HLC Train For WorkHorticulture & Farming Training 2012                                  1 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Working in Agriculture or Farming can beextremely rewarding but one thing’s for sure…It’s hard work!As agriculture or farm...
Weather for a typical year on a farm lookssomething like this…Sometimes we get all four seasons in one day!               ...
Usually the wettest season. It can also be very coldwith frost, snow and ice. Temperatures normallyrange from 5-15 °C (41-...
The temperatures start getting warmer and thegrass starts to grow fast. There is still plentyof rain. Although the morning...
It gets warmer - from 20-30 °C (68-86 °F) in the day.It normally rains less. The sun can be very strong andcan make your s...
Temperatures start to get cooler and there isplenty of rain. Although the mornings can stillbe cold, the days can get quit...
Agricultural and Farmingwork is varied and          Dairyintensive. It is often      Cattleseasonal but can also beyear ...
PPE stands for:Personal Protection EquipmentThis is needed for almost all roles within alltypes of employment. PPE helps u...
When selecting PPE, remember, it needs to be:Effective and give adequate protection againstthe hazards in the workplace;Su...
Footwear                            Protective Clothing                               Summer wear                         ...
Footwear is perhaps the most important piece ofPPE that you can have. It needs to be wellfitting, breathable, warm, suppor...
Socks should be warm, supportive, breathableand long. You will be standing on your feet forlong periods of time!Socks     ...
It is extremely important that in wet weatheryou have protective clothing to keep you dry.You are working in the outdoors ...
In cold and windy weather, thermalunderclothing will really help. Remember, you canalways remove layers if you get too hot...
Headwear is extremely important as it canprevent ear ache from cold as well as heatstroke from the sun among numerous othe...
Gloves are needed to prevent damage to thehands. Your hands are your primary tool inagriculture and farming!Gloves        ...
The Sun                     18Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Too much sun can be dangerousBeing outdoors on a warm, sunny day can make you feel good.Repeated exposure to the sun day a...
Precautions you can take•   Limit the time you spend in the sun•   Use any shaded areas available to take breaks•   Use su...
How to recognize a problemRegularly check your skin for any signs of damage from thesun. Be sure to check your head, face,...
Also look for:– Sores that bleed and don’t heal– A change in sensation in a mole, such as itchiness orpain– Red patches or...
DO:• Wear a hat in the sun that protects your ears, face  and the back of your neck.• Choose a sunscreen with a sun protec...
The Rain                    24Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Cold weather can be dangerousFor many of us, winter is a welcome escape from workingoutdoors in hot, humid weather but col...
Wear the proper clothing.One of the best ways to prevent cold-related injuries is towear the right clothing outdoors.• It’...
It’s important that you know what to do to reduce yourrisk of cold-related injuries.1. Always dress properly for cold weat...
DO:• Keep your energy level up when working outdoors in thecold.• Immediately seek shelter and call for emergency medicalh...
Insect Bites & Stings       29Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Be on the alert for insectsSummertime presents certain dangers, especially forworkers who spend most of their time outdoor...
Thousands of people are stung by bees each year. Inmost cases, a bee won’t sting you unless it isprovoked.• If bees are ne...
• Some people are severely allergic to bee stings, whichcan be life-threatening or even fatal.• Immediately contact local ...
Mosquito & Spider Bites     33Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Bites from mosquitoes and most spiders generally don’tcause serious harm, unless you’re allergic to spider venom.Avoid scr...
Tick Bites                  35Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Ticks are small insects that feed on a person’s blood. Tickbites are painless, so a tick may remain imbedded in yourskin f...
Some deer ticks carry Lyme disease, which can be veryserious if untreated. Wear a long-sleeved shirt, longpants with the c...
• Avoid bright-coloured or floral print clothing, perfume,  hair spray, floral-scented shampoos, soaps and  deodorants.• P...
DO:• Check for stinging insects near flowering plants, trashcans and outdoor eating areas.• Run away if you are attacked b...
Basic Field Sanitation      40Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Most of us in agriculture and horticulture like workingoutdoors. We like the fresh air, the sunshine, and the wideopen spa...
Regularly wash your hands with soap and water. This willhelp keep you from getting sick, and from spreading germsto your c...
Portable toilets are normally provided that you can walk tofrom your work site.We encourage you to use the toilet faciliti...
Working in areas where pesticides or other chemicals havebeen applied requires even greater attention to goodsanitation pr...
If you work in areas where pesticides have been applied, besure to wash your hands and your face before you eat,drink, che...
DO:• Regularly wash your hands with soap and water to preventskin rashes and to prevent germs from spreading.• Drink a suf...
Being Safe with Machinery 47 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
The machinery we use in our operation makes it easier toget our jobs done, but it can also be very dangerous. Moving parts...
Any number of injuries can result from working aroundagricultural machinery. These include the loss of fingers, ahand, an ...
These injuries and others occur for many reasons,including:— workers operate machinery when overtired or ill— operators ta...
— workers operate equipment under the influence ofalcohol or other drugs— machinery is not completely shut off and isolate...
It’s important that you pay close attention to any warningsigns or stickers you see on the machinery we use. Often,these w...
Guards, or barriers are placed between you and thedanger areas and are there for your protection. Amongthe places where yo...
Stay a safe distance away from all moving parts ofmachinery. • Be sure you have read and understood theoperator’s manual b...
• Inspect the machinery before turning it on. If you spot aproblem, notify your supervisor. Don’t operate defectivemachine...
DO:• Be careful to avoid hitching accidents (―crush point‖).• Keep all equipment clean and in good repair.• Immediately tu...
Lifting Safety              57Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
As you are aware, back injuries can be very painful.One cause of serious back injuries is improper lifting.Each pound of w...
Twisting your body while you’re lifting or                                           carrying an objectLifting an object h...
Lifting when you’re in poor physical shape   60Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Stand close to the object. Size it up. Check for sharpedges, nails and other hazards. See if you think you can liftit by y...
Lift with your legs, notwith your back.Plan ahead where you’regoing to set the objectdown. Then carry it to itsnew locatio...
An alternate way to lift odd-sized, lightweight objects is tocarefully lift the object up to your shoulder and support ito...
DO• Get a firm footing and a good grip.• Wear shoes with good traction.• Lift objects only chest high.• Take your time.• A...
