Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power Solutions QR Code - Scan to LinkMessage from the PresidentKen Martin, President of Diversified Technology, Inc.As we at Diversified Technology complete our fortieth year in operation, I think back on many of the customersand programs we have been fortunate enough to serve with our products and service offerings. Our work hasranged from PCI and ISA based single board computers used as industrial controls at a canning plant to workingdirectly with the dedicated men and women of our armed forces in providing them with rugged computing andmobile power systems. All of our customer relationships have molded us throughout these forty years — not onlyin what we design and manufacture as a product, but also in how we conduct our daily business with thesecustomers and keep their success as our main focus.This publication is part of how we conduct that daily business. It is distributed to our growing list of existing andpotential customers in order to help educate you on a number of items we have learned through our years ofdevelopment work. We dont want to just sell you a product with the assumption you can resolve, if needed, anypossible operating intricacies on your own. DTI has a goal of 100% customer satisfaction which requires asubstantial effort on our part to provide full support with the products we sell. We hope these articles from ourteam members provide some of that valued support.Ken Martin Page 3 Diversified Technology, Inc.
QR Code - Scan to LinkVirtualization 101VMWare for AdvancedTCAVirtualization is firmly entrenched in the modern day computer Virtualization and Reliabilitylandscape. Due to its popularity, “virtually” every OS and A hidden benefit of virtualization is that it can allow for thesoftware vendor is offering virtualization solutions or products creation of a more reliable computing infrastructure. Beforethat are compatible or complement the virtualization platform virtualization, physical servers were usually purchased witharchitectures. extra capacity. Because of this available capacity and with the constant pressure to reduce costs, multiple functions would beWithin the virtualization space, Intel and AMD have carved out combined on the same hardware and OS installation. This cantheir places and offer technologies that enable performance gains create unpredictable operation and unforeseen interactions. Wefor virtual environments. Although there are solutions for have all had computers that work properly at first, but over timevarious hardware architectures, such as SPARC or PowerPC, the as more programs are installed, they become slower and beginfocus here will be on offerings for the x86 architecture to have unexplained problems. This is partially due to the factprocessors primarily from Intel and AMD. Newer processor that it’s impossible to verify and validate the endlessfamilies include hardware accelerations to allow for higher combinations of different software interactions.performance when running virtualization. For AMD processors,look for AMD Virtualization Technology (AMD-V) support. With virtualization, since physical hardware can be shared, youFor Intel processors, look for Intel Virtualization Technology for can install software in its own OS and maintain the freshx86 (VT-x) and Intel Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O out-of-the-box functionality. Instead of having one big OS(VT-d). For Intel networking products, look for Intel running multiple applications, you can have multiple singleVirtualization Technology for Connectivity (VT-c) support. purpose OS’s running minimal applications. There will be someThe virtualization offerings mentioned here are primarily for overhead in having duplicate OS installs, but the benefit isServer and Enterprise class installations. These are more suited reliable and predictable functionality.to the server nature and usage model of ATCA platforms andsystems. Many vendors have free and trial versions of their Hypervisorsoftware to allow you to test drive their products. Most notable Virtualization software begins at the lowest level with theare VMware’s ESX, ESXi, and vSphere offerings. Another hypervisor also called the virtual machine monitor (VMM). Thispopular choice is Microsoft’s Hyper-V included with Windows software can run directly on the hardware in a native or “bareServer 2008. metal” installation, or can run as an application within a host OS. Industry trends seem to be favoring the “bare metal” type of hypervisor installation. The advantages here are small and fast code that has full and direct control of the hardware. This software abstracts the underlying hardware and usually provides for network accessible control and configuration. The hypervi- sor can allocate the system’s CPU, memory, I/O, and storage to run guest operating systems. Connecting multiple machines running hypervisors, allows them to be centrally controlled and administrated with Virtual Machine Manager. Virtual Machines In virtualization, a virtual machine is a set of files that contains a hard drive image and information about the hardware required to run the OS. Within the VM definitions about the number of CPU’s, memory size, and storage capacity are specified. VM’s Figure 1: VMWare Infrastructure usually are also given connection to 1 or more physical networkPage 4Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power Solutionsconnections. A VM can also be given direct access to physical Virtual Machine Manager product that provides a graphical rep-hardware such as Optical Drives or USB ports. A VM can resentation of the virtualization environment.access a hard drive directly if needed for performance reasons.A huge advantage is that resource amounts can be increased or A Virtual Machine Manager such as VMware’s vCenterServer,decreased as needs change. Similar to adding components to a is a service that runs on a dedicated machine or as a virtualphysical computer, resources can be modified for the virtual ma- machine on one of the hosts. It will also require a databasechine. Some can even be added on the fly without bringing the server that is usually on another machine or VM but can resideOS down. on the same server as the VM Manager. The database is needed to store information about all the VM Hosts in the system asGuest OS Virtualization Tools well as performance and monitoring information. The databaseDon’t forget the tools. After you install an operating system into serves as a cache that allows for faster Host and VM control bya virtual machine, it will run but the performance may be the VM Manager. The VM Manger only has to send informa-sluggish. Look for Guest OS tools from your Virtualization tion requests to the Hosts periodically and not for everyvendor. This is usually a driver package or setup program that command or inquiry.you run from inside the guest OS. It will install virtualizationaware drivers and configuration utilities to improve the The VM Manager allows display and configuration of the CPU,performance of your mouse, keyboard, and video. They will memory, storage, networking, and every other parameter neededalso include utility functions such as time synchronization and to fine tune the virtual machines. The VM Manager includesgraceful shutdown. maps of the connectivity, performance graphs, and error logging. Alarms can be set to send email notification whenCloning and Templates specified limits are tripped, such as disk full, high CPUTwo other benefits of virtualization not easily possible with utilization, or host failure. The VM Manager can centrallyphysical servers, is the ability to clone or make templates of OS locate licensing control and provide set VM access rights toinstallations. Cloning allows you to make a copy of a VM. If a allow for departmental administration. Some vendors are alsoserver is needed for testing purposes or with similar functional- including open API support so third party vendor can includeity to a running server you can clone an existing server to additional modules such as backup utilities or extendedcreate an identical copy. This can also be used for backup graphing or monitoring.purposes or to save a copy before a software update isperformed. A cloned VM can also be sent via network or Resource and Performance Monitoringremovable media to another location. Resource and performance Monitoring becomes possible onceTemplates are similar to clones, except they usually using have your virtualization environment is created. The VM Manage-missing information that must be supplied when they are ment Server will allow for resource information collection anddeployed. For example you can template a fully installed OS, monitoring. Each host can be registered with the managementbut remove configuration information like network addresses, server allowing it to see how memory, CPU, and storage areregistration keys, or GUID’s. When needed, a new VM can be allocated. The Management Server can also collect perform-deployed from template. Just supply the needed configuration, ance data at the host and virtual machine levels. This informa-and have a new system up and running in the fraction of the time tion can then be used to move resources to provide optimalthat it would take to perform full software installation. configurations. For example, you create a VM based on the user’s initial requirements, and give it 4 CPU’s and 4GB ofManagement and Control memory. The VM is placed into service, and you notice that it’sManagement and control of the virtualization environment is really only using about 600MB of memory and the processorswhere all the magic happens. Most vendors support a command are only about 25% utilized. Using this information, you canline management interface. This can be used to directly control change the VM’s memory from 4GB to 1GB, and scale backa host or to allow for scripting to perform the same action on from 4 CPUs to 2 CPUs. This will give the VM plenty ofmultiple hosts. Scripting can also be used to simplify a repeat- resources to operate properly, and frees the resources to be usedable task, such as deploy another Linux VM for repeat for other VM’s. This isn’t possible with physical servers as theycustomers. However, command line control can be very are usually preconfigured, and if you guess wrong whencryptic and tedious. Thus most vendors have a centralized purchasing the server, it’s not possible to reclaim the unused Page 5 Diversified Technology, Inc.
