Must Must is a modal auxiliary verb.Must (subjective obligation) We often use must to say that something is essential or necessary, for example: I must go. subject + must + main verb
Structure of MustMust is a modal auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb.The structure is: subject + must + main verb The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to"). Look at these examples: subject auxiliary must main verb I must go home. You must visit us. We must stop now.
Like all auxiliary verbs, must CANNOT be followed by to. NOTE: So, we say: I must go now. (not *I must to go now.)Use of MustIn general, must expresses personal obligation. Must expresseswhat the speaker thinks is necessary. Must is subjective. Look atthese examples: I must stop smoking. You must visit us soon. He must work harder.In each of the above cases, the "obligation" is the opinion or idea ofthe person speaking. In fact, it is not a real obligation. It is notimposed from outside.
It is sometimes possible to use must for real obligation, for example arule or a law. But generally we use have to for this.We can use must to talk about the present or the future. Look at theseexamples: I must go now. (present) I must call my mother tomorrow. (future) We cannot use must to talk about the past. We use ”have to” to talk about the past.
Must not, Mustnt (prohibition)We use must not to say that something is not permitted or allowed, forexample: Passengers must not talk to the driver. subject + must not + main verb
Structure of Must not Must is an auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb. The structure for must not is: subject + must not + main verb The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to").NOTE Must not is often contracted to mustnt.
Look at these examples: subject auxiliary must + not main verb I mustnt forget my keys. You mustnt disturb him. Students must not be late.NOTE like all auxiliary verbs, must CANNOT be followed by "to". So, we say: You mustnt arrive late. (not You mustnt to arrive late.)
Use of Must notMust not expresses prohibition - something that is not permitted,not allowed. The prohibition can be subjective (the speakersopinion) or objective (a real law or rule). Look at these examples: I mustnt eat so much sugar. (subjective) You mustnt watch so much television. (subjective) Students must not leave bicycles here. (objective) Policemen must not drink on duty. (objective)
We can use must not to talk about the present or the future: Visitors must not smoke. (present) I mustnt forget Taras birthday. (future) We cannot use must not to talk about the past. We use other structures to talk about the past, for example: We were not allowed to enter. I couldnt park outside the shop.
Have to (objective obligation)We often use have to to say that something is obligatory, for example: Children have to go to school. Note that we can use the have to expression in all NOTE tenses, for example: I have to, I had to, I have had to, I will have to
Structure of Have toHave to is often grouped with modal auxiliary verbs for convenience, butin fact it is not a modal verb. It is not even an auxiliary verb. In the haveto structure, "have" is a main verb. The structure is: subject + auxiliary verb + have + infinitive (with to)Look at these examples in the simple tense: main infinitive subject auxiliary verb verb have (with to) + She has to work. - I do not have to see the doctor. ? Did you have to go to school?
Use of Have to In general, have to expresses impersonal obligation. The subject of have to is obliged or forced to act by a separate, external power (for example, the Law or school rules). Have to is objective. Look at these examples: In France, you have to drive on the right. In England, most schoolchildren have to wear a uniform. John has to wear a tie at work.In each of the above cases, the obligation is not the subjects opinion oridea. The obligation is imposed from outside.
We can use have to in all tenses, and also with modal auxiliaries. We conjugate it just like any other main verb. Here are some examples: subject auxiliary main infinitive verb verb havepast simple I had to work yesterday.present simple I have to work today.future simple I will have to work tomorrow.present She is having to wait.continuouspresent perfect We have had to change the time.modal (may) They may have to do it again.
must - to have to Modals - Explanation We substitute "must" with "to have to". Be careful: The negation of must means not allowed to. Affirmative sentencesTense Modal FormSimple I must play football. I have to play football.Present Do not use must in the SimpleSimple Past I had to play football. Past. Do not use must in the will-will-future I will have to play football. future.
Negations Tense Modal Form I must not play football. I am not allowed to play football. 1 I mustnt play football. Im not allowed to play football.Simple I need not play football. 2Present I neednt play football. I do not have to play football. I do not need to play football. I dont have to play football. 3 I dont need to play football. Do not use must not in the Simple I was not allowed to play football. 1 Past. I wasnt allowed to play football. Do not use need not in the SimpleSimple Past 2 Past. I did not have to play football. I did not need to play football. I didnt have to play football. 3 I didnt need to play football. Do not use must not in the will- I will not be allowed to play football. 1 future. I wont be allowed to play football. Do not use need not in the will-will-future 2 future. I will not have to play football. I will not need to play football. I wont have to play football. 3 I wont need to play football.