Basic First AidAuthor Joe Hall @2012 HLC                            65
In the event of an accident act calmly but quickly:1. Act quickly when a person has been injured.2. Call the emergency med...
• Make sure that the area is  safe to work in and free  from potential hazards• Secure the area where  possible to prevent...
• Avoid direct contact with an injured person’s blood orother body fluids.• Wear clean, disposable gloves such as latex gl...
If the person is cut and the bleeding is minor, clean thewound with soap and water. Use gauze – not cotton – forcleaning. ...
Don’t move the person unless he is in immediate additionaldanger.Call the emergency medical services as soon as possible.K...
Serious accidents such as becoming entangled in a tractorPTO may result in the loss of an arm, leg or other bodypart.Follo...
DO:• Know who to call for immediate emergency medicalassistance.• Stay calm when administering first aid.• Know what is in...
Drugs & Alcohol             73Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Substance abuse – or the abuse of alcohol or other drugs –can result in serious problems, both at work and at home.Among t...
Substance abuse often leads to family problems, includingdivorce, and could even cause you to lose your job.It can also le...
Employers don’t allow the use of alcohol or other drugs atwork, while on work assignments or during breaks.Employers don’t...
Anyone can have a substance abuse problem – a co-worker,supervisor, manager, vendor, customer, spouse, child orfriend.Subs...
Here are some signs that may indicate you or a co-workerhas a substance abuse problem:– frequently missing work or other a...
Professional help is available to people with substanceabuse problems.Help is also available through such support groups a...
DO:• Be honest with yourself if you think you may have a  substance abuse problem.• Become familiar with the warning signs...
Working In A Vineyard       81Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Number one tool!Secateurs  • Must be kept clean, sharp    & in good working    condition  • Must be kept in an apron    or...
• Do not hang your secateurs on vines, clothing, machinery  or wires• Do not leave your secateurs on the ground• Do not po...
Tractors are extensively used                            in vineyards and other                            agricultural pr...
There are a vast number of farm accidents involvingtractors and other farm machinery every year. Some arefatal but the maj...
Fortunately, most modern tractors have a Roll OverProtection or ROP System. This is a single overhead bar ora cage structu...
Most commonly, it is a splineddriveshaft on a tractor or truckdesigned so that a PTO shaft, akind of drive shaft, can beea...
• A PTO must be covered                                    by a safety cover                                  • The safety...
DO• Take adequate precaution when working around tractors• Make sure that PTO’s have guards• Not approach PTO’s when they ...
Buds, Nodes & Shoots        90Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Pruning takes place while the vines lie dormant in thewinter. Pruning allows the grower to focus the growth ofthe new vine...
Pruning time gives the opportunity to:Regulate the form and size of the vine.Regulate the vigour of the vine: A vinesnatur...
The grape starts its annual growth cycle in the spring withbud break. In the Southern Hemisphere it begins aroundSeptember...
The Bud                     94Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
InternodesThe Internode               95Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
A cross section of a dormant bud. The three budswithin the compound bud can be seen.Inside the Node                       ...
The shoot consists of stems, leaves,tendrils, and fruit and is the primaryunit of vine growth and the principalfocus of ma...
Suckering is the removal of                            shoots that arise from the                            crown of the ...
80 to 90 % of the one-year-old wood is removed fromvines at dormant pruning. Before pruning maturegrapevines, the vineyard...
Blind buds are nodes on spurs or canes from which there isno bud development in spring The presence of blind budsmakes it ...
When a cane, spur or cordon iscut close to bud burst timethe cut bleedsBleeding is due to increasedsap flow within the vin...
•   Nodes contain buds•   The main bud bursts to become a shoot•   The new shoot produces flowers which become the fruit• ...
Cane & Spur Pruning         103Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
The most important job in the vineyard during winter ispruning. This is done after leaf fall but before budburstwhen the v...
Grapevines are pruned in winter                            by cutting away most of the vine                            tha...
Spur pruning is done on vines that                            retain one or two pairs of long canes                       ...
This is done by regulating thenumber of buds left on themature one year old shoots(now called canes) during thepruning pro...
Cordon with Last Seasons CanesA cordon is a permanent vine armeither bi or unilaterally formedoff the trunk during the ori...
Last Seasons Canes                              During the pruning process the                              highest cane o...
Spur pruning is easy, quickand economical and catersto the growthcharacteristics of mostvarieties except thosewhose basal ...
Spurred to                            Two BudsLowest Cane                       111Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
Finished Spur Pruned Vine    112 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
The vines have no permanentcordons, only one (unilateral)or two (bilateral) one year oldcanes laid along the fruitingwire ...
During pruning, the two year oldcanes and its canes are completelyremoved. A new cane formed froma two bud replacement spu...
Four-arm KniffinThis is one of the most popular training systems for grapes.It gives good production, requires little summ...
Training System            Advantages                Disadvantages            Reccomended4 (or 6) Arm Kniffen       Inexpe...
In a Nutshell!              117Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
• Most fruit trees and vines require pruning to optimize  fruit production capacity, grape vines are no exception.• Prunin...
1. Pruning vines can help you control the size of your crops.It also maintains the quality of grapes and helps keep thegro...
4. Pruning the grape vines starts by finding the thickest orstrongest stem on the grape vine. This will serve as its maint...
7. Pruning vines during the spring and summer of the thirdyear keeps the basic framework of the vines.8. When pruning grap...