resources. This allows for more efficient use of your hardware, Dynamic Resource Managementand lowers your operating expense because you can run your By combining Migration with a VM Manger, dynamic resourceapplication on fewer computers. management becomes possible. In VMware this is handled by their Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) feature. DRS runsNetworking on their VM Manager vCenterServer and provides programma-Networking is an integral part of modern data computing thus is ble VM migration. It can be invoked when starting a VM toalso important in virtualization. Networking configuration is determine which host to start on for even distribution. It canneeded to connect the virtual machine to the physical network. also be used for load balancing to move a VM from a host withAdditional network configuration may be required for manage- high utilization to one with more available CPU cycles, thusment service console connection, or networked storage such as keeping VM’s balanced and performing optimally. DRS canNFS or iSCSI. A network connection is also required for virtual dynamically determine if a VM is “Live Migration” capable,machine migration. Virtualized network connections can be and if not, power the VM down, migrate, then power the VMmade aware of certain network protocols such as VLAN tagging up on the new resource. It can also be programmed to onlyto provide network segmentation. Physical NIC’s in a host can provide notification of the desired actions, so that they can mesupport other protocols for NIC teaming (802.3AD), VLAN migrated by the network personnel.trunking (802.1Q), and information acquisition such as the CiscoData Protocol (CDP). Multiple physical NIC’s can be combined High Availabilityto support high-availability features such as NIC failover in the High Availability can be enabled in combination with Dynamicevent of a network failure or load balancing for increased Resource Management. High Availability is achieved when anetwork throughput. system is constructed with multiple blades yielding unused capacity. In the event of a host failure, the high availabilityStorage service will restart the VM on a new host. Special care shouldShared storage is critical enabling many of the key virtualization be used when constructing virtualization system supporting highfeatures. Since multiple VM’s can share a centralize storage, availability. Additional Hosts with available resources will beit’s important to have a fast and reliable storage solution. Shared required to run all the VM’s stranded from a host failure. Thestorage options include Fibre Channel SAN, iSCSI, NAS, and VM Manager will contain resource utilization tools to determineNFS. An important feature enabled with virtualization is the the necessary additional CPU and memory needed for a singleconcept of thin provisioning. If an OS is thick provisioned, a host failure. It’s important to monitor this fail-over metric over40GB OS install consumes 40GB of space on the storage time, for supporting more VM’s may require additionaldevice. But with thin provisioning and since the entire OS is capacity to protect against a host failure.contained within a file image, the file size is only as large as the Fault Tolerancenumber of real files, and then grows dynamically as files with Fault Tolerance (FT) is one of the newer and more complicatedthe VM are increased or created. This means that many more virtualization features. FT involves running mirror copies of aVM’s can share a storage media and allow the free space of each VM on multiple hosts. The VM copies run in locked step withVM to be used communally. As VM storage requirement grow, each other. As the active VM executes, memory and CPUmore storage space can be purchased and added to the available contents are updated on the mirror copy via a networkstorage pool. connection. A heartbeat signal is used to provide an alert in the event of a host failure. When a failure occurs, the mirror copyMigration VM is activated and resumes program execution, and a new VMMigration in virtualization refers to moving a virtual machine mirror copy is created on another functioning host.from one resource to another. Migration can be used to changethe physical host that a VM is running on, the storage that a VM Physical to Virtual Server Migrationis using, or both. Migration is simply a copy operation if the Physical to Virtual (P2V) Migration is a nice additional featureVM isn’t running. However, most vendors now support “Live to virtualization and is usually provided as a software serviceMigration” which is moving the VM while it is still running and tool or utility to complement the system. P2V Migration is theis possible once hardware compatibility conditions are met. The act of converting the storage data from a physical runningcopy is performed on the fly and the Virtual Machine only computer into a VM file image. This conversion allowsexperiences a brief pause when the switch over is complete. converting physical machines into virtual machine. This isPage 6Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power Solutionsaccomplished with software running on both the VM Manager connections, providing fault tolerant connectivity forand the computer that is being converted. The utilities scan the virtualization. The chassis switches connect the Hosts to amachine to be converted and replace drivers and configurations storage blade usually via iSCSI over 10G Ethernet. This sharedfor the physical hardware with their virtual equivalents. When storage allows a VM running on one Host to be moved tothe conversion is complete, a VM image is created that can be another host to balance performance or in the event of a hostran as a VM on a host. failure. The chassis switch also provides external connectivity using the Base or Extended fabric. The switch also allows forPatch Management VLAN’s to partition the traffic for security.Patch Management is an additional feature that can be handledby a Virtual Machine Manager. Managing and applying patches Virtualization is here to stay, and ATCA provides a spec drivento operating system is a common part of IT personnel’s job infrastructure to allow the creation of virtualization solutions.function. This can grow as more VM’s are brought into service, ATCA and virtualization allow for endless possible solutionand determining which patches have been made to which VM’s combinations. Diversified Technology has a wide range ofcan become a big task. VM Managers are starting to support board and chassis solutions, as well as industry partners toPatch Management systems to solve this. The VM Manager in provide a total virtualization solution.combination with the OS can be programmed to apply patchesto the specified system, during off hour operation, and even AdvancedTCA Virtualization Network Connectivityreboot the VM’s if required. This can greatly simplify keeping Dual-Star PICMG 3.0 Option 9the system up to date with the latest security releases.BackupAs expected good backup programs and procedures are requiredwith virtualized machines as they are with physical machines.However virtualization makes a new form of backup possible.Since an entire OS is contained within an image files, this filecan be backed up directly thus getting its entire contents.Alternatively, traditional backup programs can also be madefrom within the running OS, getting backups at a file level.Some vendors even include what’s called snap shot support.This is a method of saving a copy of a VM image, then record-ing a running list of changes. This can be used for rolling backa previous snap shot image in the event of a problem like a failedsoftware update. It can also be used for experimenting withsoftware changes and have the ability to easily roll back to aworking version.Virtualization and AdvancedTCAThe Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA)provides infrastructure is well suited for virtualization installa-tions. 2, 5, and 6 slot chassis allow for a minimal compactvirtualization solutions. These can even be mounted in ruggedi- Article Written by:zed cases for shipment and mobile deployments. On the largerside, 14 slot chassis allow for more processing boards or forredundant and fault tolerant options.In a typical Dual-Star PICMG® 3.0 Option 9 configuration,each Host Blade provides dual 10G and dual 1G Ethernet Patrick Welzienconnectivity in the backplane. These can serve as redundant Senior Software Engineering Manager Page 7 Diversified Technology, Inc.
