Turkey's indigenous wine varieties 1025notes


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Turkey's indigenous wine varieties 1025notes

  1. 1. Welcome to what I hope will be a stimulating look at the spectrum of Turkey’s moreimportant indigenous varieties.I spent a month last year driving 7000km around the country visiting most keyregions, producers and many intriguing archaeological and other historical sites thatbear relevance to our book: Divine Vintage: Following theWine Trail from Genesis tothe Modern Age, which is officially published on 13 November.Most of the images and, virtually all of the material we will discuss derive from mylast 3 years or so intensive look at Turkey’s modern wines and ancient geographybased on 4 trips here. I am of course indebted to Wines of Turkey, Taner ÖgütoglüDirector, and for a lot of the backround research, certainly Patrick Mcgovern and JoséVouillamoz works.We will look in turn during this program at;•The basic geography of Turkey which influences the climate and where grapes aregrown•Turkey’s role as a key protagonist in the domestication of wine grapes and relevanceto today’s wines.•The modern turkish grapes of importance and their chief characteristics•And lastly, taste through a range of wines I have chosen that will illustrate theircharacter, style and quality.Questions are welcome throughout, of course.Let ‘s start with this photo. ... Noah supposedly landed the Ark here and planted hisvineyard near Mt Ararat! .These vineyards are on the northern side of the mountain, facing Armenia, butillustrate that wine and grapes in this area is not just a mythical notionIn Biblical times, Turkey/Asia Minor was a major supplier of wine, and great quantities 1
  2. 2. As in France, the fine wine regions of Turkey are spread the length and breadth of thecountry West of Istanbul and along the Aegean seacoast, the climate is Mediterranean andmoderate. Moving eastward the climate becomes colder, and harsh continental conditionsprevail in the interior Anatolian regions, from Ankara in the northwest to Diyarbakir and Mardin in the southeast. Highland regions around Denizli/Güney, east of Izmir, are Mediterranean at the lowerelevations andsemicontinental at the higher elevations—hot summers, cold winters, and littlerainfall.While western Turkey’s vineyards have limestone-rich soils, central Anatolia typicallyhas volcanic soils. Many areas feature terra rossa, the iron-laden gritty soils with finesand that were created from the erosion of iron-rich, ancient limestone seabeds.Virtually all the better Turkish vineyards are located several hundred feet or metersabove sea level and have poor soils withexcellent drainage, which can be stressful to the vines in hotter years. 2
  3. 3. I use this map merely to indicate that When you Compare an ancient map of Turkeythat shows wine regions with a modern map of grape-growing areas and the locationof top producers today, you will find a high degree of correlation.Ancient Turkey produced fine wines primarily along the Aegean and Mediterraneancoasts. Outposts of quality wines can be found in Kapadokya ( Cappadocia) and nearfamous southern and eastern cities like Zeugma on the Euphrates and areas aroundAntakya (ancient Antioch). 3
  4. 4. This map from Vouillamoz’ presentation last year illustrates further the importance ofSE Turkey/Anatolia as a “cradle of civilization”, if you will, for everything fromlanguage, to wine, domesticated plants and establishment of human settlements.Archaeological, paleo-botanical and other research supports the hypothesis that SETurkey was one of the most unique places on earth where all of these aspects cametogether. 4
  5. 5. This diagram I have taken from José Vouillamoz et al’s study:Genetic characterization and relationshipsof traditional grape cultivars fromTranscaucasia and AnatoliaJose´ F. Vouillamoz1*, Patrick E. McGovern2, Ali Ergul3,Go¨khan So¨ylemezog˘lu4, Giorgi Tevzadze5, Carole P. Meredith6and M. Stella Grando1 (2006 Plant Genetic Resources 4(2); 144–158The key point is that there are a number of current cultivars being grown in westernEurope whose ancestral roots are linked to indigenous wild and cultivated ones inTurkey, Georgia and Armenia. The research for the Turkish share of these is on-going 5