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Hlc train for work agriculture 2012

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Basic Picking & Pruning PPT to show what is needed and expected when working in the Picking & Pruning industry within NZ

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Hlc train for work agriculture 2012

  1. 1. HLC Train For WorkHorticulture & Farming Training 2012 1 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  2. 2. Working in Agriculture or Farming can beextremely rewarding but one thing’s for sure…It’s hard work!As agriculture or farm workers you will have tocontend with the typical extreme conditions ofthe ever changing NZ weather.It’s important to understand the differentseasons and how they may affect the conditionsof the work you undertake and how you carrythis work out!Introduction 2Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  3. 3. Weather for a typical year on a farm lookssomething like this…Sometimes we get all four seasons in one day! 3Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  4. 4. Usually the wettest season. It can also be very coldwith frost, snow and ice. Temperatures normallyrange from 5-15 °C (41-59 °F) during the day. Coldwinds can make it feel much colder. In the middle ofwinter there are only 9 – 10 hours of sunlight a dayWinter: June-Aug 4Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  5. 5. The temperatures start getting warmer and thegrass starts to grow fast. There is still plentyof rain. Although the mornings can still be cold,the days can get quite warm.Spring: Sept-Nov 5Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  6. 6. It gets warmer - from 20-30 °C (68-86 °F) in the day.It normally rains less. The sun can be very strong andcan make your skin burn within l0 minutes. The sun ishottest between 11am and 4pm. In mid summer there is15 – 16 hours of sunlight in the day. Summer: Dec-Feb 6 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  7. 7. Temperatures start to get cooler and there isplenty of rain. Although the mornings can stillbe cold, the days can get quite warm.Autumn: Mar-May 7Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  8. 8. Agricultural and Farmingwork is varied and  Dairyintensive. It is often  Cattleseasonal but can also beyear round with short  Sheepbreaks between produce  Pig, Deer & Goatfarmed.  Bees  PoultryAreas of work that are  Vegetable & Fruitcommonly associated  Vineyardwith Agriculture and  CropFarming are:What type of work is it? 8Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  9. 9. PPE stands for:Personal Protection EquipmentThis is needed for almost all roles within alltypes of employment. PPE helps us to remainsafe and healthy while we carry out our dailytasks. Without it, carrying out these tasks couldcarry an increased risk of personal injury.PPE 9Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  10. 10. When selecting PPE, remember, it needs to be:Effective and give adequate protection againstthe hazards in the workplace;Suitable and match the wearer, the task and theworking environment so as not to get in the wayof the job being done or cause any discomfort;Safe against the introduction of any additionalrisks, eg limits visibility;Agricultural & Farming PPE 10Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  11. 11. Footwear Protective Clothing Summer wear Wet weather wear Hand wear HeadwearThe Basics 11Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  12. 12. Footwear is perhaps the most important piece ofPPE that you can have. It needs to be wellfitting, breathable, warm, supporting, non-slipand have a protective toecap (Non steel for verycold areas). It also needs to be flexible enoughto allow you to perform your tasks.Footwear 12Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  13. 13. Socks should be warm, supportive, breathableand long. You will be standing on your feet forlong periods of time!Socks 13Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  14. 14. It is extremely important that in wet weatheryou have protective clothing to keep you dry.You are working in the outdoors for lengthyperiods of time and rain, hale and even snow arepossible. This combined with wind can causediscomfort, tiredness and possible hypothermia.Wet Weather Clothes 14Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  15. 15. In cold and windy weather, thermalunderclothing will really help. Remember, you canalways remove layers if you get too hot!Thermals 15Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  16. 16. Headwear is extremely important as it canprevent ear ache from cold as well as heatstroke from the sun among numerous otherpotential ailments.Headwear should be appropriate to the weatherconditions and where possible cover the back ofthe neck to prevent sunburn and heat loss.Headwear 16Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  17. 17. Gloves are needed to prevent damage to thehands. Your hands are your primary tool inagriculture and farming!Gloves 17Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  18. 18. The Sun 18Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  19. 19. Too much sun can be dangerousBeing outdoors on a warm, sunny day can make you feel good.Repeated exposure to the sun day after day, year after yearalso increases your risk of the following problems occurring!– Aging, wrinkling or drying out of the skin– Skin cancer, which can develop from repeated exposure tothe sun over the years– Lip cancer– Damage to the eyesToo much exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays can harmyou, even if you have dark hair and dark skin.You can also get sunburned on a cloudy day – not just whenthe sun is bright. Sun Protection 19 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  20. 20. Precautions you can take• Limit the time you spend in the sun• Use any shaded areas available to take breaks• Use sunscreen lotion on your exposed areas• Use a SPF 15 or greater• Apply Sunscreen at least 20 minutes before going out• Re-apply during the day at regular intervals• Make sure headwear provides shade for your neck• Wear sunglasses when possible Precautions 20 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  21. 21. How to recognize a problemRegularly check your skin for any signs of damage from thesun. Be sure to check your head, face, lips and the tips ofyour ears.Look for changes in the size, shape or colour of moles.Specifically look for irregular borders (ragged, notched orblurred edges), moles that aren’t symmetrical (one halfdoesn’t match the other), colours that aren’t uniformthroughout, or moles that are bigger than a pencil eraser. Signs of Problems 21 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  22. 22. Also look for:– Sores that bleed and don’t heal– A change in sensation in a mole, such as itchiness orpain– Red patches or lumps, including small bumps on thehead– New molesAny of these might be an indication of skin cancer.Skin cancer can be treated if it is caught early. Ifyou spot a problem, see a health professional. Reportthe problem to your supervisor if you don’t haveaccess to a doctor. Signs of Problems 22 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  23. 23. DO:• Wear a hat in the sun that protects your ears, face and the back of your neck.• Choose a sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or greater.• Regularly check your skin for red patches, lumps, or changes in the size, shape or colour of moles.DON’T:• Think that a suntan is a sign of good health.• Forget to wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from the sun. DO’S AND DON’TS 23 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  24. 24. The Rain 24Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  25. 25. Cold weather can be dangerousFor many of us, winter is a welcome escape from workingoutdoors in hot, humid weather but cold winter weatherpresents some serious risks. Among them are:– Frostbite, or the freezing of body parts exposed to thecold. Frostbite can be mild or it can be severe, resultingin the destruction of body tissue. Your nose, cheeks,ears, toes and fingers are at most risk.– Hypothermia, or the loss of body heat due to prolongedexposure to the cold. Hypothermia is a life-threateningcondition. You are more likely to rapidly lose body heatwhen your clothes are wet. Rain Protection 25 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  26. 26. Wear the proper clothing.One of the best ways to prevent cold-related injuries is towear the right clothing outdoors.• It’s better to wear several layers of clothing than a singleheavy coat or jacket. If possible, wear a thin layer next toyour skin such as polyester or polypropylene. This will helpkeep the heat close to your body. Wear this under a warmlayer of clothing such as wool under an outer jacket thatrepels water and cuts the wind.• You should also wear a warm hat that covers your ears,gloves or mittens, dry socks, and dry shoes or boots thatprotect your feet against cold and dampness.• A scarf or ski mask will also help protect your face. Precautions Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 26