The MRS-6 System is a tactical communications and computa- - Homeland Securitytional platform for rugged deployments that implements a single - Navtronics and Avionicshigh availability system architecture across all hardware and - Ruggedized Computingsoftware layers. - Command and Control SystemThis enables typical equipment manufacturers to efficiently - R&D Projects/Developmentexecute a wide variety of applications that require high speed - Military/Battlefield Communicationscommunication and computationally dense systems, such as - Mobile Command Center Applicationsadvanced methods of dispersion analysis, high-end vision inter- - Radar Data Monitoringpretation/ identification, aural detection and identification, RFspectrum analysis, locational detection, cryptanalysis, virtual - SATCOMthreat identification and dispersion, and probability analysis. The - Emergency First RespondersMRS-6 can also be used in WiMAX, IMS Applications,Virtualization, IPTV, RadioNetwork Controlling, Data- MRS-6 Systemcenter/ Network Operations, • Targa-6 Rackmount ChassisSecurity & Traffic Handling,Computational Clustering, • (3) ATC6239 AdvancedTCATranscoding and encoding Compliant, Dual Hex-Coreprocesses in rugged environ- Processor Bladesments. • (2) ATS1936 AdvancedTCA Compliant 10G EthernetThe MRS-6 represents cost Switch Bladessavings, and reduced totalcost of ownership can be • (1) AdvancedTCA Compliantrealized on multiple levels Storage Bladeranging from more efficient • 6U Roto Rolling Shock Rackdesign, harmonized logistics, Case - 20" Deepand less training to cost savingsdue to volume deployment and • ATA 300 Category 1 Airlinerespective lower unit pricing effects transport containerfor high end computer systems. • Water resistant
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power Solutions QR Code - Scan to LinkHigh AvailabilityES3 Software and DTI’s AdvancedTCA Switch Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP) R AdvancedTCA The most common design at the access layer connected to hosts is to use layer 2 switching only on the chassis switch with uplinks to another device most likely a Layer 3 switch thatToday’s network connectivity standards demand devices be able provides the IP gateway to the hosts. The AdvancedTCAto react to hardware failures quickly and with little loss of data. chassis provides 2 slots for switches with connections from bothDiversified Technology’s ES3 software has a robust protocol switches to all host slots. The 2 switch blades should also besuite that provides for high availability to the hosts within the connected together to provide for a redundant layer 2 path for theAdvancedTCA chassis while offering flexible design choices to hosts to reach their IP gateway in case of an uplink failure. Inthe network administrator. this case, the Rapid Spanning Tree protocol must be used to prevent broadcast storms due to loops in the network topology.The protocols that will be discussed in this article can broken The following diagram illustrates a basic design utilizing RSTPdown into 2 categories which are Layer2 (Switching) or Layer to provide a loop free topology with redundant paths between3 (Routing). The Layer 2 protocols covered will be 802.1W the ATS1936 and uplink switches (SW-A and SW-B).Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP), 802.3ad Port-Channels (LAG),and the ES3 proprietary Layer 2 Failover (L2FO). The layer 3 In Figure 1, SW-A will be configured with the lowest RSTPprotocols are Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP), priority and thus become root with SW-B the second lowestOSPF and RIP. priority and will become root should SW-A fail. Given default path costs for interfaces, port 0/1 on 1936-B will be in the “discarding” state as it sees the highest path cost to root. An interface in discarding state will only pass spanning-tree BPDU packets and drop all other traffic. The role for port 0/1 is “alternate” which indicates that this port will provide an alternate path to root should interface failure occur on the current root path. This enables RSTP to react to link failures very quickly providing a redundant path to the upstream switch usually within 1-3 seconds after an uplink failure. During normal operations, the path from the Slot 9 host to the gateway switch SW-A would be through port 0/18. If 0/18 where to fail, RSTP would change the 1936-B port 0/1 state from discarding to forwarding and MAC address tables would be cleared and re-populated with new path information. Packets destined for gateway SW-A would then be forwarded through the new path to 1936-B and then on to SW-B and SW-A. Figure 1: RSTP Operation Page 9 Diversified Technology, Inc.