  6. 6. Taking Vouillamoz’s work I created for our book this map that puts the area of originaldomestication including much of SE Turkey into the wider regional context of majorwine growing regions of ancient Turkey, the Levant, to provide a historical context forwhere modern Turkish wines, and the key cultivars are grown, as noted on the nextmaps.If one were to over lap this map with that of modern Turkey, it comes as no surprisethat many of the most famous ancient vineyards are the foundation zones for today’sas well 6
  7. 7. Turkey does not yet have a formal Appellation System for their wine regions. Yetthere are a number of areas that are effectively considered as such, like Tokat orGüney/Denizli. We will refer to them regularly in our discussion. What is clear fromthis map is that like California, Turkey is a vast winegrowing country, and that onecannot speak holistically of Turkey’s “vintage conditions” for example, given thenearly 1050 miles /1700 km distance from east to west and half that distance northto south.But we can group the key zones into Regions, such as the Thrace area in the NW oreastern Anatolia districts, which share general climatic conditions in large part,geological attributes perhaps a bit less so, and increasingly, diverse varieties. 7
  8. 8. Turkey has twelve hundred to fifteen hundred indigenous grape varieties, six to eighthundred of which are genetically different. There are about 60 which can used forwine production, but effectively, only about25 of the indigenous varieties are used insignificant quantities. Of these, there are really the 8 noted on this map of realsignificance, and really just the five we are focusing on for quality wines. 8
  9. 9. A comparative view of the key varieties and a couple more of definite interest 9
  10. 10. Emir means order or command in Turkish. Originally from central Kapadokya, emir produces a crisp, lively, dry white wine withherbal, green melon, or apple flavors; with age it takes on a buttery note like chardonnay. Emir is traditionally grown as a bushvine; it lies low to the ground and is not trellised. Some vines are one hundred years old.Cappodocia, the climate is continental, with desert-like rainfall of 12 to 16 inches (300 to 400 mm), cold snowy winters, and a lotof wind; it is located nearly 3,300 feet (1,000 m) above sea level and has decomposed calcareous loam-clay soils over volcanicrock that are quite poor and free drainingHüseyin Yazgan, who was born in Greece, established one of Turkey’s oldest and largest wineries in Izmir in 1943. He movedthere during the great exchange of populations between Turkey and Greece in the 1920s and 1930s.WINERY : Yazgan ESTABLISHED : 1943 WINE MAKER : Mr. Antoine Bastide d’IzardWINE : Yazgan Emir TYPE (color) : White VINTAGE : 2011GRAPES : EmirREGION : Cappadocia SUBREGION : Nevsehir ALCOHOL LEVEL : 12%FIRST VINTAGE : 2010 MEDALS :Masters of Wine 2012, 88 points PRODUCTION QUANTITY: 30000 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): ContractedSOIL :YIELD : 70 hl/ha PICKING DATES : 16/10/2011VINIFICATIONFERMENTATION : In stainless steel FERMENTATION TEMP: 17°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): CulturedBARREL AGEING : NoneTOTAL ACIDITY : 3.6 g/l (in sulfuric acid) VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0.27 g/l PH : 3.47 SUGAR : 2.9 g/l TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 31/89RELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C:CLOSURE TYPE : Synthetic corkTASTING NOTESCOLOUR : Light straw colourAROMA : Peach, pear, apricot aromas 10
  11. 11. Yapıncak is an indigenous variety that is native to Şarköy area in Thrace.Paşaeli is a family owned estate that was founded by Seyit Karagözoğlu in 2000.Recognizing the potential of Kaynaklar (near Izmir) as an area of exceptionalviticultural promise, and with the help of an Italian based friend and consultantAndrea Paoletti, he took on the challenge. After careful site studies and mapping, theappropriate rootstocks and varieties (with appropriate clones) were chosen and avineyard was planted in March of 2002. Serez vineyard is located 20 km from İzmir. Itswarm Aegean climate is balanced with cool night airs that are chanelled from near byNif Mountain. It is a site that is perfectly suited to big Bordeaux style wines. Thewines reflect the terroir that is Kaynaklar, the warm Aegean climate delivering rich,mature fruit with ripe rounded tannins. Paşaeli wines emphasize fruit intensity, andbalance. Lush and enticing upon release, they will age well for a number of years andwill continue to develop complexity with cellaring.Seyit Karagözoğlu also believes strongly in the potential of indigenous varieties