Parts of a sentence

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Learn the parts of aentence and then practice after. This is good for in class and at home. there are four short exercises at the end.

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Parts of a sentence

  1. 1. Live Free / Speak Free http://amerenglish.tripod.com amerenglish64@gmail.com
  2. 2. Understanding the Parts of a Sentence Understanding the parts of a sentence in English is crucial to your success in learning English.
  3. 3. 1. What is a Sentence? 2. Why Should You Know the Parts of a Sentence? 2 1 3. What Are the Parts of a Sentence? 3 4 4. Exercises
  4. 4. What is a Sentence? A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete idea. "She feels sad." A complete idea
  5. 5. These are sentences (they express a complete idea): I like to swim. Jane bakes tasty cookies. Mark will quit his job. These are not complete sentences (they don't express a complete idea): She gave me the. (What did she give me?) Will build the house. (Who will build the house?) Tony watching a movie. (Is Tony watching the movie now? Was he watching the movie in the past? Or will he be watching the movie in the future?)
  6. 6. A sentence can express: A statement. Example: You are tall. A question. Example: Are you tall? An order. Example: Be tall! A wish. Example: I wish I were taller.
  7. 7. Writing tips 1) In written English sentences begin with a capital letter. Correct: You are tall. Incorrect: you are tall. 2) Sentences can end with a period (.), a question mark (?), an exclamation point (!) or an ellipsis (. . .). Correct: You are tall. Incorrect: You are tall, Incorrect: You are tall . . . . . . . Incorrect: You are tall
  8. 8. Why Should You Know the Parts of a Sentence? Once you know the parts of a sentence, and how to combine them, you can form logical sentences that will be well understood by others. People usually prefer working with other people they can easily understand, so this is a very important quality to have for the workplace. Not to mention any other situations that involve other people! Moreover, once you master the parts of a sentence, you can easily understand other people's sentences. That can make you really smart! So go ahead and learn the English parts of a sentence. Understand them, and practice using them in properly constructed sentences. This can serve you tremendously!
  9. 9. What Are the Parts of a Sentence? A sentence must minimally have a subject and a verb. Sometimes the subject can be omitted if it is understood. In the following examples the subject is blue and the verb is red: Tom walks. We met Susan. They are washing the dishes. Lisa will arrive soon. She is nice. There is food on the table. Leave! (The subject in this sentence was omitted, since it is understood to be "you": You leave!)
  10. 10. There are other parts of a sentence you can use, in addition to a subject and a verb. Here is a list of the parts of a sentence (and other relevant subjects): (Click on the topic that you want to study) Subject Predicate Direct object Indirect object Object of the preposition Transitive verbs and intransitive verbs Linking verbs Complements
  11. 11. The subject is the person or thing about which something is being stated. "Joe is a good boy." Who is a good boy? Joe is. So "Joe" is the subject.
  12. 12. Examples (the subject is bold): 1. Ronnie finished his homework. 2. She was hit by a ball. 3. Spain is in Europe. 4. Pigs and cows can't fly. 5. Traveling is fun. 6. War is a terrible thing. 7. There is a mouse in the room. 8. Stand up! (It is understood to be you)
  13. 13. How can you identify the subject? To identify the subject of the sentence, first find the verb. Then ask, "Who or what (verb)?" The answer is your subject. Examples for the above sentences: 1. Who finished his homework? Ronnie. Subject = Ronnie 5. What is fun? Traveling. Subject = traveling 2. Who was hit by a ball? She. Subject= she 6. What is a terrible thing? War. Subject= war 3. What is in Europe? Spain. Subject= Spain 7. Who is in the room? A mouse. Subject= a mouse 4. Who can't fly? Pigs and cows. Subject= pigs and cows 8. Who should stand up? You. Subject= you
  14. 14. Simple subject The subject can be a single word: She is home. Or, it can be a KEY word and some additional words around it: The nice old lady from across the street is home. That KEY word is called a simple subject. In the above example the subject is built around the noun lady. The other words around it (the, nice, old, from, across, the, street) simply describe the noun "lady." Examples (the subject is bold, the simple subject is bold and blue): The cat is asleep. Many good people are leaving. The best student in the class only got a B+.
  15. 15. Compound subject A compound subject is a subject that is made up of two or more simple subjects, connected by conjunctions such as and, but, or. Note that the simple subjects can have additional words describing them The important thing is that when you can find more than one simple subject in the subject of a sentence – you have a compound subject. Example 1 (the subjects are bold, the simple subjects are bold and underlined, and the compound subject is bold and blue): Bob knows what to do. Daniel knows what to do. When we combine these two sentences we get: Bob and Daniel know what to do. "Bob and Daniel" is a compound subject. How do we know it's a compound subject? Well, it's because we have two simple subjects: Bob, Daniel.