802.3AD Port-Channels (LAG)Port-Channels or Link Aggregation Groups(LAG) effectively bundle many links into onevirtual link. Traffic across the LAG is loadbalanced across the individual links depend-ing on the selected algorithm. The algorithmsavailable are variations of source and destina-tion MAC or IP address. One of the most im-portant features of a LAG is the appearance tothe spanning-tree protocol as one link. Thismeans that the failure or addition of any linksto the LAG will not affect spanning-tree andcause a re-convergence of the protocol tem-porarily interrupting traffic flow. Figure 2illustrates a common design utilizing not onlyLAGs but RSTP as well to provide for multi-ple forms of redundancy.The protocol used to facilitate a LAG is802.3AD Link Aggregation Control Protocol(LACP). The primary function of LACP isthe negotiation of LAG groups with the con-necting device. LACP ensures that interfaces Figure 2: Port-Channel Examplebetween devices are configured identicallyand are capable of supporting LACP. It thendynamically groups similarly configured ports based on hard- Layer 2 Failover (L2FO)ware, administrative and port parameter constraints. The Diversified Technology has developed a new feature that takesgrouped links show up in the switch configuration and show advantage of the IPMP or NIC Bonding behaviors on servercommands as a single virtual interface or “port-channel”. LACP NICs to provide fast failover times while monitoring thecontinues to exchange protocol keep-alive packets with the upstream path to the next hop switch. This is accomplished byremote device to ensure that all interfaces are still capable of the use of line protocol monitoring (referred to as a “track” onparticipating in the LAG. Another advantage to using LAGs is the DTI switch) of a specified interface and tying this monitor tothe increased bandwidth between devices. With the optimal load the link state of the switch host port or ports. If the line proto-balancing algorithm selected, the effective bandwidth of the col of the tracked link goes down, the track status will alsoLAG is a product of the number of interfaces and the interface change to down. Any host interface that is tied to this track (CLIbandwidth. configurable) will also have its’ line protocol status forced down. The host IPMP(IP Multipathing) NIC monitor on this link willIn Figure 2, the RSTP state of the port-channel interface (3/2) on force the failover to the secondary NIC connected to a separate1936-B is discarding due to the loop in the topology. This is the switch creating a new path to the primary host IP address.same expected behavior as seen the RSTP example only with aport-channel interface. Unlike the previous example though, the The use of L2FO can eliminate the need for the connectionfailure of any single interface in one of the port-channel groups between the chassis switches. This in turn will not cause RSTPwill not cause interruption to data traffic due to spanning-tree to block ports and eliminate loss of data traffic during linkconvergence. The use of port-channels also enables the trans- failures due to protocol re-convergence. Not only does thisparent addition of interfaces if future bandwidth needs increase. provide quick failover if the uplink is lost but also protects against a loss of the entire switch.Page 10Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsThe time-to-failover (TTF) of this feature is less the 500 The tracking of a route prefix allows routing protocols to alsomilliseconds from tracked interface link state failure to forced have an influence on host NIC selection. The neighbor keep-shutdown of the configured host ports. This does not take into alive mechanisms inherent in routing protocols are more sensi-account the host protocol (IPMP or NIC bonding) operations tive to interface problems such as unidirectional link and highduring failover. These operations include detection of down NIC packet loss that are not detected by simple line-protocol statelink state and the sending of a gratuitous ARP from the standby monitoring. Port-channel or LAG tracking can use either linkNIC to re-propagate the MAC and ARP tables of the upstream state of the LAG interface or monitor the number of linksdevices with the new interface information. currently active in the LAG. The “minimum links” feature sets the required number of interfaces that need to be active in theTwo other features of L2FO are the ability to track route pre- LAG for the track to be considered in an up state.fixes in the route table and also track the state of port-channels. Figure 3: Layer 2 Failover ExampleRouting – OSPF, RIP, & VRRP The primary advantage of this design is the simplification of theES3 software contains fully standards compliant versions of spanning-tree configuration which now only spans a few devicesOSPF, OSPFv3, RIP, and VRRP. In the past, access devices instead of many network layers and has no blocked ports. Thewhere most commonly layer 2 devices only but with host IP gateways will be configured on the chassis switchesadvancements in routing performance in recent years it is not instead of the uplink devices as shown in previous examples. Touncommon to see routing to the host access layer. provide IP gateway redundancy for the hosts on the ATCA chassis, the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) is usedFigure 4 is an example of a possible configuration using ES3’s to guard against interface and switch failure. Also, IPMP or NIClayer 3 protocols in a high availability configuration. bonding is used on the hosts to provide automatic failover to the secondary NIC should the primary switch fail. Page 11 Diversified Technology, Inc.
Figure 4: Routing Example ATS1936 Switch With DTI’s third generation of Ethernet- based ATCA switch, ATS1936, the focus is on offering flexibility through 10G capabilities and multiple AMC sites. The market has come to rely on DTI as the Leader in AdvancedTCA switching, requiring a continuous drive to provide the performance increases required in today’s bandwidth-intensive applications; such as LTE/4G and other Next-Gen wireless and wireline infrastructure requirements, 3G Infrastructure, WiMAX, IMS Applications, Virtualization, IPTV, Radio Network Controlling, Data-center/ Network Operations, Security and Traffic Handling, Computational Clustering, Transcoding and encoding processes.Targa-6 Modular Platform www.dtims.com/atca
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsOSPF will be configured to form adjacencies on both uplink ports(0/18) and between 1936-A and 1936-B. A separate VLAN can be ES3 Software Supportconfigured between the two chassis switches that will only carryOSPF and routed traffic but contain no host ports. All other VLAN Diversified Technology, Inc. announces the release ofinterfaces will be configured as passive in OSPF with network ES3 (Enhanced Switch Software Suite) forstatements added for each host subnet. All VLANs will be carried AdvancedTCA and CompactPCI Switch Blades.across the LAG trunk interfaces to enable routed traffic to reach theATCA chassis from either uplink and then be forwarded to host portson either switch. It is important to configure a LAG between the Features Included with ES3chassis switches to prevent an individual link failure from isolatinghosts between switches. VRRP Object Tracking VRRP object tracking is an extension of VRRP that allowsSome of the more common OSPF functions that are supported by customers to define more robust failover conditions for VRRPES3 include but are not limited to: including link failures and route reachability• Stub, NSSA, and Totally Stubby areas• Redistribution of connected, static and RIP routes L2 Failover with LAG Support• Virtual links L2 failover is similar to VRRP object tracking but instead of• Filtering of redistributed routes working at the protocol level works at the interface level.• Adjustable reference bandwidth Customers can achieve sub 50ms failover times in the cases of• Area summarization (Area Range) link failures, route failures, and switch failures• Default Information Originate• Neighbor Authentication Significantly Updated Multicast Module• Manual costing per interface The multicast module has been revamped to support an updated• Passive Interface set of multicast RFCs and includes significant new features such as MLD support, simultaneous IGMP snooping andRIP can be substituted for OSPF in the Figure 4 example but has multicast routing, a IGMP querier, and SSM supportlimited provisions for route metrics in larger networks. Some of themore common RIP functions that are supported by ES3 are: Multiple Serviceability Enhancements Including• Redistribution of connected, static, and OSPF routes Utilization Statistics, Persistent Loggings, and• Filtering of redistributed routes Packet Traces• Configurable split horizon options• Configurable distance for RIP routes sFlow Support• Default-information originate Improved SecurityES3 provides multiple network redundancy protocols both at therouting and switching level. This flexibility gives numerous design IPv6 Management and IPv6 Support in QoS Moduleoptions when integrating the switch into the application platform.All of these protocols are IEEE standards compliant which ensures Significant more User Control over Protocol Optionscompatibility with multivendor solutions connecting to the ATCA such as LAG Hash Algorithmchassis. Updated LLDP and CDP InteroperabilityArticle Written by: STP Enhancements Including Root Guard iSCSI Flow AccelerationJohn RayNetwork Engineer Page 13 Diversified Technology, Inc.