  27. 27. It’s important that you know what to do to reduce yourrisk of cold-related injuries.1. Always dress properly for cold weather. Put on warmclothes before you go outside. Carry extra dry clothing ifyou’re likely to get wet.2. Keep your skin dry. Wet skin freezes quicker.3. Drink plenty of water to keep from getting dehydrated.4. If possible, do some of your outdoor work during thewarmest part of the day.5. Take adequate breaks from the cold. (Indoors)6. Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, coffee and other drinks withcaffeine. Smoking decreases circulation; alcohol increasesthe rate at which your body cools. Precautions Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 27
  28. 28. DO:• Keep your energy level up when working outdoors in thecold.• Immediately seek shelter and call for emergency medicalhelp if you or a co-worker can’t stop shivering, beginstumbling, or become confused or severely fatigued.DON’T:• Overestimate your ability to do strenuous work. Set areasonable pace for yourself.• Work outdoors in the cold if you are physically exhaustedor in poor physical shape.• Wear wet clothing outdoors in the cold. DO’S AND DON’TS Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 28
  29. 29. Insect Bites & Stings 29Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  30. 30. Be on the alert for insectsSummertime presents certain dangers, especially forworkers who spend most of their time outdoors.Among these dangers are certain insects that bite or stingincluding spiders, mosquitoes, ticks bees, wasps andhornets.You can reduce your risk of insect bites by wearing long-sleeved shirts, long trousers and socks when you’re outside.Insect repellents will also help. Insect Bites & Stings 30 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  31. 31. Thousands of people are stung by bees each year. Inmost cases, a bee won’t sting you unless it isprovoked.• If bees are nearby, avoid rapid movements. If a yellowjacket, wasp or hornet lands on you, don’t slap it or swatat it. Instead, try to blow or gently brush it away.• If you are stung, remove the stinger from your skin asquickly as possible. Don’t grasp the stinger with yourfingers or a tweezers. Instead, gently scrape the areawith your fingernail or try to remove the stinger byscraping with the edge of a knife. Bee Stings 31 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  32. 32. • Some people are severely allergic to bee stings, whichcan be life-threatening or even fatal.• Immediately contact local emergency medical services ifyou or a co-worker are stung and break out in hives, havetrouble breathing, become dizzy, vomit, get stomachcramps or diarrhoea, or have any other severe reaction.• If you have had a severe reaction to an insect sting inthe past, immediately notify your supervisor and seekmedical attention. 32 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  33. 33. Mosquito & Spider Bites 33Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  34. 34. Bites from mosquitoes and most spiders generally don’tcause serious harm, unless you’re allergic to spider venom.Avoid scratching bites. Instead, wash the area with soapand water and apply a cold pack if needed to reduceswelling. Ointments such as calamine lotion will also helpreduce the itchiness.Immediately contact our local emergency medical servicesif you or a co-worker show signs of a severe reaction to abite.One particular spider to watch out for is the white tail.This can cause significant injury and will always need to beassessed by a doctor! 34 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  35. 35. Tick Bites 35Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  36. 36. Ticks are small insects that feed on a person’s blood. Tickbites are painless, so a tick may remain imbedded in yourskin for days unnoticed.The best way to remove a tick is to use a small tweezers tograsp it where its mouthparts enter the skin. Tug gently butfirmly until it releases its hold on your skin. If you can’t getit out or if its mouthparts remain in your skin, seek medicalcare. Wash the bite area with soap and water. 36 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  37. 37. Some deer ticks carry Lyme disease, which can be veryserious if untreated. Wear a long-sleeved shirt, longpants with the cuffs tucked into your socks, and a hatwhen you’re in these areas. Insect repellents may alsohelp.If you have been bitten by a tick and show any of thefollowing symptoms, be sure to see a doctor: a rash orred patch, especially one that slowly expands over severaldays; fatigue; a mild headache; pain and stiffness in yourmuscles and joints; a slight fever; or swollen glands 37 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  38. 38. • Avoid bright-coloured or floral print clothing, perfume, hair spray, floral-scented shampoos, soaps and deodorants.• Pay close attention to open soda containers and glasses.• Keep trash containers closed, and clean up after eating outdoors.• Apply a cold pack to reduce discomfort if you have been bitten or stung Extra Tips! 38 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  39. 39. DO:• Check for stinging insects near flowering plants, trashcans and outdoor eating areas.• Run away if you are attacked by several stinging insects atthe same time. Try to get indoors.• Immediately seek medical help if you have a severereaction.DON’T:• Leave a co-worker who has been stung alone. The personcould have an allergic reaction.• Walk barefoot outdoors.• Leave a stinger in your skin. DO’S AND DON’TS Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 39
  40. 40. Basic Field Sanitation 40Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  41. 41. Most of us in agriculture and horticulture like workingoutdoors. We like the fresh air, the sunshine, and the wideopen space.But agricultural work can be very dirty. Our hands areconstantly in the dirt and soil, the wind may blow debrisfrom some distance away, and many of us work in areaswhere pesticides have been applied.In addition, working around agricultural machinery such astractors, combines, forklifts, or the moving parts ofequipment inside a packing shed can result in grease, oil,and other substances getting on our faces and hands. Dirty Work! Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 41