  16. 16. Example 2 (the subjects are bold, the simple subjects are bold and underlined, and the compound subject is bold and blue): The fat cat is on the couch. The small dog is on the couch. When we combine these two sentences we get: The fat cat and the small dog are on the couch. "The fat cat and the small dog" is a compound subject. How do we know it's a compound subject? Well, it's because we have two simple subjects: cat, dog.
  17. 17. Some more examples (the subjects are bold, the simple subjects are bold and underlined, and the compound subject is bold and blue): Mom and dad visited us yesterday. Jack and Bonnie are getting married next month. My brother Kevin and my sister Jane are out of the country. A tall guy, a nice-looking girl and a black cat were sitting on the couch.
  18. 18. English Predicate The predicate is the part of a sentence that tells something about the subject. The predicate always includes a verb. ("Predicate" is also a verb that means, "to state something.") "Joe is a good boy." The subject is Joe. Now, what about Joe? He is a good boy. So "is a good boy" is a predicate.
  19. 19. Examples (the predicate is bold): 1. Ronnie finished his homework. 2. She was hit by a ball. 3. Spain is in Europe. 4. Pigs and cows can't fly. 5. Traveling is fun. 6. War is a terrible thing. 7. There is a mouse in the room. 8. Stand up!
  20. 20. How can you identify the predicate? To identify the predicate of the sentence, look for the statement about the subject. For example, let's look at the sentence "John went home." John is the subject. What is said about John? That he went home! So "went home" is the predicate. And as always, it contains a verb (went).
  21. 21. Examples for the above sentences: 1. What about Ronnie? He finished his homework. Predicate = finished his homework 2. What about her? She was hit by the ball. Predicate = was hit by the ball 3. What about Spain? It is in Europe. Predicate = is in Europe 4. What about pigs and cows? They can't fly. Predicate = can't fly. 5. What about traveling? It is fun. Predicate = is fun 6. What about war? It is terrible. Predicate = is terrible 7. What about the mouse? It is in the room. Predicate = is in the room 8. What about you? Stand up. Predicate = stand up
  22. 22. Simple predicate The predicate can be a single word: Jack left. Or, it can be a KEY word and some additional words around it: Jack left the house. That KEY word is called a simple predicate. In the above example the predicate is built around the verb left. The other words around it (the, house) simply describe the verb "left." Examples (the predicate is bold, the simple predicate is bold and red): The cat is asleep. Many people found this book helpful. The best student in the class only got a B+.
  23. 23. Compound predicate A compound predicate is a predicate that is made up of two or more simple predicates, connected by conjunctions such as and, but, or. Note that the simple predicates can have additional words describing them. The important thing is that when you find more than one simple predicate in the predicate of a sentence – you have a compound predicate.
  24. 24. Example 1 (the predicates are bold, the simple predicates are bold and underlined, and the compound predicate is bold and blue): Sarah baked some cookies. Sarah made some coffee. When we combine these two sentences we get: Sarah baked some cookies and made some coffee. "Baked some cookies and made some coffee" is a compound predicate. How do we know it's a compound predicate? Well, it's because we have two simple predicates: baked, made.
  25. 25. Example 2 (the predicates are bold, the simple predicates are bold and underlined, and the compound predicate is bold and blue): George will choose the color. George will paint the wall. When we combine these two sentences we get: George will choose the color and paint the wall. "Will choose the color and paint the wall" is a compound predicate. How do we know it's a compound predicate? Well, it's because we have two simple predicates: will choose, paint.
  26. 26. Some more examples (the predicates are bold, the simple predicates are bold and underlined, and the compound predicate is bold and blue): Martin lives in Italy and works in a school. She knew the truth but refused to talk about it. They waited for a while and then returned home. We all watched, listened and asked questions. Writing tips A comma is not needed with a compound predicate. Correct: Jack saw Kelly and offered her a drink. You usually wouldn't write, "Jack saw Kelly, and offered her a drink."
  27. 27. Direct Object A direct object is a person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb. You could say that the direct object "receives the action of the verb." "He broke the window." What was affected by the action? The window was. So "the window" is the direct object.
  28. 28. "The ball hit her." "He is making a pancake." What did the ball hit? It hit her. What is he making? A pancake. So "her" is the direct object. So "a pancake" is the direct object.