ofTurkey. So for the next challenge Hoşköy (near Tekirdağ) was selected, as itspotential for the production of wines of noteworthy quality was well known for manyyears. And various indigenous varieties have existed there for centuries. After manysite studies an exceptional site was purchased. Plantation started in 2003 andcontinued in 2004 and 2005. This terroir delivers delicious wines that are balanced,and complex but also elegant. They too will age well for many years.Hoşköy, TekirdağOur vineyards in Hoşköy have partly clay and limy soil with high mineral content. Theyare at an altitude of 140 meters, and open to the winds blowing from Sea ofMarmara.It has a pale gold colour. It was fermented at 17C for 21 days. It was kept “sur lie” for3 months with 2 “batonnage” a week. And it was partially barrel aged for 3 months to 11
  12. 12. Narince means “delicate”/ Narince, originally from the Tokat region in north-central Turkey near the Black Sea. In character itseems to be a composite of sauvignon blanc, the rare Italian variety arneis, and Spanish albariño. We find citrus, pink grapefruit,herbal and mineral or chalky flavors with excellent fresh acidity and crisp finish.Vineyards in Tokat are around 500-750m. Kazova district of Tokat is considered one of the best zones west of the city, but Erbaaarea to northeast also quite good, but rather lower. And milder temperatures around 300m.The vineyards around Kalecik are higher altitude, closer to 670+m near the Red River.WINERY : Vinkara ESTABLISHED : 2003 WINE MAKER : Tuna lacinWINE : reserve narince 2010 GRAPES : 100 % narinceREGION : ankara/ tokat SUBREGION : kalecik/ erbaa ALCOHOL LEVEL : 13,5FIRST VINTAGE : 2010MEDALS : mundus vini, germany, 2012, goldPRODUCTION QUANTITY : 2300 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE) : contracted 15 years old & owned 8 years old SOIL : owned vineyard :clayish loamy gritty; contracted vineyard : gravel, stone, clay YIELD : …7000. kg/ha PICKING DATES : 27 /09/2010VINIFICATION FERMENTATION : fermented and matured in barrels with "élevage surlies“ FERMENTATION TEMP : 15-17°C YEASTTYPE (WILD/CULTURED) : cultured BARREL AGEING : 14 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : french oak (225 L) / mediumtoastTOTAL ACIDITY : 5,08 VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,42 PH : 3,42 SUGAR : 3,27 TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 121RELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C : 0,9932CLOSURE TYPE : natural cork TASTING NOTESCOLOUR : bright yellowAROMA : it has tropical fruit, apricot, grapefruit aromas and buttery aromasare apparent due to the sur lie method used at the aging process in 12
  13. 13. In the second millennium BCE Hittite kings ruled from their capital of Hattuşa, which was about 130 miles (200 km) from Ankara;Kalecik is a little less than half way between the Ankara and Hattusa. They ruled an empire that extended from Europe east toPersia and south to Egypt.The climate is continental, so the cool nights of its higher altitudes, 2,000 to 3,900 feet (600 to 1,200 m), temper the propensitytoward hot summer daytime temperatures. The low rainfall helps alleviate strong fungal pressure on vines and forces them towork harder by growing deeper roots to seek water.Throughout Anatolia, including Vinkara’s location an hour east of Ankara, strong northern winds cool things down and retardvine maturation. Yet summers are harshly hot and winters deadly cold, with icy winds and snow.Kalecik, home to this winery, is at a slightly lower altitude (650m)and is warmer than Ankara, because it is surrounded bymountains to the west that rise 6,500 feet (2,000 m). Its weather also is moderated by its proximity to the Red River. Much ofsouthern Anatolia has volcanic origins, but in these northern areas the land was under water in ancient times, which acounts forits limestone, including large cobbles in vineyards at lower altitudes. Newer plantations at higher altitudes are on basalticvolcanic and more clayish rhyolite. These soils are fairly acidic and have a high clay content, thanks to the strong Anatolianwinds that brought in deposits (loess).Kalecik has a color issue and small clusters that, like zinfandel, generally do not set in a homogeneous way. Usual yield CaglarKok observes is about 50hl/ht. Reserve is closer to 35hl/ht. On average KK ripens about a week after CS here, so quite late. Inthe 1960s phylloxera killed virtually all the Kalecik vineyards. While two clones have been