  42. 42. Regularly wash your hands with soap and water. This willhelp keep you from getting sick, and from spreading germsto your co-workers.Regular hand washing is also important to prevent skinrashes, especially if you’re working in a greenhouse or inanother hot, humid environment.Most employers provide washing facilities for employees.These include clean water, soap, and paper towels.It’s very important to wash your hands before you eat,drink, chew gum, or smoke tobacco, and before and afteryou use the toilet. Clean Hands 42 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  43. 43. Portable toilets are normally provided that you can walk tofrom your work site.We encourage you to use the toilet facilities we provide asfrequently as you need to.Urinating in the field, on plants, or anywhere else otherthan in the facilities we provide is an unhealthy practice.After you are done using the toilet, be sure it is in cleancondition. And remember to wash your hands. Toilet Facilities 43 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  44. 44. Working in areas where pesticides or other chemicals havebeen applied requires even greater attention to goodsanitation practices.It’s critical that you wear gloves and any other personalprotective equipment we provide so pesticide residues donot get on your skin.Wearing a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, hat or cap, andshoes and socks will help protect your body from pesticideresidues. Pesticide Treated Areas 44 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  45. 45. If you work in areas where pesticides have been applied, besure to wash your hands and your face before you eat,drink, chew gum, smoke, put on makeup, or use the toilet.At the end of each day, wash your whole body with soap andwater, shampoo your hair, and change into clean clothes. •Remember not to eat, smoke, or keep food exposed in anarea where chemicals are being applied.Immediately tell a supervisor and thoroughly wash your skinwith soap and clean water if pesticides are accidentallyspilled or sprayed on your body Pesticide Treated Areas 45 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  46. 46. DO:• Regularly wash your hands with soap and water to preventskin rashes and to prevent germs from spreading.• Drink a sufficient amount of water, especially on hotdays, so you don’t get sick.• Use the toilet facilities we provide as frequently asnecessary.DON’T:• Hesitate to tell your supervisor if you become dizzy or illat work or develop a rash. You may need to see a doctor.• Let your skin touch plants, the outside of protectiveclothing, or anything that may have pesticide residues on it. DO’S AND DON’TS Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 46
  47. 47. Being Safe with Machinery 47 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  48. 48. The machinery we use in our operation makes it easier toget our jobs done, but it can also be very dangerous. Moving parts are especially hazardous, because a finger,hand, arm, your hair or a loose piece of clothing can getcaught by a moving part before you even know it.This is why you’ll see warning signs and ―guards‖ on variousparts of the machinery we use. The guards are designed tokeep you away from danger areas.Unfortunately, not all hazardous parts can be guarded.Because of this, it’s important for you to be extremelycareful when working around agricultural machinery. Hazardous Stuff! 48 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  49. 49. Any number of injuries can result from working aroundagricultural machinery. These include the loss of fingers, ahand, an arm or feet; entanglement in a rotating shaft;blindness or other eye injuries from flying sparks orfragments of material; or crushed limbs How Workers are Injured 49 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  50. 50. These injuries and others occur for many reasons,including:— workers operate machinery when overtired or ill— operators take shortcuts (such as bypass starting atractor, driving too fast, or jumping on or off)— improper clothing is worn (such as loose clothing, asweatshirt with drawstrings, or jewellery around a PTOshaft) How Workers are Injured Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 50
  51. 51. — workers operate equipment under the influence ofalcohol or other drugs— machinery is not completely shut off and isolatedfrom its energy sources before it is cleaned, serviced orrepaired— safety decals or guards are worn, damaged orremoved — personal protective equipment (such assafety glasses, hearing protection or gloves) is not used 51 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  52. 52. It’s important that you pay close attention to any warningsigns or stickers you see on the machinery we use. Often,these will include the word ―Danger‖ or ―Warning.‖ If you areunable to read these stickers or signs, ask a co-worker oryour supervisor for help. Never operate machinery withoutknowing what the warning signs say.Never remove or bypass a safety guard. If a guard isdamaged or missing, report it right away and don’t operatethe machine. Guards & Warning Signs 52 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  53. 53. Guards, or barriers are placed between you and thedanger areas and are there for your protection. Amongthe places where you may find guards are:— on rotating parts (such as PTO shafts)— on parts of the machinery that could snag yourclothing (such as universal joints or fastening devices)— on parts of the machinery that transmit power to thesections doing the work (such as flywheels, pulleys,belts, chains and gears)— on the part of the machinery where the work is beingperformed (such as blades that do the cutting) Where to find them? 53 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  54. 54. Stay a safe distance away from all moving parts ofmachinery. • Be sure you have read and understood theoperator’s manual before operating agricultural machinery.See your supervisor if you need help.• Always wear the personal protective equipment (PPE) thatwe require.• Dress appropriately. Don’t wear jewellery or loose-fittingclothing. If you have long hair, be sure it is tied back andtucked in. Safety Tips 54 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  55. 55. • Inspect the machinery before turning it on. If you spot aproblem, notify your supervisor. Don’t operate defectivemachinery.• Always lock and block such equipment as combines,tractors or forklifts before getting under them, cleaningthem or repairing them.• Never try to unjam such machines as pot filling machinesor feed grinders while they are still running.• Don’t work on machine parts such as flywheels until theyhave completely stopped. Safety Tips 55 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  56. 56. DO:• Be careful to avoid hitching accidents (―crush point‖).• Keep all equipment clean and in good repair.• Immediately turn off the machinery if you think it is notworking properly. Notify your supervisor of the problem.DON’T• Touch any part of a machine until all of the parts havestopped rotating or otherwise moving.• Wear jewellery, loose clothing , drawstrings, or long hairthat isn’t tied back around agricultural machinery.• Ever bypass or remove safety guards. : DO’S AND DON’TS Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 56
  57. 57. Lifting Safety 57Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  58. 58. As you are aware, back injuries can be very painful.One cause of serious back injuries is improper lifting.Each pound of weight you lift puts close to 71/2 pounds ofpressure on your lower back.Here are some examples of improper lifting: Bending from the waist to pick up an object Preventing Bad Backs 58 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  59. 59. Twisting your body while you’re lifting or carrying an objectLifting an object higher than chest high 59 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  60. 60. Lifting when you’re in poor physical shape 60Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  61. 61. Stand close to the object. Size it up. Check for sharpedges, nails and other hazards. See if you think you can liftit by yourself. If not, ask for help.Get a firm footing. Part your feet to give you goodbalance. Then put one foot slightly in front of the other.Also, check your shoes to make sure they provide goodtraction and that your shoelaces are tied.Straighten your back. Then bend your knees — but don’tbend from the waist.Get a good grip. Use both hands. Grip gloves are veryhelpful. Proper Technique 61 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  62. 62. Lift with your legs, notwith your back.Plan ahead where you’regoing to set the objectdown. Then carry it to itsnew location, keeping itclose to your body. Don’tbounce it around.Bend your knees to setthe object down. Again,don’t bend from the waist.And be sure to keep yourback straight. 62 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  63. 63. An alternate way to lift odd-sized, lightweight objects is tocarefully lift the object up to your shoulder and support iton your shoulder while you move it. If the object is long,keep the front end higher than the rear, and never blockyour field of vision.Before you pick up the load, be sure you:— Establish a wide base of support. Do this by parting yourfeet. Put one foot slightly in front of you and the otherslightly in back.— Straighten your back. Then squat down to pick up theload, keeping your back straight. You’ll know you have a goodbase of support if your front foot heel remains on theground or floor. Lifting Awkward Loads Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 63
