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joegerstandt.comlinkedin.com/in/joegerstandt  facebook.com/joegerstandt   youtube.com/joegerstandt     twitter.com/joegers...
MTengineers
MTengineers      MT  management
MT             engineers  NASAmanagement                   MT               management
MT             engineers  NASAmanagement                   MT               management
MT             engineers  NASAmanagement                   MT               management
TuesdaymorningJanuary  28th  1986
MT             engineers  NASAmanagement                   MT               management
NASAmanagement                 MT             management
So, how do you do…consider                Whatdecision             makes itmaking…    1 - 10     better?
We simply decide  without thinking   much about the decision process.-Jim Nightingale
groupthink
groupthink:mode of thinking that happenswhen the desire for harmony in adecision-making group overrides arealistic apprais...
Group vs. Individual Decision Making              groups     individuals accuracy  speed creativity degree ofacceptance ef...
Group vs. Individual Decision Making              groups     individuals accuracy        x  speed                       x ...
Group vs. Individual Decision Making              groups     individuals accuracy        x  speed                       x ...
What looks likeresistance isoften a lack ofclarity.       -Switch, Dan and Chip Heath
diversity…
diversity…      difference
di·ver·si·ty[dih-vur-si-tee]noun, plural –ties1.the state or fact of beingdiverse; difference; unlikeness.2.variety; multi...
diversity…      difference      relational
diversity…      difference      relational      takes       many forms
diversity…      difference      relational      takes       many forms      disruptive
↑diversity = ↑variance in performance groups with more diversityperform better or worse than groups with less diversity
difference makes a difference…• “we vs. they” mentality• stereotyping• in-group favoritism• inter-group conflict• satisfac...
inclusion:     The actions that we take to include    additional difference in a process or                    group.•   f...
inclusion:     The actions that we take to include    additional difference in a process or                    group.•   f...
inclusion:     The actions that we take to include    additional difference in a process or                    group.•   f...
inclusion:     The actions that we take to include    additional difference in a process or                    group.•   f...
inclusion:     The actions that we take to include    additional difference in a process or                    group.•   f...
inclusion:     The actions that we take to include    additional difference in a process or                    group.•   f...
let’s takea break…
inclusion:          “…being at home…”            “…belonging…”“…able to bring my whole self to work…” “…feeling that my un...
identity diversity:Differences in our socialidentities.cognitive diversity:Differences in how we think andsolve problems.
di   id   ve   en   rt   si   it   ty   y
cognitive diversity The extent to which the group reflects differences in knowledge, including beliefs, preferences and pe...
analytical     risk taker rational       creative realistic       flexible  factual     synthesizer  logical     conceptua...
Cerebral Mode (abstract & intellectual thought)                       ANALYZE                          STRATEGIZE         ...
analytical     risk taker rational       creative realistic       flexible  factual     synthesizer  logical     conceptua...
analytical                 risk taker rational                   creative realistic                   flexible  factual   ...
analytical               risk taker rational                 creative realistic                 flexible  factual         ...
share information  quality decision making creative problem solving                innovation         fully utilize talent...
The Social Origin of Good Ideas        -Ronald Burt, University of ChicagoTeams with greater training and experiential div...
share information  quality decision making creative problem solving                innovation         fully utilize talent...
Where do good ideas come   from? That is simple…fromdifferences. Creativity comes from unlikely juxtapositions.     The be...
MBAHarvard University   100 people
team #1      MBAHarvard University   100 people
team #1                MBA          Harvard University             100 peopleteam #2
team #1                MBA          Harvard University             100 peopleteam #2
team #1 friends   withcognitivebenefits          MBA            Harvard University               100 peopleteam #2
These theorems that whensolving problems, diversity  can trump ability and that  when making predictions   diversity matte...
but…
team #1This team greatlyoverrates its ownproblem solving    capacity.
This team greatly           underrates its          problem solving              capacity.team #2
Taking it back…What doesthis mean foryourorganization    What needs   Where will?               to happen?   you start?
What’s in the toolbox?•perspectives•heuristics
perspectivesPerspectives are ways of representing situations and problems, how we  organize knowledge.
what do you see?
Do you seek out other perspectives?               peers        other departments            customers        other organiz...
heuristics    Heuristics are ways of     generating solutions.  Heuristics can vary in theirsophistication, and they can b...