heavily used in replanting in therecent past (9 and12) they proved too high-yielding in Kok’s opinion. So In Vinkara’s experimental blocks, Gök uses massselection techniques to see if he can rediscover better clones for planting.winery’s enologist, Çağlar Gük,WINERY : VinkaraESTABLISHED : 2003WINE MAKER : tuna lacinWINE : reserve kalecik karasıTYPE (color) : medium redVINTAGE : 2010GRAPES : 100 % kalecik karasi REGION : ankara SUBREGION : kalecik ALCOHOL LEVEL : 14 FIRST VINTAGE : 2009MEDALS :PRODUCTION QUANTITY : 6800 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE) : owned : 9 years oldSOIL : clayish loamy gritty YIELD : 6000 kg/ha PICKING DATES : 22 /09/2010VINIFICATION FERMENTATION : fermented in stainless still tank, matured in barrelsFERMENTATION TEMP : 25-27°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED) : culturedBARREL AGEING : 14 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : french oak (225 L) / medium toastTOTAL ACIDITY : 4,62VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,65 PH : 3,81 SUGAR : 4,87TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 96COLOUR : bright redAROMA : blackberry, black currants, strawberry and sour cherry aromas,vanilla and smoked aromas attained during the aging process in thebarrels intensify the wine without losing any of its fruitiness.FLAVOUR : the wine has a very long finish with soft tannins 13
  14. 14. Kavaklidere is Turkey’s largest producer of wine (more than 900,000 cases a year) and the oldest private winery,founded in 1929 by the And family in Ankara and now owned by the Başman family and directed by Ali Başman.Kavaklidere owns more than 1,300 acres (560 ha) of vineyards in virtually all of Turkey’s finest wine-growingregions. Based in Anatolia, the Başmans especially work their original vineyards in the Ankara area, which areplanted almost exclusively with the native variety kalecik karasi.Expert guidance from the respected Bordeaux winemaker Stéphane Derenoncourt has also been a recent boon inraising the awareness and sophistication of the wines made by Ahu Tokgöz and other members of Kavaklidere’swidespread teamWINERY : Kavaklidere ESTABLISHED : 1929WINE MAKER : Mrs. Ahu Çamlı TokgözWINE : Prestige Kalecik KarasıVINTAGE : 2009GRAPES : 100% Kalecik Karası REGION : Central Anatolia SUBREGION : Ankara / Kalecik ALCOHOLLEVEL : 14%FIRST VINTAGE : 1989MEDALS : Concours Mondial de Bruxelles 2012, Gold Vinalies Internationales 2012, SilverDecanter 2012, SilverInt.Wine and Spirits Comp. 2012, BronzeInt. Wine Challange 2012, SilverPRODUCTION QUANTITY: 60.000 bottlesVITICULTUREVINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): own vineyard, 20 years old vines, many gobelet-trained. SOIL : Clay-loamYIELD : 40 hl/ha PICKING DATES : 17/09/2009VINIFICATION FERMENTATION : 6 days of maceration & 20% oak maturation FERMENTATION TEMP: 26-28°CYEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): Cultured BARREL AGEING : 7 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : French oak(225 L) / Medium toastTOTAL ACIDITY : 3,3 g/l VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,32 g/l PH : 3,75 SUGAR : 2,5 g/ l TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 97 mg/l 14
  15. 15. The Black from Karasi is the literal translation of this variety.Kalecik karasi (the black grape from Kalecik) originated in the Ankara region andripens late; it is extremely aromatic yet thin skinned.It prefers cool climates but often doesn’t ripen well. These characteristics give it itssimilarity to pinot noir, but kalecik karasi has a more haunting floral (rose, violet), tar,or mineral character with fine tannins.For those readers familiar with less common wines, think a combination of nerellomascalese from Mount Etna, combined with nebbiolo from Piedmont, Italy, and pinot noir. Kalecik karasi is amongthe most exotic, intriguing, yet exasperating wines produced in Turkey.Enis Guner is the MD./ownerGüney, according to many producers, is considered the finest place in Turkey to growgrapes because of the climate (cool, moderate rainfall, warm summers), highaltitude—2,460 to 2,952 feet (750 to 900 m), soils (limestone terra rossa, free-draining soils), and adaptability (newer varieties like cabernet and syrah have thrivedhere). The combination makes the Güney plateau a superior source of fine wines,prompting many top wineries in Turkey to plant or contract for vineyards.Consultant Florent Dumeau from Bordeaux to refine and guide Sevilen’s productionof stylish, complex wines. Dumeau has pushed Sevilen to concentrate onunderstanding the terroir of particular sites, refining the wine making to maximizesite potential. Sevilen uses rigorous viticulture practices, new sorting tables, morestrict berry and lot selection along with high-quality barrels.Because of Güney’s warmer climate kalecik karasi is fruitier here than elsewhere. Its 15