  64. 64. DO• Get a firm footing and a good grip.• Wear shoes with good traction.• Lift objects only chest high.• Take your time.• Ask for help if you need itDON’T• Bend from the waist.• Lift objects higher than chest high.• Reach below your feet to pick up an object.• Twist your body while you’re lifting.• Lift an object you can’t handle alone. DO’S AND DON’TS Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 64
  65. 65. Basic First AidAuthor Joe Hall @2012 HLC 65
  66. 66. In the event of an accident act calmly but quickly:1. Act quickly when a person has been injured.2. Call the emergency medical services for help if thesituation appears serious.3. Stay calm. Panicking will only make the situation worse.4. Don’t move an injured person unless he is in immediateadditional danger.5. Know where our emergency first aid kits are kept. First Aid – First Steps 66 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  67. 67. • Make sure that the area is safe to work in and free from potential hazards• Secure the area where possible to prevent further injury to yourself and others• Organise others to assist when needed. You don’t have to do everything alone!• Think before you act – DON’T PANIC Protect Yourself Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 67
  68. 68. • Avoid direct contact with an injured person’s blood orother body fluids.• Wear clean, disposable gloves such as latex gloves or placea barrier such as a clean cloth, towel or shirt betweenyourself and the injured person’s blood.• Wash your hands with soap and water beforeadministering first aid and when you are done.• Cover any scrapes or cuts on your hands with bandages orgloves.• Notify your supervisor and get a doctor’s advice if you areexposed to another person’s blood. Protect yourself from disease 68 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  69. 69. If the person is cut and the bleeding is minor, clean thewound with soap and water. Use gauze – not cotton – forcleaning. Then bandage the cut with a bandage or gauze andtape.For severe bleeding, follow these steps:1. Call for professional medical help as soon as possible.2. Cover the wound with a gauze pad and press down firmly.3. Unless you suspect broken bones, elevate the injured areaabove the level of the person’s heart while applying pressure.4. If the bleeding doesn’t stop, apply pressure to a nearbyartery. In the arm, this is inside the upper arm between theshoulder and elbow. In the leg, it’s on the crease at the frontof the hip in the groin area. Co-worker is bleeding Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 69
  70. 70. Don’t move the person unless he is in immediate additionaldanger.Call the emergency medical services as soon as possible.Keep the injured limb immobilized. One way to do this is toplace a small pillow or folded blanket between the injuredlimb and the ground. Warning: Immediately call the emergency medical services for injuries to the head, neck or back. Do not move a person with these types of injuries unless he is in immediate additional danger. Fractures & Broken Bones 70 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  71. 71. Serious accidents such as becoming entangled in a tractorPTO may result in the loss of an arm, leg or other bodypart.Follow these steps in such situations:1. Turn off the power if you can do so safely.2. Call the emergency medical services for help andadminister CPR if the person isn’t breathing and you knowhow to perform CPR.3. Take steps to stop any external bleeding.4. Wrap the severed body part in sterile gauze or a cleancloth. Place it in a plastic bag. Put the plastic bag inside abag of ice and take it to the hospital with the victim. Severed Limbs 71 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  72. 72. DO:• Know who to call for immediate emergency medicalassistance.• Stay calm when administering first aid.• Know what is in our first aid kits.DON’T:• Touch objects that may be soiled with an injured person’sblood.• Eat, drink or touch your nose, mouth or eyes when givingfirst aid. DO’S AND DON’TS 72 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  73. 73. Drugs & Alcohol 73Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  74. 74. Substance abuse – or the abuse of alcohol or other drugs –can result in serious problems, both at work and at home.Among those problems are:– impaired judgment, and the inability to follow safetyinstructions, both of which may result in accidents orinjuries – reduced concentration, leading to poor jobperformance– loss of coordination, resulting in falls or other injuries– health problems, ranging from such short-term effects asheadaches to long-term, severe health problems or evendeath Substance abuse hurts 74 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  75. 75. Substance abuse often leads to family problems, includingdivorce, and could even cause you to lose your job.It can also lead to arguments with co-workers orsupervisors, illegal activities such as theft to support a drughabit, or other violent behaviours.If you suspect that anyone here may have a substanceabuse problem, there are resources in the community thatyou can call for help. 75 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  76. 76. Employers don’t allow the use of alcohol or other drugs atwork, while on work assignments or during breaks.Employers don’t allow employees to come to work under theinfluence of alcohol or other drugs.Employers prohibit the manufacture, sale or distribution ofillegal drugs anywhere on their property.Employers don’t allow alcohol or other drugs to be stored ontheir property – including in lockers or personal cars or workvehicles. Workplace Policies 76 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  77. 77. Anyone can have a substance abuse problem – a co-worker,supervisor, manager, vendor, customer, spouse, child orfriend.Substance abuse can be treated. One of the majorproblems, though, is that substance abusers often denythey have a problem. This results in a delay in getting help –or not getting help at all. The Warning Signs 77 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  78. 78. Here are some signs that may indicate you or a co-workerhas a substance abuse problem:– frequently missing work or other appointments– noticeable changes in job performance– drinking alcohol in the morning– feeling you need to take a drink or other drugs just to getthrough the day– regularly being late for work or leaving early– being short of money because it has been spent on alcoholor other drugs– needing more alcohol or other drugs than you did in thepast in order to feel OK– not caring about your appearance or cleanliness– suddenly being very moody or short-tempered 78 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  79. 79. Professional help is available to people with substanceabuse problems.Help is also available through such support groups asAlcoholics Anonymous. Check the Yellow Pages of thetelephone book under ―Alcoholism‖ or ―Drug Abuse.‖It’s important to talk to your supervisor or anothermanager if you suspect you or someone else at work has asubstance abuse problem.Getting help could save that person’s life. Help 79 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  80. 80. DO:• Be honest with yourself if you think you may have a substance abuse problem.• Become familiar with the warning signs of possible substance abuse.• Seek help if you think you or a co-worker may have a substance abuse problem.DON’T:• Drink alcohol or use illegal drugs on the job, while on a work assignment, or during a work break.• Come to work drunk or under the influence of drugs.• Hesitate to contact resources in the community about a possible substance abuse problem. DO’S AND DON’TS Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 80