QuestionsTense Modal FormSimple 4 Must he play football? Does he havePresent 5 Does he need to play football? to play football? Do not use must in the Simple 4 Did he haveSimple Past Past. to play football? 5 Did he need to play football? Do not use must in the will- 4 Will he have to playwill-future future. football? 5 Will he need to play football?
ShouldI like coffee, maybe a little too much. I think I should cut downon coffee. My dad used to say that for a healthy life, you shouldeat and drink in moderation. In other words, you shouldn’t havetoo much of any one thing. I should have listened to his advice.What do you think I should do? Do you think I must follow mydoctor’s advice?
Today we will look at how to use should Vs must. Do you know how touse these words? Take a look at the paragraph above and then checkout today’s lesson:Should is an auxiliary verb and usually comes before the main verb inthe sentence. Should is used to show obligation. Must is also an auxiliary verb, but it is much stronger than should and is often used for orders.
Compare the following sentences:My doctor said that I should cut down on coffee. My doctor gave me astrong suggestion.My doctor said that I must cut down on coffee. My doctor gave me anorder.You shouldn’t use a cell phone on the train. This shows your obligationnot to use the phone.You mustn’t use a cell phone on the train. Maybe there is a regulationprohibiting cell phone use.You shouldn’t smoke in public places in New York. Not smoking in publicis a social obligationYou mustn’t smoke in public places in New York. Smoking in public isprohibited by law.
Should is used to show probability, but must is not used this way: The meeting should be finished by 2:00. Not, the meeting must be finished… The flight should arrive on time. Not, the flight must arrive…Must is used to show something is sure or certain. The train must be running late. I’m sure the train is running late You worked until 10 last night! You must be tired. I’m sure you are tired.
Should is used with the past participle (pp) to show what was supposed tohappen, but it didn’t: The meeting should have finished by 2:00. But, the meeting didn’t finish by 2:00. I should have called before I left the house. But I didn’t call before I left the house.Must is also used with the past participle (pp) when we want to showcertainty about the past The meeting must have finished by 2:00. I’m sure it finished by 2:00. I must have left my wallet at home. I’m sure I left my wallet at home.
Need vs MustNeed can be used as an ordinary verb and as a modal verb. The modalverb does not change its tense. It is most common to use the negative. Modal verbs: You need not worry, you will be all right. You need not speak so loudly. Ordinary Verb: I need a drink.
So Need usually, please correct me if I am mistaken, talks about whetheror not there is a need or reason to do what you are doing. The negative,as said, being common, can give permission not do to something and cansay that there is little reason to do like you are doing. You need not whisper. You need not cut the grass. However, Must and Need can be similar in the following sentences: I must meet Susanne. I need to meet Susanne. I would put forward, yet to be discussed, that NEED has notion of the speaker deciding, whereas MUST, as well as HAVE TO talk about a, most likely external, obligation.Well, I should stop for today. You must be tired from studying so hard. Ihope you enjoyed today’s lesson…see you next time!
Quiz TimeDirections Read each sentence carefully, then decide which answer best fills in the sentence. Remember only one answer is correct. Click on your choice. Are you ready??? No! Yes!
1. Yesterday I ……………………finish my Geography project. a. must b. mustn’t c. had to2. She will ……………..wait in line like everyone else. a. must b. have to c. has to3. All employees …………………….on time for work. a. must be b. mustn’t c. have to
4. We …………………………..forget to take the chicken out of the freezer. a. have to not b. must c. mustn’t5. If you are under 13 you ………………….to get your parents permission. a. have b. must c. mustn’t 6. Your daughter may ………………….try on a few different sizes. a. have to b. had to c. must
7. The doctor …………………get here as soon as he can. a. must b. mustn’t c. have to8. Do you …………………………..work next weekend? a. have to b. must c. mustn’t9. Bicyclists ……………………….remember to signal when they turn. a. mustn’t b. must c. has to
10. Angela, you ……………………. leave your clothes all over the floor like this. a. mustn’t b. must c. have to How did you do?