GRID INTERACTIVE INVERTERS Gale-12 Gale-6 Wind Turbine Wind Turbine Synchronous Synchronous Inverter Inverter 12kW Grid-Tie Inverter 6kW Grid-Tie Inverter The Gale Series of Inverters Diversified Technology, Inc.’s Gale Series of wind turbine inverters are variable input voltage and frequency, high power inverters developed specifically to serve the wind power market. When combined with a tower-mount wind turbine, Gale Series inverters take the variable electric power generated and create pure sine, clean filtered power that can be sold to the utility. Managed by DTIs Green Power Technology, the Gale Series inverters allow a wide input voltage range with energy-saving low speed power mode to allow for smooth operation even at minimal turbine revolutions, and many other features designed to meet the specific needs of the wind power market. DTI’s Soft Grid Technology allows the inverter to continue to produce the maximum amount of power even during wind gusts that would otherwise cause over voltage on the grid. This is useful in rural locations during light local d loading conditions. This maximizes profits for the operator while preventing in annoying system resets. m/w s.co The Gale Series of Grid-Tie Inverters tim are fully-compliant with UL 1741 w.d The Gale Series of Grid-Tie Inverters was designedww specifically for the Small Wind Power Market 1-800-443-2667 | firstname.lastname@example.org
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power Solutions QR Code - Scan to LinkInverter StackingStacking Options for the Gale Series of Grid-Tie InvertersDiversified Technology, Inc. manufactures two sizes of Our competitors try to overcome the standby losses to the gridinverters at its manufacturing facility in Ridgeland, MS. The in the isolation transformer with complicated smart relays. ToGale-6 is rated for 6kW maximum and the Gale-12 is rated for further improve efficiency with our configuration, the power12kW maximum. But what do you do if you have a larger tur- curve on the second Gale inverter can be adjusted so that it doesbine/generator set? The Gale Series of inverters can be stacked not export power and put a load on the isolation transformer untiltogether in parallel essentially creating a much larger inverter. the input power exceeds about 75% of capacity of theThere is no limit to how many inverters can be stacked together primary inverter. This will keep the losses in the isolationin this way from the inverter’s point of view; however the util- transformer to a minimum.ity may impose a limit based on their capability toabsorb the exported power. Figure 1: Inverter Stacking with One Turbine Gale-12 DTI’s Wind Turbine Inverter with up to 12kW of Power OutputBecause Gale inverters are transformerless, they inject a largevarying DC offset back onto their input. For single invertersthis is the lowest cost and most efficient design. However, whenstacking inverters with a common input, an isolation transformer(which blocks DC) is required to keep the inverters fromdisturbing each other. Unlike our competitors, because ourinverters contain an integrated rectifier, this isolation transformercan be installed on the input side of the inverter instead of thegrid side. This means that power will only be lost in thetransformer when the wind is blowing. Another problem withinstalling the transformer on the grid side is that it defeats the Figure 2: Inverter Stacking with Multiple Turbinesground fault detection in the inverter, an important safetyfeature. Page 15 Diversified Technology, Inc.
Some customers will connect several generator-inverter pairs Stacking For 3-Phase Outputtogether at one breaker panel. The Gale inverter does not have Gale inverters are single phase output. The 208Vac version cantrouble with this at all. The isolation transformer is not needed be connected to two lines of a 3-phase grid. This unbalancessince the inverter inputs are not connected together. the 3-phase lines somewhat but any 3-phase transformers or appliances connected to the lines will tend to rebalance the lines.Some turbines require a speed controller that may provide DTI’s soft-grid technology will also help to keep the linesautomatic braking, battery charging, or a dump load. The balanced by backing off only as much power as is needed tocontroller keeps the input voltage from exceeding the maximum keep the voltages in tolerance. There is a special case whenfor the Gale inverter and the generator. These controllers multiples of three Gale inverters can be stacked to provideusually include the AC to DC rectifier and supply variable DC 3-phase power output. This stacking can be done with eitherto the inverter. The Gale-DC units accept variable DC input one very large turbine or many small ones. Each inverter willinstead of variable three-phase AC. The Gale-DC inverters are still operate independently, but again DTI’s soft grid technologyidentical to the AC input versions except that the input will keep the lines in tolerance.rectifier has been by-passed so there are no losses from sendingthe input power through a second rectifier.Gale-DC inverters should not be stacked with one turbinebecause the same DC offset is present on the input as with theAC versions. If you need to stack inverters when using a turbinecontroller, then do it just like with the AC input inverters with anisolation transformer and the input connected to variable AC. Figure 4: 3-Phase with One Turbine Figure 3: Stacking with a 3rd Party Controller Figure 5: 3-Phase with Three TurbinesPage 16Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsGenerator StackingSometimes customers ask us about stacking small turbinestogether and using one inverter. The Gale inverter has no trou-ble with this, but it is not an easy arrangement to get to work. Atthe very least, with nothing else to synchronize them, the fastestturbine will tend to “motor” the slowest. However, in most casesthe AC generators will never start because they are out of phase.However, if each small turbine is given its own rectifier then thecommon DC can be fed to a Gale-DC inverter. This will workbest if all of the small turbines are the same model and receivethe same amount of wind. Figure 7: Neighborhood Wind Example 1 Figure 6: Stacking Small TurbinesNeighborhood wind (house stacking)One inverter (or several stacked inverters) can be sharedbetween multiple houses, with several investors dividing theprofits. The most straight forward implementation would be toconnect the Gale inverter behind its own power meter, then splitup the profits paid by the utility company. However this requiresmaking special connection arrangements with the utilitycompany. It is also possible to connect the inverter to one of thehouses and monitor the inverter’s output, then use the utility’skWh rate to determine how much money to distribute to theother investors. This gets more complicated if the rate changesat different times of day, however 3rd party power meters areavailable that can do these calculations.Article Written by: Figure 8: Neighborhood Wind Example 2David JensenSystems/Compliance Engineer Page 17 Diversified Technology, Inc.