  81. 81. Working In A Vineyard 81Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  82. 82. Number one tool!Secateurs • Must be kept clean, sharp & in good working condition • Must be kept in an apron or sheath and closed when not using them • Take care when others are working in close proximity. They’re sharp!Vineyard Safety Practices 82 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  83. 83. • Do not hang your secateurs on vines, clothing, machinery or wires• Do not leave your secateurs on the ground• Do not point your secateurs at people or animalsThey’re not toys!• Do not use electric secateurs without specialist training 83 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  84. 84. Tractors are extensively used in vineyards and other agricultural practices. They can be extremely complex machines and are operated by workers who have undergone special training. All workers need to be aware of the many dangers of working around tractors and how to limit the risk of injuries.Tractors 84Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  85. 85. There are a vast number of farm accidents involvingtractors and other farm machinery every year. Some arefatal but the majority cause minor injuries requiring timeoff from work.Most tractor accidents involve rollovers or are caused byincorrect operation, excessive speed or drivers not looking!All tractor drivers, workers and other persons must becareful when working with tractors on hilly or uneventerrain 85 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  86. 86. Fortunately, most modern tractors have a Roll OverProtection or ROP System. This is a single overhead bar ora cage structure and a seatbelt to stop the driver fromfalling out.Passengers are not permitted to ride on tractors which donot have official seating capacity for them. To do so is toinvite accidents to happen. Protection 86 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  87. 87. Most commonly, it is a splineddriveshaft on a tractor or truckdesigned so that a PTO shaft, akind of drive shaft, can beeasily connected anddisconnected. The power take-off allows implements to drawenergy from the engine.Many accidents are caused whenpeople get caught up in a PTO.Always check beforeapproaching a vehicle that noPTO is attached or running. Power Take Off - PTO 87 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  88. 88. • A PTO must be covered by a safety cover • The safety cover must not spin • Never step over a spinning PTO• PTO – Power Take Off • The PTO can kill, quickly• PTO drives working implements including tillers, sprayers etc• When engaged, spins at 540rpm – almost 10x per second• 20-80 horsepower typical in vineyard tractors 88 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  89. 89. DO• Take adequate precaution when working around tractors• Make sure that PTO’s have guards• Not approach PTO’s when they are spinning• Not sit on tractors unless there are seats & seatbelts available• Pay extra visual attention when operating a vehicleDON’T• Speed or take unnecessary risks with tractors• Fail to check your PTO attachments before using them• FORGET – TRACTORS CAN KILL YOU DO’S AND DON’TS 89 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  90. 90. Buds, Nodes & Shoots 90Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  91. 91. Pruning takes place while the vines lie dormant in thewinter. Pruning allows the grower to focus the growth ofthe new vines where they want it and also determines howmuch fruit a vine will have. As all vineyards grow differentgrapes, have different soils and fertility and oftendifferent climates it is important to decide the correctway to carry out the pruning. Pruning is also one of themost important operations carried out in any vineyard andrequires time and manpower to complete the job. 91 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  92. 92. Pruning time gives the opportunity to:Regulate the form and size of the vine.Regulate the vigour of the vine: A vinesnatural tendency to sprout forth leaves.Regulate the quantity (yield) and qualityof the grapes: Total production of grapesfrom a vine or vineyard but sometimesalso from a region as a whole. Yield isrelated to vine vigour and in most casesindicates the quality of the grapes, withextraordinarily high yield oftenassociated with low quality. 92 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  93. 93. The grape starts its annual growth cycle in the spring withbud break. In the Southern Hemisphere it begins aroundSeptember when daily temperatures rise above 10 C (50 F).If the vine had been pruned during the winter, the start ofthis cycle is signalled by a "bleeding" of the vine.Tiny buds (found on the nodes of grapevine shoots) on thevine start to swell and eventually shoots begin to grow fromthe buds. Buds are the small part of the vine that restbetween the vines stem and the petiole (leaf stem). Insidethe buds contain usually three] shoots. The Bud Break 93 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  94. 94. The Bud 94Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  95. 95. InternodesThe Internode 95Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  96. 96. A cross section of a dormant bud. The three budswithin the compound bud can be seen.Inside the Node 96Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  97. 97. The shoot consists of stems, leaves,tendrils, and fruit and is the primaryunit of vine growth and the principalfocus of many vineyard managementpractices.Each compound bud can potentiallyproduce more than one shoot.As well as producing fruit for thisseason the shoot develops the budsfor next seasons growthLater on the shoots harden, turnbrown and become canes Shoots 97 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  98. 98. Suckering is the removal of shoots that arise from the crown of the vine at ground level or from the roots. Suckers rob the vine of its vigour. These are also known as water-shoots as they rob precious moisture from the shoots that you want to develop fruit. If left to grow, not only do they rob your vine, but they will harden off into fruitless bull shoots.Water shoots 98Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  99. 99. 80 to 90 % of the one-year-old wood is removed fromvines at dormant pruning. Before pruning maturegrapevines, the vineyard foreman must decide how manynodes to retain. Over cropping and excessive canopydensity will occur if too many nodes are retained.On the other hand, the crop will be needlessly reduced iftoo few remain. Furthermore, severely pruned vines areapt to produce excessively vigorous shoots because all ofthe stored energy in the trunks and roots is available torelatively few growing points.Nodes, specifically count nodes, are the units counted inthe pruning formulas. Count nodes have clearly definedinternodes in both directions on the cane. Count Nodes Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC 99