  29. 29. "Lucky noticed the bone." "The boy loves his father." What did Lucky notice? The bone. Whom does the boy love? His father. So "the bone" is the direct object. So "his father" is the direct object.
  30. 30. "She said the right answer." "She gave a gift." What did she say? The right answer. What did she give? A gift. So "the right answer" is the direct object. So "a gift" is the direct object.
  31. 31. "He got a gift." Additional examples (the direct object is in bold): Tim fixed the computer yesterday. I hated that movie so much. We built a castle on the beach. You bought the same hat last week. What did he get? A gift. Joan is doing her homework right now. I've made a promise. So "a gift" is the direct object.
  32. 32. Indirect Object An indirect object is a person or thing that the action is done to or for. The indirect object usually comes just before the direct object. You could also say that the indirect object is the receiver of the direct object. "He gave his mother flowers." To whom did he give the flowers? To his mother. So "his mother" is the indirect object.
  33. 33. "He baked his family some cookies." "Jack is telling them the news." For whom did he bake some cookies? For his family. To whom is he telling the news? To them. So "his family" is the indirect object. So "them" is the indirect object.
  34. 34. "Barney is writing Freda letter." "She wrote me a message." To whom is Barney writing a letter? To Fred. To whom did she write a message? To me. So "Fred" is the indirect object. So "me" is the indirect object.
  35. 35. "I made you this kit." "Susan is writing herself a note." For whom did I made this kit? For you. To whom is Susan writing a note? To herself. So "you" is the indirect object. So "herself" is the indirect object.
  36. 36. "He bought his friend a present." Additional examples (the indirect object is in bold): Tim made Joan a sandwich for lunch. I told you what to do. We built him a castle on the beach. You bought her the same hat last week. For whom did he buy a present? For his friend. So "his friend" is the indirect object. Joan is writing me a letter right now. I've made Shannon a promise.
  37. 37. Is it a direct object or an indirect object? How can you tell a direct object from an indirect object? Here are some tips to help you: 1) A direct object receives the action of the verb. In other words, it is directly affected by it. 2) An indirect object is the receiver of the direct object, and it usually comes just before it.
  38. 38. Let's have another look at some of the previous examples (the direct object is blue, the indirect object is red): "He gave his mother flowers." The verb is "gave." What is directly affected by this action? The flowers. They are given! So "flowers" is the direct object. Who receives the flowers? His mother. So "his mother" is the indirect object. You can see that the indirect object ("his mother") is located just before the direct object ("flowers").
  39. 39. "He baked his family some cookies." The verb is "baked." What is directly affected by this action? The cookies. They were baked! So "some cookies" is the direct object. Who will receive the cookies? His family. So "his family" is the indirect object. You can see that the indirect object ("his family") is located just before the direct object ("some cookies").
  40. 40. "Jack is telling them the news." The verb is "is telling." What is directly affected by this action? The news. It is being told! So "the news" is the direct object. Who is receiving the news? They are. So "them" is the indirect object. You can see that the indirect object ("them") is located just before the direct object ("the news").
  41. 41. "Barney is writing Fred a letter." The verb is "is writing." What is directly affected by this action? The letter. It is being written! So "the letter" is the direct object. Who is receiving the letter? Fred is. So "Fred" is the indirect object. You can see that the indirect object ("Fred") is located just before the direct object ("the letter").
  42. 42. "She wrote me a message." The verb is "wrote." What is directly affected by this action? The message. It was written! So "a message" is the direct object. Who receives the message? I do. So "me" is the indirect object. You can see that the indirect object ("me") is located just before the direct object ("a message").
  43. 43. "I made you this kit." The verb is "made." What is directly affected by this action? The kit. It was made! So "this kit" is the direct object. Who receives the kit? You are. So "you" is the indirect object. You can see that the indirect object ("you") is located just before the direct object ("this kit").
  44. 44. "Susan is writing herself a note." The verb is "is writing." What is directly affected by this action? The note. It is being written! So "a note" is the direct object. Who receives the note? She does. So "herself" is the indirect object. You can see that the indirect object ("herself") is located just before the direct object ("a note").
  45. 45. "He bought his friend a present." The verb is "bought." What is directly affected by this action? The present. It was bought! So "a present" is the direct object. Who will receive the present? His friend will. So "his friend" is the indirect object. You can see that the indirect object ("his friend") is located just before the direct object ("a present").
  46. 46. The Object of the Preposition The object of the preposition is a noun or a pronoun that completes its meaning. "The cat is looking at the fish."