QR Code - Scan to LinkOn-Board Vehicle Power Systems30kW 120/208VAC Three Phase50Hz, 60Hz, or 400Hz SelectableDiversified Technology, Inc. developed its first OBVP system On-the-move operations already established for a vehicle cantargeting a HMMWV installed 10kW inverter. The initial provide free power to on board systems while the vehicle is indevelopment efforts focused on providing a power source route to its next objective.(vehicle mounted) for the Sentinel Radar System. Over thedevelopment phase, enhancements were added to the product Why is This Important?that included a vehicle monitoring and speed control system for Today’s operations in both Afghanistan and Iraq make it nearlystationary operation where power demands changed based on impossible and very hazardous to haul a generator and its fuel tomission criteria. These features ensured the health of the host forward bases. Mobile power offers immediate relief for thevehicle was always monitored and the system only consumed warfighter as well as local Afghani or Iraqi citizens as it relatesthe minimum amount of fuel while in operation. On the move to communications, medical equipment requirements, and foodpower capabilities were also designed into the system where it storage in areas affected by war. The best public relation workcan provide 7kW continuous, 10kW intermittent power, American soldiers can provide is assistance in these areas for120/208VAC three phase at 50 Hz, 60 Hz or 400 Hz selectable the local population by providing immediate AC power.from the same inverter. This system is rugged as well as waterproof. Today that 10kW system is being evaluated on several U.S. combat forces are realizing that the same powergovernment platforms for integration into deployable systems requirements are needed in the sea borne elements (Combatantto increase the capabilities of our warfighter. The 10kW OBVP Craft) such as fast attack, special operations, and littoral shipssystem is production ready, EMI tested and offered and boats. On the homefront, first responders to emergencycommercially or through GSA. situations or natural disasters have instant access to electricity critical to mobilization efforts and sustaining control centers.The next evolution for DTI’s On-Board Vehicle Power solutionis the 30kW system. Primary deployment goals for this systemare to be as light and small as possible with minimum timerequired for system integration. The system is designed tooperating when the host vehicle is in motion, stationary or fromthe vehicle’s batteries for low power requirements. Low voltagebattery monitoring capabilities ensure the system does not drainthe batteries lower than voltage levels necessary for starting thehost vehicle. The system will provide 4-wire three phase208VAC with true sine wave conditioned power(Total Harmonic Distortion < 5%).The 30 kW unit can be integrated on a single vehicle and canprovide power to the remote Forward Operating Base simply byuse of the mission designated vehicle as inverter host. The Previous Optionspower inverter system is designed for minimum space claim. It Currently, power requirements at this level are addressed by adoes not reduce cargo space already reserved for mission trailer towed tactical quiet generator (TQG). There are otherrequirements therefore removing the need of a secondary vehi- programs and development efforts underway with the intent ofcle whose sole intent is to provide a tactical quiet generator. This providing 30kW systems mounted on HMMWVs, but most aresystem offers fast set-up time for mobile mission venues. still in the developmental stage and require massive vehicle integration to implement this capability. Additional weight is aPage 18Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power Solutionsproblem, especially on vehicles with full armor kits installed. The product will also include a vehicle speed control system thatThis reduces the vehicle’s hauling capabilities by limiting will adjust the engine RPM to ensure the PMG is providing theoperational effectiveness of these vehicles. The DTI solution is correct amount of power for the applied load. It also ensuresbased on minimum weight and size to resolve those issues. that the engine RPM is not operating too high in order to conserve fuel.DTI SolutionThe DTI solution starts with a permanent magnet generator The system has been developed in a manner to offer a user(PMG) This provides the input power for the inverter as well as friendly system for both the user and maintainer. The unit offersthe hotel power required by the vehicle. The PMG is not an on dash interface board and brackets for ease of vehiclerequired for inverter operation when installations are required installation. The OBVP engages with a simple “flip of thefor Navy or shipboard applications. The DC source voltage may switch”. Installation can be accomplished via bracket accessoryoriginate from the high voltage DC bus available for that eliminating need for host vehicle configuration modification.particular application. Although this development is focused ontactical wheeled vehicles, the installation and operation of the Benefitspower electronics may be mounted on a number of host vehicle • No requirement to balance the loads during single phaseplatforms. operation • Provides power on the moveThe output voltage specification for this system is 120VAC • Waterproof constructionsingle phase or 208VAC three phase. This system design • Minimizes logistics space requirements aboard aircrafttargets 25kW continuous and 30kW intermittent (208VAC). or watercraft during transportationFrequency capabilities are selectable for 50Hz, 60Hz or 400Hz • Provides instant power to teams, patrols, convoys duringoperation, eliminating the need to have a different unit for dif- unexpected delaysferent frequency applications. • Removes separate fuel logistics for short term power requirementsPower quality will be in compliance with MIL-STD-1332B, AC • Provides on the move power for vehicle shelterutility Class 2A (50/60/400Hz). Deviation factor of < 2% per requirements.MIL-STD-705C, 601.5 phase – phase and phase – neutral. • Monitors the host vehicle without changing the hostPhase sequencing per MIL-STD-705C, 507.1. Regulation will vehicle’s primary wiring configurationbe in compliance to MIL-STD-1332B, AC Utility Class 2A for • Easy to operate and maintain. Solid state electronics thatall frequencies. are not affected by storage durationsThe DTI solution is designed to handle both resistive and • Green goal of reduced fuel consumption thru eliminatinginductive loads without interruption of power or activation of need of transport vehicles for TQG; ability to operate onprotective features per MIL-STD-705C, 619.1d. fuel the host vehicle is consuming while mobileEnvironmental considerations are designed into the system Summarycovering such aspects as hot operation, shake & vibration, rain, The system is currently in the prototype development stage as ofsubmersion, etc. as defined by MIL-STD-810. DTI has the the date of this white paper. Sub systems, including the PMG,advantage of using lessons learned during the 10kW system are currently being integrated onto a HMMWV test platform.development as it relates to packaging the design to ensure The next development stage is to monitor the prototypeoperation of the inverter is well within conformance of rigid sub- systems on a vehicle and test the system based onmilitary specifications. operational specifications outlined within this document. Implementing lessons learned during the 10kW developmentSafeties and interlocks designed within the system include program, environmental specifications, reduced size and weightover/under voltage, low fuel, high vehicle temperature, low of the system will be realized.vehicle oil pressure, over-current, override for non-safetyinterlocks and parking brake/neutral mode selection For more information on OBVP, visit:(for stationary operation). http://www.dtims.com/obvp Page 19 Diversified Technology, Inc.
Vehicle ReadyCertification Tests and Standards for DTI’s VPS-10K MIL-STD-810F The Department of Defense Test Method Standard for Environmental Engineering Considerations and Test Methods • Shock and Vibration, method 514.5, Category 4 - 1.5 meters, inverter was operating for the entire time of the Truck/trailer-restrained cargo, composite wheeled vehicle immersion. This exceeds the requirements of method 512.4 vibration exposure. that specifies a depth of 1 meter and an operational check • High Temperature, method 501.4, procedure II (operation), after the completion of the immersion test. climatic category hot. • Low Temperature, method 502.4, procedure II, operation, • Immersion, method 512.4, procedure 1 (immersion), depth of basic cold (C1), inverter tested at -36OC. MIL-STD-1332B Military Standard, Definitions of Tactical, Prime, Precise, and Utility Terminologies for Classification of the DOD Mobile Electric Power Engine Generator Set Family, conducted by the methods in MIL-STD-705B• Phase Balance Test (line to neutral), method 508.1d • Frequency and Voltage Response (Long Term),• Phase Balance Test (line to line), method 508.1d method 608.2a• Regulator Range Test, method 511.1 • Voltage Dip and Rise for Low Power Factor Loads,• Voltage Waveform, Sinusoidal Shape, method 601.1 method 619.1d• Voltage Waveform Deviation Factor (line to neutral), • Voltage Dip and Rise for Rated Load, method 619.2c method 601.4b • Voltage Unbalance with Unbalanced Loads, (line to neutral),• Frequency and Voltage Regulation, Stability and Transient method 620.1b Response (Short Term), method 608.1b • Voltage Unbalanced with Unbalanced Loads, (line to line), method 620.2BMIL-STD-461ERequirements for the Control of Electromagnetic Interference Characteristics of Subsystems and Equipment. The followingtests were conducted by Aegis Laboratories in Lake Forest, CA accredited by the American Association for Lab Accreditation• RE102 Radiated Emissions, Electric Field, 10kHz to 18GHz • CS114 Conducted Susceptibility, Bulk Cable Injection,• CE102 Conducted Emissions, Power Leads, 10kHz to 200MHz 10kHz to 10MHz • CS115 Conducted Susceptibility, Bulk Cable Injection,• RS103 Radiated Susceptibility, Electric Field, Impulse Excitation 2MHz to 18GHZ (50V/m) • CS116 Conducted Susceptibility, (Bulk Cable Injection• CS101 Conducted Susceptibility, Power Leads, Method), Damped Sinusoidal Transients, 10kHz to 200MHz 30Hz to 150kHz UL 458 Power Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems for Land Vehicles and Marine Crafts. (In-house testing)• Dielectric Withstand Test, paragraph 38• Leakage Current Test, paragraph 32• Output Short Circuit, paragraph 47.2• Grounding Continuity performed as pre-test for MIL-STD-461EPage 20Diversified Technology, Inc.