…if you do notknow the answer,  choose “C”
please add these numbers…
please add these numbers…1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 =
please add these numbers…1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 =                 55
please add these numbers…1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 =                 55   …but how did you do it?
Draw a 9 dot matrix on a blankpaper …
Draw a 9 dot matrix on a blankpaper …Without lifting your pencil fromthe paper, draw exactly fourstraight, connected lines...
“…given enougheyeballs, all bugs  are shallow.”   -Eric Raymond    (Linus’ Law)
so…perspectives are how wesee things (problems andopportunities)heuristics are how weapproach or solve them
who      how
dysfunction
dysfunctional   dysfunctional agreement      disagreement
alsodysfunction
dysfunctionaldysfunctional     dysfunctional agreement     agreement    disagreement
always                   disagree lack of                             trust  dysfunctionaldysfunctional     dysfunctional ...
always                  always     agree               lack of     disagree lack of              honesty                tr...
dysfunctional dysfunctionaldysfunctionalsweet     agreement disagreement agreement            spot
Groups often fail to   outperform individualsbecause they prematurely move to consensus, withdissenting opinions beingsupp...
sweet spot
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them an...
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them an...
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them an...
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them an...
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them an...
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them & ...
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them an...
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them an...
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them an...
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them an...
let’s takea break…
If everyone is   thinking the same      thing, someone  isn’t thinking at all.-George S. Patton
share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them an...
• triaging / identifying  different kinds of decisions• unanimity, democracy,  consensus, boss
Group vs. Individual Decision Making              groups     individuals accuracy        x  speed                       x ...
brain basics1.threat vs. reward
brain basics1.threat vs. reward2.efficiency
brain basics1.threat vs. reward2.efficiency3.pattern recognition
when the    brainlocks onto a pattern,it does not    seekalternative
stereotypeAn idea or image; a mentalframework that contains our     knowledge, beliefs,  expectations and feelings    abou...
stereotypewaitress       librarian
smoke      bowleat hamburgers
smoke           knit      bowl       wear glasseseat hamburgers    eat salad
confirmation biasOur tendency to search for or interpret new information in      a way that confirms preconceptions and av...
fundamental attribution error An unjustified tendency to   assume that a person’sactions depend on what kind  of person th...
consider this… …a long time ago, in  a far away galaxy,   there was a mannamed Uri Treisman…
consider this…1.Lack of Adequate  Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
consider this…1.Lack of Adequate  Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
consider this…1.Lack of Adequate  Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
consider this…1.Lack of Adequate  Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
consider this…1.Lack of Adequate  Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
consider this…1.Power of Assumptions
consider this…1.Power of Assumptions2.Intentions vs. Outcomes
consider this…1.Power of Assumptions2.Intentions vs. Outcomes3.Power of Stereotypes
consider this…1.Power of Assumptions2.Intentions vs. Outcomes3.Power of Stereotypes4.Problem is “out there”
how
high                  low                      difference           difference   high                   learning          ...
high                  low                      difference           difference   high                   learning          ...
high                  low                      difference           difference   high                   learning          ...
high                  low                      difference           difference   high                   learning          ...
high                  low                      difference           difference   high                   learning          ...
high                        low                           difference                 difference   high              move t...
doing inclusion work to  have abeginners   mind
doing inclusion          listen         actively
doing inclusionask good  open  endedquestions
doing inclusionconvey & invite
doing inclusionexpress clearly and    completely
doing inclusionthirdchair
doing inclusiondisentangle intentions    and outcomes
doing inclusionbuild your discomfort       muscles
doing inclusion work to  have abeginners   mind
who
social network analysisFrom time to time people discuss  important matters with other people. Looking back over the  past ...
social network analysis    Consider the people youcommunicate with in order to get   your work done. Of all thepeople you ...
social network analysis Consider an important project orinitiative that you are involved in.Consider the people who would ...
social network analysis    Who do you socialize with? (spending time with people afterwork hours, visiting one another at ...
analysis•   group•   proximity•   expertise•   hierarchy•   gender•   age•   race•   ethnicity
analysis•   group       What do you have?•   proximity                What do you have a•   expertise                lot o...
Who do you discuss newideas with?Who do you turn to for help?Who do you get the mostvaluable information from?Who do you t...
consider a ten person team               1        2               34       5          6    7    8        9              10
12       7    3       10   4   86       9    5
12         7    3         10    4     86         9    5        …flow of information?