  47. 47. Example 1: She is thinking about. This sentence is incomplete. We don't what is she thinking about. Here is the complete version: She is thinking about your idea. This sentence is complete. "Idea" is the object of the preposition "about." Example 2: Be careful with. This sentence is incomplete. We don't what should we be careful with. Here is the complete version: Be careful with the hot water. This sentence is complete. "Water" is the object of the preposition "with.“
  48. 48. Example 3: Emma gave the book to. This sentence is incomplete. We don't know whom she gave the book to. Here is the complete version: Emma gave the book to Ronnie. This sentence is complete. "Ronnie" is the object of the preposition "to." Example 4: Ronnie is doing it for. This sentence is incomplete. We don't whom is Ronnie doing it for. Here is the complete version: Ronnie is doing it for Emma. This sentence is complete. "Emma" is the object of the preposition "for."
  49. 49. Do not confuse the indirect object with the object of the preposition! Have a look at the following examples: 1. Emma gave Ronnie the book. 2. Emma gave the book to Ronnie. In the first sentence Ronnie is the indirect object. In the second sentence Ronnie is the object of the preposition. And by the way, these two sentences basically have the same meaning.
  50. 50. How can you tell if a word is an indirect object or the object of the preposition? If it comes just after a preposition – then it's the object of the preposition. If it does not come just after a preposition – then it's an indirect object. Also, the indirect object is usually followed by the direct object. The object of the preposition is not.
  51. 51. Transitive Verbs and Intransitive Verbs Not every verb takes a direct object. The direct object completes the meaning of the verb, but not every verb needs completion. For example: I built last year. This sentence feels incomplete. Something is missing. What did I build? To complete the idea I should add a direct object: "I built a house last year." Now the idea is complete. An opposite example: I ran yesterday. This sentence is completely fine just like that, right? The idea is complete, and the verb doesn't require a direct object.
  52. 52. Definitions Verbs that take direct objects are called transitive verbs. The meaning of a transitive verb is incomplete without a direct object. "She is drinking a glass of water."
  53. 53. Verbs that don't take direct objects are called intransitive verbs. The meaning of an intransitive verb is complete on its own. "She is standing." The word transitive comes from the Latin "to go across." Intransitive means not transitive.
  54. 54. Examples of transitive verbs (the transitive verb is blue and bold, the direct object is red): Could you bring an umbrella? They bought a yacht. I read all his books. He teaches driving. You promised to take us home. She plays the drums.
  55. 55. Examples of intransitive verbs (the intransitive verb is green and bold): Let's go. The kids are jumping. Sam is sleeping. We will talk tomorrow. He sits here. Her stomach aches sometimes after lunch.
  56. 56. Many English verbs can be used both as transitive and intransitive verbs. Now, what does that mean? It means that you can use them with a direct object, or without, depending on the sentence. For example: We won! We won the game! Both of these sentences are correct. The verb "won" is intransitive in the first sentence, and transitive in the second one.
  57. 57. Some more examples (transitive verbs are green, intransitive verbs are blue): Nicole opened the door. Suddenly, the doors opened. Will you help us? She never helps around the house. Jimmy runs a successful company. Jimmy runs very fast.
  58. 58. Linking Verbs A linking verb is a verb that connects the subject with an adjective or a noun that identifies or describes it. "She seems very pleased."
  59. 59. Examples of linking verbs: Be Become Turn Example sentences: I am a singer. (Am connects the subject I with the noun singer. The noun singer tells the identity of the subject I.) He is Jack. (Is connects the subject he with the noun Jack. The noun Jack tells the identity of the subject he.) She became angry. (Became connects the subject she with the adjective angry. The adjective angry describes the subject she.) Amy turned red. (Turned connects the subject Amy with the adjective red. The adjective red describes the subject Amy.)
  60. 60. Some more examples (the linking verb is in bold): I am Beth. You are a teacher. He is a good cook. He became a successful businessman. Lisa seems more tired than usual. You don't look so surprised. Dinner smells wonderful! If you were to take the linking verb out of each sentence, would you understand the meaning? Would you students understand the meaning? Possibly yes, but correct? No.
  61. 61. Important Many linking verbs can also be used as action verbs. Examples: You look terrible. (Look = linking verb) Look at me. (Look = action verb) These cookies taste strange. (Taste = linking verb) He will not taste the cake. (Taste = action verb)
  62. 62. Complements A complement is a word or a group of words (usually an adjective or a noun) that is used after linking verbs (such as be and become). The complement identifies or describes the subject of the verb. "She seems very pleased."