TACTICAL POWERFor Mobile Support On-Board Vehicle Power (OBVP) OBVP offers Electronic Power that is: Solid State Electronics (No Moving Parts) •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Physically Lighter with Small Dimensions •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• More Efficient and More Reliable •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Easier to Operate and Maintain ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••- DTI’s VPS10K is Now Being Deployed - Host Vehicle Monitoring •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Designed to meet MIL-STD-810F Environmental Specifications •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• The VPS10K System has successfully passed and complied with MIL-STD-461E •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Provides power to on-board systems as well as exportable power for off-vehicle requirements •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Capable of achieving power levels without utilization of a trailer towed generator approach •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Allows for installation that does not affect standard vehicle configuration •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Will operate under water •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Fills in operational gaps where generator power is required but not available •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Provides the soldier with more options in accomplishing objectives •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• OBVP focuses on flexibility, mobility, portability and durability www.dtims.com/obvp
Product Roadmap/Strategyby Doug Mays, Product StrategistToo many design and manufacturing organizations drive their product development via the engineering department. At DiversifiedTechnology we strive for market-driven solutions. This requires a product development cycle that includes heavy input not only fromengineering, but from sales, marketing, and the field team – those closest to the customer and who interact daily with the market. It alsorequires consultations with customers and prospects to help best determine the market need for certain product requirements and featuresets.To that end, Diversified Technology’s current projects are being developed for key markets and applications that have been identified as“best fit” opportunities. Through the coming year we will be releasing new products across our AdvancedTCA (new CPU and Switchproducts), CompactPCI (new CPU and Switch products), Alternative Energy (higher power inverters), and Mobile Power (30kW OBVPunit) lines. These products will be the result of many man hours of research and discussions, and they will provide our customers withaggressive advancements in their core applications.So as you’ve read through this publication, I hope youve keep us in mind for your future product needs. I enjoy hearing from ourcustomers and prospects as it relates to their application needs for products and features, so if you would like to discuss any of ourproduct lines, I would welcome hearing from you and learning about your organization’s needs.Feel free to contact me via email: email@example.comThe Employees are DTI’s Most Important AssetEmployee Spotlight - Paul Boykin Paul serves as Process Engineering Manager, supporting other DTI employees in doing their jobs effectively and efficiently. Currently, this includes new product introduction in manufacturing (PCB design review and AOI, AXI, and Selective Soldering programming), major equipment purchases, process improvement projects, and database/web application development for DTIs various processes. Paul joined DTI as an SMT engineer in January 1996 after graduating from Mississippi State University. Over the years, he has served as SMT supervisor and Repair Lab Manager, as well. Paul, his wife, Gina, and their daughters Lauren, 9, and Claire, 6, are members of Colonial Heights Baptist Church in Ridgeland, MS, where Paul serves as a deacon and LifeGroup teacher.Page 22Diversified Technology, Inc.
COMPACTPCI SOLUTIONS www.dtims.com/cpci CPB4912 and CPB4912V DTI Unveils 2 CompactPCI Blades based on the Intel Core i7 Processor and supporting up to 8GB of DDR3-800/1066 MemoryDTI Offers Full System Design and Integration Capabilities with Your Program Requirements. Call NOW for Immediate Deployment 1-800-443-2667 The CSB4624 from Diversified Technology, Inc. is a PICMG 2.16 compliant CompactPCI managed Ethernet switch. This 6U board has full IPv6 support, twenty-four 1GbE link ports and three 10GbE connections. (5) RTM Options
QR Code - Scan to LinkCompactPCI SerialA Next-Gen Architecture Brings Modern I/O to CompactPCITwo CompactPCI® (CPCI) specifications have been adopted The boards connect in serial point-to-point links, allowing for aby the PCI Industrial Computers Manufacturing Group Star Topology within a CompactPCI Chassis consisting of 9(PICMG) since 2009 and are making their way into the market- boards (1 System, 8 Peripherals), via PCI Express. The sameplace: PICMG 2.30 (CompactPCI PlusIO) and CPCI-S.0 chassis also allows for Full Mesh connectivity of 10G Ethernet(CompactPCI Serial). Both specifications define new rear I/O links. Therefore, in a CompactPCI Serial application consist-for both system and peripheral slots in 6U and 3U board sizes. ing of 9 boards or less and that does not require robust network management, the need for Layer 2/3 Switch blades is removed.CompactPCI PlusIO was adopted in 2009, but has been slow to CompactPCI Serial defines new, denser backplane connectorsunseat PICMG 2.16 (a 2001 specification that defined packet to provide higher data transfer rates. Contrary to current cPCIswitching in CompactPCI) as the basis for the majority of CPCI specifications, the plug connector resides on the board while theapplication deployments. Will CompactPCI Serial see swift receptacle is on the backplane, in order to prevent twisted pinsadoption? What are the benefits of transitioning an application on the backplane. The system slot populates six connectors, P1to CPCI-S.0? What obstacles will stand in its way? through P6, while peripheral slots only require P1. P2 through P6 are optional depending on the application and I/O desired.CompactPCI Serial offers a robustness of backplane I/O in both Of note is that in CompactPCI Serial, 6U boards and theirSystem and Peripheral slots: associated RTMs can be plugged directly into one another without the need for a mid-plane or transfer connector.System Slot Peripheral Slot While mechanically CompactPCI Serial is identically8x PCI Express Links 1x PCI Express Link compliant to the PICMG 2.0 CompactPCI specification (barring• 7 x4 links • Up to 16 lanes a change in backplane connectors), the topology difference• 1 x16 link creates an incompatibility in bus architectures. Therefore, a8x SATA/SAS 1x SATA PICMG 2.0 system migrating to CompactPCI Serial will require• SGPIO bus for • SGPIO bus for not only new boards but new backplanes and application hot swapping hot swapping architectures/topologies as well. Hybrid backplanes that can support PICMG 2.0 (CompactPCI), PICMG 2.30 (CompactPCI8x USB 2.0 1x USB 2.0 PlusIO) and CPCI-S.0 (CompactPCI Serial) are possible and8x USB 3.0 1x USB 3.0 may provide legacy functionality within specific applications.8x 10GBase-T Ethernet Up to 8x 10GBase-T Ethernet This is where CompactPCI PlusIO (PICMG 2.30) fits in – toOptional Hot Swap Geographical addressing ease the transition from PICMG 2.0/2.16 to CompactPCI Serial.by one dedicated I2C Bus CompactPCI PlusIO requires a new, UHM J2 connector that allows for newer, high speed interfaces while remainingOptional IPMI support compatible with J2 backplane connectors in existingby one dedicated I2C Bus applications. PICMG 2.30 is intended as a stop-gap migration path to CompactPCI Serial, and its rear serial I/O connectivity forms a bridge from legacy PICMG 2.0 systems to future CompactPCI Serial deployments.Page 24Diversified Technology, Inc.