  100. 100. Blind buds are nodes on spurs or canes from which there isno bud development in spring The presence of blind budsmakes it difficult to prune to a given load of viable buds. Blind Buds 100 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  101. 101. When a cane, spur or cordon iscut close to bud burst timethe cut bleedsBleeding is due to increasedsap flow within the vine, whichbrings carbohydrate from theroots and trunksIt can also bleed early on inthe pruning season if it rainsheavily followed by warmweather Bleeding of Canes 101 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  102. 102. • Nodes contain buds• The main bud bursts to become a shoot• The new shoot produces flowers which become the fruit• At the same time the new buds are forming in the shoot• Shoots become canes when they turn brown• Only canes that come from deliberately left buds are used for pruning which are found on count nodes• Pruning is a matter of leaving count nodes, these are the nodes that you deliberately leave at pruning.• Count nodes are always from wood (canes) that grew in the last season• Canes come from count nodes from the previous season• They are not from water shoots! Summary 102 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  103. 103. Cane & Spur Pruning 103Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  104. 104. The most important job in the vineyard during winter ispruning. This is done after leaf fall but before budburstwhen the vines are dormant and there is virtually no sugartransfer from shoots to roots.The vine has to be maintained in a workable shape that willfacilitate vineyard management practices such as sprayingand harvesting.Pruning also achieves a balance between growth andsunshine by leaving enough leaves to ripen the fruitproduced in a canopy without too much shade and too muchsunshine. A Big Job - Pruning 104 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  105. 105. Grapevines are pruned in winter by cutting away most of the vine that is not required for the next season’s growth. Cane pruning is the most common method in New Zealand. The pruner selects two or four shoots (canes) from the previous season and trains them along the trellis wires. The other canes are removed, and new shoots sprout from the buds on the selected canes in spring.Cane Pruning 105Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  106. 106. Spur pruning is done on vines that retain one or two pairs of long canes (a permanent cordon) trained along a trellis system. Each winter, new canes that have grown along the permanent cordon are cut back to a small shoot containing two buds, known as a spur. In spring new growth develops from the buds on the spur.Spur Pruning 106Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  107. 107. This is done by regulating thenumber of buds left on themature one year old shoots(now called canes) during thepruning process and the spacingof those canes. The new shootsand their bunches, usually two,come from these buds. 107 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  108. 108. Cordon with Last Seasons CanesA cordon is a permanent vine armeither bi or unilaterally formedoff the trunk during the originaltraining process early in thevineyard’s development. On thisarm, spaced about a hand’s spanapart, are short permanentfruiting units that have been builtup over the years by cutting backthe canes that form on them,usually two. Cordon/2 Cane 108 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  109. 109. Last Seasons Canes During the pruning process the highest cane of the two is completely removed and the lowest one reduced to two buds or a spur. All other extraneous canes shooting from the arms and trunk are also removed although in some cases the former are used to start new spurs when old ones are not positioned correctly, are too high on the cordon orWith Highest Canes have become damaged. Last Seasons Canes 109 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  110. 110. Spur pruning is easy, quickand economical and catersto the growthcharacteristics of mostvarieties except thosewhose basal buds exhibitlow fruitfulness. Cane Removed 110 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  111. 111. Spurred to Two BudsLowest Cane 111Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  112. 112. Finished Spur Pruned Vine 112 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  113. 113. The vines have no permanentcordons, only one (unilateral)or two (bilateral) one year oldcanes laid along the fruitingwire from the head of the vinewhich forms on top of thetrunk. From these canes, newshoots with fruit emergeduring the growing season. Cane Vine before Pruning 113 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  114. 114. During pruning, the two year oldcanes and its canes are completelyremoved. A new cane formed froma two bud replacement spur lefton the head during the previousyear’s pruning is laid down on thewire and cut back to the requirednumber of buds, usually 8-15,depending on the vigour of thevine. The lower cane on this spuris reduced to two buds ready toform a cane and another spur forthe following year. Old Fruiting Cane Removed 114 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  115. 115. Four-arm KniffinThis is one of the most popular training systems for grapes.It gives good production, requires little summer pruning.The trellis consists of two wires. After the shoot reachesthe top of the trellis, the tip is cut off and tied to the caneon the top wire. 4 Cane 115 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  116. 116. Training System Advantages Disadvantages Reccomended4 (or 6) Arm Kniffen Inexpensive to Poorly adapted to Not recommended(Head/Cane or maintain due to lack mechanical harvestCordon/Spur) of shoot positioning Lower canopies can be and lack of tying if shaded by upper spur pruned canopy, resulting in reduced node fruitfulness and fruit qualityLow Cordon Spurs allow for Cordon allows for Viniferous with(Cordon/Spur) mechanical pruning or emergence of non- fruitful basal buds reduced manual count shoots in labour when pruning fruiting zone No cane tying requiredHigh Wire Cordon Large trunk and Large trunk and Hybrid or native(a.k.a. Top Wire cordon provide cordon more difficult cultivars where a lowCordon, Hudson reservoir for to replace when winter cost of production is Pro’s & Con’s of TrainingRiver Umbrella) carbohydrate storage injury occurs. Large desired(Cordon/Spur or Tying is minimized trunk and cordonCordon/Cane (if Renewal area not results in many sites 116pruned to longer shaded. Allows for for emergence of non- Author Joe Hall @2012 HLCspurs)) mechanical pruning count shoots
  117. 117. In a Nutshell! 117Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  118. 118. • Most fruit trees and vines require pruning to optimize fruit production capacity, grape vines are no exception.• Pruning the vines properly is the best way to make sure that crops will produce more fruits for years to come.• Growing and maintaining a grape vine is no small task; it requires time and can be frustrating.• Pruning is an important step to encourage new growth and stop possible diseases that may hamper the growth of your plants. 118 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  119. 119. 1. Pruning vines can help you control the size of your crops.It also maintains the quality of grapes and helps keep thegrowth of the vines manageable.2. People who are experts at pruning grape vines have evenworked this out into an exact science by counting each budthat grows on the branches.3. You can start pruning your grape vines pretty muchanytime during warmer climates after leaf loss in theautumn and before new buds grow in the spring. However,during cold climates, its best to wait until mid-winter beforepruning your vines. This is done so the vines will not beforced to grow too early and then get destroyed by the latefrost. 119 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  120. 120. 4. Pruning the grape vines starts by finding the thickest orstrongest stem on the grape vine. This will serve as its maintrunk. Trim all other stems that grow at the base of thetrunk.5. Pruning grape vines on the second years spring seasonentails cutting all the side stems except for the twostrongest ones on the side of the main trunk. Also pinch thetop of the vine to force side growth.6. Pruning the vines during the summer of the second yearentails cutting the top of the vines to induce fruitproduction. 120 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC
  121. 121. 7. Pruning vines during the spring and summer of the thirdyear keeps the basic framework of the vines.8. When pruning grape vines during the third winter, leavetwelve buds on each side of the trunk. These buds willproduce the fruits the next summer. Continue doing thisprocess each winter, making sure that there are alwaystwelve renewal buds on the stems to ensure fruit productionthe following summer. 121 Author Joe Hall @2012 HLC

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