  63. 63. Examples (the complement is in bold): I am a singer. He is Jack. She became angry. Amy turned red. I am Beth. You are a teacher. He is a good cook. He became a successful businessman. Lisa seems more tired than usual. You don't look so surprised. Dinner smells wonderful!
  64. 64. English Parts of a Sentence Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Exercise 4
  65. 65. Exercise 1 Write what is the SUBJECT for each of the sentences. 1. Lisa found her hat. SUBJECT: 2. My uncle James won the race. SUBJECT: 3. We never eat meat. SUBJECT: 4. I wrote him a long letter. SUBJECT: 5. Jane is cooking dinner. SUBJECT: Check Answers 1. Lisa 2. James 3. We 4. I 5. Jane
  66. 66. 6. They will be back soon. SUBJECT: 7. He became very successful. SUBJECT: 8. The cat jumped on the tree. SUBJECT: 9. You seem surprised. SUBJECT: 10. Their teacher helps them all the time. SUBJECT: 6. They 7. He 8. Cat 9. You 10. Teacher Check Answers
  67. 67. Exercise 2 Write what is the PREDICATE for each of the sentences. 1. Lisa found her hat. PREDICATE: 2. My uncle James won the race. PREDICATE: 3. We never eat meat. PREDICATE: 4. I wrote him a long letter. PREDICATE: 5. Jane is cooking dinner. PREDICATE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hat Race Meat Letter Dinner Check Answers
  68. 68. 6. They will be back soon. PREDICATE: 7. He became very successful. PREDICATE: 8. The cat jumped on the tree. PREDICATE: 9. You seem surprised. PREDICATE: 10. Their teacher helps them all the time. PREDICATE: 6. Soon 7. Successful 8. Tree 9. Surprised 10. Them Check Answers
  69. 69. Exercise 3 Write what is the DIRECT OBJECT and the INDIRECT OBJECT for each of the sentences. If there is no direct object or indirect object, write 0. 1. Lisa found her hat. DIRECT OBJECT: 1. DO = hat IO = her INDIRECT OBJECT: 2. My uncle James won the race. DIRECT OBJECT: 2. DO = race IO = o INDIRECT OBJECT: 3. We never eat meat. DIRECT OBJECT: meat 3. DO = meat IO = o INDIRECT OBJECT: Check Answers
  70. 70. 4. I wrote him a long letter. DIRECT OBJECT: 4. DO = letter IO = o INDIRECT OBJECT: 5. Jane is cooking us dinner. DIRECT OBJECT: 5. DO = dinner IO = us INDIRECT OBJECT: 6. They will be back soon. DIRECT OBJECT: 6. DO = soon IO = o INDIRECT OBJECT: 7. He became very successful. DIRECT OBJECT: 7. DO = successful IO = o INDIRECT OBJECT: Check Answers
  71. 71. 8. The cat jumped on the tree. DIRECT OBJECT: 8. DO = tree IO = o INDIRECT OBJECT: 9. You seem surprised. DIRECT OBJECT: 9. DO = surprised IO = o INDIRECT OBJECT: 10. Their teacher helps them all the time. DIRECT OBJECT: INDIRECT OBJECT: Check Answers 10. DO = time IO = them
  72. 72. Exercise 4 Write what is the INDIRECT OBJECT and what is OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION for each of the sentences. If there is no indirect object or object of the preposition, write 0. 1. Lisa gave me her hat. INDIRECT OBJECT: 1. IO = her OP = o OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: 2. Lisa gave her hat to me. INDIRECT OBJECT: 2. IO = her OP = me OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: 3. James wrote me a note. INDIRECT OBJECT: 3. IO = me OP = o OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: Check Answers
  73. 73. 4. James wrote a note to me. INDIRECT OBJECT: 4. IO = note OP = me OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: 5. I am looking at the window. INDIRECT OBJECT: 5. IO = looking OP = window OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: 6. You should sell your house to them. INDIRECT OBJECT: 6. IO = your OP = them OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: 7. You should sell them your house. INDIRECT OBJECT: 7. IO = them OP = o OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: Check Answers
  74. 74. 8. We want to pay you for your work. INDIRECT OBJECT: 8. IO = you OP = work OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: 9. Why are they shouting at Tim? INDIRECT OBJECT: 9. IO = they OP = Tim OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: 10. I thanked him for his efforts. INDIRECT OBJECT: OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: Check Answers 10. IO = him OP = efforts

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