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power Solutions This diagram shows basic CompactPCI Serial connectivity in a nine-slot chassis:The benefits of CompactPCI Serial are clear: robust rear I/O interest from more conservative organizations with existingcapabilities, PCI Express as a serialized fabric through the fat PICMG 2.16 applications, due in part to the costs associatedpipes region, and 10G Ethernet as a packet switched communi- with migration to a CompactPCI Serial platform. There is alsocations bus through a system all create a comprehensive and risk aversion among designers and manufacturers of Compact-modern processing, communications and I/O platform for the PCI products like DTI:CompactPCI ecosystem. To be sure, there will be early adoptionof the CompactPCI Serial architecture by organizations that 1.WHERE PICMG 2.30 is a bridge to CompactPCI Serial, andwould be characterized as “Early Adopters” – those who 2.WHERE PICMG 2.16 is the ubiquitous existing standard ofunderstand the risks but are willing to devote the resources CPCI deployments, andnecessary to take advantage of the offerings in CompactPCI 3.WHERE CompactPCI Serial requires a complete re-design ofSerial to solve existing problems and offer an innovative an application, andproduct based on CompactPCI. 4.WHERE P2 – P6 on 6U boards is “user-defined” in terms of I/O, andCrossing the adoption chasm to mainstream and widespread 5.WHERE any application can have any configuration of boardsCPCI-S.0 deployments may take some time, however. Current of varying standards with a hybrid backplane –CompactPCI Serial offerings are limited and there is only minor Page 25 Diversified Technology, Inc.
It becomes nearly impossible to predict any sort of “standard” It is nearly certain that CompactPCI Serial will see someI/O routing or usage model of I/O availability for prospective adoption and market growth. The high-speed I/O and serial busbuyers of the product as well as to develop a standard backplane architecture allows for vast improvements over existing appli-offering. It seems that in early adoption phases, nearly every cation deployments, and it will be very tantalizing for organiza-backplane will be custom to the user. tions that can adequately and innovatively use this availability of throughput to offer disruptive solutions to the marketplace.Therefore a situation exists where it may be difficult to puttogether a solution of interoperable hosts and peripheral boards Will CompactPCI Serial be able to cross the “Technologyfrom varying vendors. There is also a question of whether Adoption Chasm” and unseat PICMG 2.16 as the de factoprocessors available on CompactPCI will be able to adequately architecture of CompactPCI deployments? Perhaps. But it willhandle the throughput of the available high-speed busses. There be a long road, and it will take organizations that are willing tois already a limitation seen in another PICMG standard, invest the time and resources necessary to validate the standardAdvancedTCA, where NPUs are becoming more common and to their conservative industry peers. Those more conservativenecessary in applications in order to handle the amount of data organizations may, however, be left struggling to compete.flow. All of these issues create detriments to adoption of theCompactPCI Serial standard. Article Written by:To that end, the best solution for organizations that plan onmigrating to the CompactPCI Serial standard is to jump into ithead-first. Middling with a hybrid solution will prove frustrat-ing, costly, and risky. This is not easy for more conservativeorganizations to do. There are business cases to develop, ROIcalculations to be made, testing parameters and cases to bewritten, and most importantly a complete upgrade of an Doug Maysapplication. Product StrategistGO AHEADAND JUMP IN Simplify with COTS Intel and AMD Processor Based Modules designed to COM Express and ETX StandardsSmall Form Factor Building Blocks Call Today to Get your System “Application Customized” 1-800-443-2667
Providing a Cohesive Approach to Embedded Computing and Power SolutionsA Commitment to QualityDiversified Technology, Inc. - ISO 9001:2008 CompliantQuality PolicyIt is our goal to provide quality products and services that result in highly satisfied customers.All employees share this responsibility. By training our employees, complying with industrystandards, partnering with suppliers, monitoring business objectives and always looking forways to improve, we ensure this goal is met.Our Customer FocusDTI believes a satisfied customer is a repeat customer, so the focus is placed on delivering a complete product on time, every time. Ourtradition of supporting customers at every level is based on a technical staff dedicated to providing quick and complete solutions tocustomer issues, while the service department is committed to fast turn times on any RMA repairs that may occur. Using a formalprogram to monitor and analyze all customer satisfaction results, Diversifieds management ensures that all customer needs are met.Our ProgramsUsing industry recognized programs, DTI reaffirms its commitment to the ISO 9001 registration it has maintained since 1996. TheSupplier Management program practiced here at DTI emphasizes relationship building, early involvement of suppliers in our designcycle, and periodic auditing of suppliers to ensure the highest quality parts and materials are provided to customers. Our formalContinuous Improvement Program cultivates projects that will reap both short and long term rewards for the customer and is complimentedby our Reliability Program that tests products beyond their normal use, promoting their longevity in the application field.Our EmployeesDiversified Technology, a designer and manufacturer of high end technology products, recognizes a business success depends largelyon the quality of its people. DTIs employees are its greatest assets, which is why the greatest investment is placed on them throughcontinuous training and technical demonstrations. DTI believes that the growth of a company is largely promoted by the growth of itsemployees.Our ToolsDTI continues to invest in the latest technology innovations to advance the effectiveness of our employees and to promote qualityend-user products. Equipment acquisitions and upgrades such as Automated 3-D Solder Paste Inspection, Automated Optical Inspection(AOI), Automated X-RAY Inspection (AXI), and In-Circuit Test (ICT) are just some examples of our effort to maintain a first-in-classmanufacturing facility. DTI has also cultivated internal software development teams to create database driven utilities to improve theefficiency of production and service for our products by allowing real time quality data analysis and quick response to customer requests.Our MissionDTI has been in business for over thirty-six years providing high quality computer solutions to the embedded marketplace. As we moveforward, our mission is to provide a complete solution that still maintains the quality standard associated with our company. Page 27 Diversified Technology, Inc.