  16. 16. Although Turkey was neutral during World War II, it felt compelled to control vital industries, including alcohol production. Thiswinery remained under state control until 2005, when it was sold to private interests and christened Kayra. One of the largestproducers of wine in Turkey today, Kayra, led by Mr. H.Emre Adem and the American winemaker Dan O’Donnell, has expandedinto quality production, increased its lineup of wines, and actively educates people about wine. O’Donnell, a big burly man,loves working in one of the more “frontier-like places I could have chosen, given my previous work in California, but it is oftenfrustrating.”Elaziğ is somewhat remote, in the middle of southeastern Anatolia, and to settle here and make wine was a challenge. Thesurrounding landscape is reminiscent of la Mancha in Spain or eastern Washington State: dry, desert-like, and windy with anextreme climate. People have been growing grapes here for millennia, O’Donnell says, beginning with the Hittites. “When Icame here, the original estate vineyard was planted to cabernet and merlot,” he said. “We budded it over to the local varieties,öküzgözü and boğazkere. Working with a number of truly individual, special, indigenous varieties in a faraway land was alsoappealing to me.”Elazig area vineyards with soils containing high limestone content and shale, make getting maturity here a challenge.”O’Donnell says.“classic öküzgözü black cherry and raspberry liqueur aromas with light dill and vanilla from the American oak barrels in which itwas aged. Full-bodied, dense flavors are backed by firm but not harsh tannins, finishing with dark plum and cherry flavors,ferrous overtones, and a firm structure.WINERY : Kayra ESTABLISHED 1942 :WINE MAKERs : Mr. H.Emre Adem/Daniel O’DonnellWINE : Vintage Öküzgözü VINTAGE : 2009 GRAPES : %100 Öküzgözü REGION : Aydincik SUBREGION : ElazığALCOHOL LEVEL : 14.5%FIRST VINTAGE : 2006MEDALS :New York Wine Competition UK 2012 SilverPRODUCTION QUANTITY: 8600 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): Contracted vineyard 11 years old vines, no phylloxera SOIL : Red stony andwhite clay soil, about 850m– vyd near Lake Keban YIELD : 4 hl/ha PICKING DATES : 16/09/2010VINIFICATION FERMENTATION :Fermented in stainless steel tanks and matured in barrels FERMENTATION TEMP: 28°C YEASTTYPE (WILD/CULTURED): CulturedBARREL AGEING : 16 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : %37 French Oak neutral, % 63 American Oak (225 L) / MediumtoastTOTAL ACIDITY : 5,28 g/lt (by tartaric) VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,41 g/lt PH : 3,37 SUGAR : 2,6 g/lt TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 113 mg/ltRELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C: 0,993 g/cm3CLOSURE TYPE : Natural corkTASTING NOTESCOLOUR : Deep black ruby to garnetAROMA : Red forest fruits, coffee beans, smoky notesFLAVOUR : Full bodied, mouth filling red wine with generous acidity and ripe tannins;red cherry and red mulberry flavours on the palate 16
  17. 17. Okuzgozu means bull’s eye is a deeply pigmented variety that produces rich sweet-tasting fruit with large berries and quitefleshy pulp. Originally attributed to the Elaziǧ growing region in Anatolia, it makes a deep-colored black cherry–raspberry-scented wine with soft tannins, plush fruit, and lively acidity that is reminiscent of the more full-bodied barbera from northernItaly, or a non-extreme, softer fruit-driven Zinfandel from CaliforniaPendore Vineyard is the largest contiguous estate in Turkey; nearly 470 acres (200 ha) spread across beautifully rolling hills 820to 1,476 feet (250 to 450 m) in Manisa Province. Greek wine growing goes back at least twenty-five hundred years and begannot far from the famed Lycian city of Sardis. Sardis coins and a sarcopahagus at the Manisa Museum are embellished with grapeclusters. According to the historian Ersin Döğer, these images depict the origins of the indigenous çavuş and rezaki grapes stillgrown here.Pendore’s winemaker is a determined, talented woman named Asli Odman. The vineyard was first planted in 2002 on