximum shutter time is between 1-30 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulb mode - Put the camera in Tv or M mode, then make the shutter speed slower and slower, until you get to the last one, which is Bulbs </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter will remain open as long as you keep the release depressed </li></ul><ul><li>Use post processing to bring out the light </li></ul>Don’t forget the tripod
    36. 36. Starlight <ul><li>If you want your stars to look like dots and not lines, the exposure has to be less than 20 Sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Up the ISO if needed </li></ul>
    37. 37. (10 minute exposure. Photo shot on assignment for &quot;Nomad in Alaska's Outback,&quot; April 1969, National Geographic magazine)
    38. 38. Fireworks <ul><li>Tripod and flashlight is a must. </li></ul><ul><li>Set your camera to Fireworks setting </li></ul><ul><li>Manual mode: ISO 200 (Cleanest shot), aperture f/8 – f/16 (fireworks are quite bright) </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter speed between 3 – 15 sec. Only adjust the shutter speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Find your spot in the sky…might need a wider focal length </li></ul><ul><li>Frame your shot…look for landmarks or people watching. </li></ul>
    39. 40. LIGHTNING <ul><li>F8 or thereabouts </li></ul><ul><li>100 ISO </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter Release </li></ul><ul><li>Tripod </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the most remote thing </li></ul><ul><li>When the lightning strikes, release the shutter release </li></ul>From Flickr: user Kuzeytac http://www.flickr.com/photos/kuzeytac/2763734090/
    40. 41. Clouds <ul><li>The most beautiful ones are the clouds above the horizon, close to the landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>At twilight or crack of dawn or after a storm these clouds may have astonishing colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Give intensity to the center of interest in the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>If the sky is expressionless, try to avoid the sky and change your prospective with creative space. </li></ul>
    41. 42. Moving Subject <ul><li>Leave room for the subject to move into </li></ul>
    42. 43. Motion <ul><li>Frozen Sharp </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred </li></ul>
    43. 44. Calmness <ul><li>A calm, windless atmosphere may sometimes be very useful for the landscape photographer </li></ul><ul><li>The wind alters flowers, leaves, trees, grass, lakes and water basins </li></ul><ul><li>It would probably be more cautious to use a tripod </li></ul>
    44. 45. Weather <ul><li>Bad weather may be very good for taking pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Fog, mist, snow or rain may give fantastic power and impact to some every day landscapes. </li></ul>
    45. 46. Geographical position <ul><li>Whenever possible, try to place yourself at north or (especially) south from the landscape you want to take pictures of, because you will thus benefit from lateral (shadows) light. </li></ul><ul><li>This sort of light emphasizes the relief and textures, the shapes and shadows. </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler Rule: 10 or 2 </li></ul>
    46. 49. Close-up <ul><li>The best landscapes are usually those containing a powerful close-up. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees, bushes, rocks, bunches of grass or moss, dunes of sand, flowers, almost every subject may be used to create a particular depth in the image. </li></ul><ul><li>Such a detail may give a three-dimensional illusion, which is very important for the impact of the image. </li></ul>
    47. 52. Reflections <ul><li>Peaceful waters offer perfect occasions for taking mirror images. This effect may be used in order to double the beauty of a landscape. </li></ul>
    48. 54. Consider converting to B&W
    49. 57. B&W Adds Dramatics
    50. 60. What does a picture tell you <ul><li>Put your camera away and enjoy the experience </li></ul>
    51. 61. POD - Lightning at Huntington Beach, Ohio
    52. 62. <ul><li>2008 National Geographic Grand Prize Winner, Josh Baldwin </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Wabakimi Lake, Ontario Canada </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nationalgeographic.com/grandcanyon/NV_PastWinners_01-2008.html </li></ul>
    53. 63. <ul><li>2007 National Geographic Grand Prize Winner, Tina Petrillo </li></ul><ul><li>Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nationalgeographic.com/grandcanyon/NV_PastWinners_01-2007.html </li></ul>
    54. 64. <ul><li>2006 National Geographic Grand Prize Winner, Jason Behr </li></ul><ul><li>Gokyo Ri, Solukhumbu, Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nationalgeographic.com/grandcanyon/NV_PastWinners_01-2006.html </li></ul>
    55. 65. Landscape Assignment <ul><li>Capture the beauty or unique character of an rural or urban area and post on Flickr. </li></ul>