hillsides.Because the Boz Dağ mountains to the west block much of the hot winds blowing off the Aegean in the summer, Pendore ismuch milder than its relatively low elevation would indicate and has low rainfall with refreshing winds. The vineyards plantedat lower altitudes are on limestone, while the ones at higher altitudes have more volcanic soils and are farmed organically.Relatively low yields (2.2 tons per acre/37.5 hl/ha), fruit thinning, and gentle handling (gravity flow movement) in the new,modern winery have paid off for Pendore.WINERY : Kavaklidere ESTABLISHED : 1929 (Pendore vineyards first planted in 2002, however)WINE MAKER : Mrs. Aslı OdmanWINE : Pendore ÖküzgözüVINTAGE : 2010 GRAPES : 100% Öküzgözü REGION : Aegean Region SUBREGION : Kemaliye / PendoreALCOHOL LEVEL : 14% FIRST VINTAGE : 2008PRODUCTION QUANTITY: 26.000 bottlesVITICULTUREVINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): own vineyard, 10 years old vines SOIL : Clay calcerous with gravel YIELD : 50 hl/haPICKING DATES : 29/09/2010VINIFICATIONFERMENTATION : 15% saignee, 1 day of cold, totally 8 days of maceration, no oak maturation FERMENTATION TEMP: 26-28°CYEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): CulturedBARREL AGEING : NoTOTAL ACIDITY : 3,5 g/l VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,38 g/ lPH : 3,58 SUGAR : 1,7 g/l TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 57 mg/lRELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C: 0,991CLOSURE TYPE : Natural corkTASTING NOTESCOLOUR : Bright dark cherry with fuchsia tintsAROMA : Intense with red forest fruits and floral notes 17
  18. 18. WINERY : Kayra Elazığ Winery ESTABLISHED : 194 2WINE MAKER : Mr. H.Emre Adem/Dan O’DonnellWINE : Vintage Bogazkere VINTAGE : 2009GRAPES : %100 Bogazkere REGION : Eastern Anatolia SUBREGION : DiyarbakirALCOHOL LEVEL : 15 % FIRST VINTAGE : 2003MEDALS : -PRODUCTION QUANTITY: 11000 bottlesVITICULTUREVINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): Contracted vineyard 15-25 years old vines SOIL : white clay,red stony soil YIELD : 50-60 hl/ha PICKING DATES : 08.10.2009VINIFICATION FERMENTATION : Fermented in stainless steel tank and matured in tank and oak barrelsFERMENTATION TEMP: 29°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): Cultured BARREL AGEING : 22 monthsBARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : %15 French Oak M ,%85 American Oak M+TOTAL ACIDITY : 6,35 g/lt (by tartaric) VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,55 g/lt PH : 3,32 SUGAR : 2,6 g/lt TOTALSO2 (mg/l) : 150 mg/ltRELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C: 0,993 g/cm3CLOSURE TYPE : Natural cork 18
  19. 19. Bogazkere roughly translates as “burning throat” or throat grabber. Boǧazkere originated in the southeastern Anatolian regionof Diyarbakir, which is warmer than Elaziǧ to the north. A mid- to late ripening variety notable for its deep color, historicalrecords allude to its ancient origins . Its combination of high color, rich blackberry-tar-fruit flavors, moderate acidity, and elevated tannins make this complex grapehighly desirable for eating as well as wine making. Think syrah married to nebbiolo. Boǧazkere presents a great wine-makingchallenge ; many producers blend boǧazkere with őkűzgȍzű to soften the astringency of boǧazkere and to add a more gentle red-fruit character. Boǧazkere has good aging potential, provided that the winemaker manages the tannins; when done well it is a revelation.WINERY : Doluca ESTABLISHED : 1926 WINE MAKER : Ms. Aysun Pirdel (Family- Ahmet father, Ali son., Sibel Kutman OreldaughterWINE : Tuğra Boğazkere VINTAGE : 2009 GRAPES : 100% Boğazkere REGION : Denizli/GuneyALCOHOL LEVEL : 15,5%FIRST VINTAGE : 2008 PRODUCTION QUANTITY: 4000 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): SOIL : clay-loam YIELD : 9-10 tonnes/ha PICKING DATES : end of septemberVINIFICATION– 4-5 day cold soak. FERMENTATION : 5-7 days FERMENTATION TEMP:23-25°C YEAST TYPE(WILD/CULTURED):cultured BARREL AGEING : 16 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : American (50%+-) and French,w/ 10% new oak overall.TOTAL ACIDITY : 5,8 g/l VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,540 g/l (acetic acid) PH : 3,53 SUGAR : <4 g/l TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 46RELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C: 0,99124CLOSURE TYPE : Natural corkTASTING NOTESCOLOUR : dark sour cherryAROMA : clove, cranberry, smoke, raspberry and toasted hazelnut 19