12       7    3       10      4    86       9    5                 …influence?
12       7    3       10      4    86       9    5                 …inclusion?
other ideas for mixing it up…• social technology• solution & idea contests• open space, appreciative inquiry,  etc.• mix u...
www.joegerstandt.com  joe.gerstandt@gmail.com www.twitter.com/joegerstandtwww.linkedin.com/in/joegerstandtwww.facebook.com...
resources• The Difference: How the Power of Diversity  Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and  Societies | Scott Page•...
resources• Achieving Success Through Social  Capital: Tapping Hidden Resources in  Your Personal and Business Network |  W...
the diversity advantage
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the diversity advantage
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the diversity advantage

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slides from a daylong leadership retreat facilitated by joe gerstandt focused on cognitive diversity, innovation and decision making
joegerstandt.com
@joegerstandt

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Transcript of "the diversity advantage"

  1. 1. joegerstandt.comlinkedin.com/in/joegerstandt facebook.com/joegerstandt youtube.com/joegerstandt twitter.com/joegerstandt slideshare.net/joeg
  2. 2. MTengineers
  3. 3. MTengineers MT management
  4. 4. MT engineers NASAmanagement MT management
  5. 5. MT engineers NASAmanagement MT management
  6. 6. MT engineers NASAmanagement MT management
  7. 7. TuesdaymorningJanuary 28th 1986
  8. 8. MT engineers NASAmanagement MT management
  9. 9. NASAmanagement MT management
  10. 10. So, how do you do…consider Whatdecision makes itmaking… 1 - 10 better?
  11. 11. We simply decide without thinking much about the decision process.-Jim Nightingale
  12. 12. groupthink
  13. 13. groupthink:mode of thinking that happenswhen the desire for harmony in adecision-making group overrides arealistic appraisal of alternatives.Group members try to minimizeconflict and reach a consensusdecision without critical evaluationof alternative ideas or viewpoints.
  14. 14. Group vs. Individual Decision Making groups individuals accuracy speed creativity degree ofacceptance efficiency
  15. 15. Group vs. Individual Decision Making groups individuals accuracy x speed x creativity x degree of xacceptance efficiency x
  16. 16. Group vs. Individual Decision Making groups individuals accuracy x speed x creativity x degree of xacceptance efficiency x
  17. 17. What looks likeresistance isoften a lack ofclarity. -Switch, Dan and Chip Heath
  18. 18. diversity…
  19. 19. diversity… difference
  20. 20. di·ver·si·ty[dih-vur-si-tee]noun, plural –ties1.the state or fact of beingdiverse; difference; unlikeness.2.variety; multiformity.3.a point of difference.
  21. 21. diversity… difference relational
  22. 22. diversity… difference relational takes many forms
  23. 23. diversity… difference relational takes many forms disruptive
  24. 24. ↑diversity = ↑variance in performance groups with more diversityperform better or worse than groups with less diversity
  25. 25. difference makes a difference…• “we vs. they” mentality• stereotyping• in-group favoritism• inter-group conflict• satisfaction, performance, turnover all get worse
  26. 26. inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
  27. 27. inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
  28. 28. inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
  29. 29. inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
  30. 30. inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
  31. 31. inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
  32. 32. let’s takea break…
  33. 33. inclusion: “…being at home…” “…belonging…”“…able to bring my whole self to work…” “…feeling that my unique contribution was valued…” “…my perspective is always considered…” “…I have a say in what happens…”
  34. 34. identity diversity:Differences in our socialidentities.cognitive diversity:Differences in how we think andsolve problems.
  35. 35. di id ve en rt si it ty y
  36. 36. cognitive diversity The extent to which the group reflects differences in knowledge, including beliefs, preferences and perspectives. -Miller, et al (1998) Strategic Management Journal
  37. 37. analytical risk taker rational creative realistic flexible factual synthesizer logical conceptualdefinitive intuitivepersistent passionate planner cooperativeorganized empatheticdisciplined expressive detailed harmonizing practical responsive -Ned Herrmann
  38. 38. Cerebral Mode (abstract & intellectual thought) ANALYZE STRATEGIZE Joys Joys Solving technical problems Conceptualizing Analyzing complex issues Innovating Logical approach Seeing the big picture Frustrations Frustrations Interpersonal aspects of situations Routine Meetings Ice breakers Details Right Mode Socializing in meetings StructureLeft Mode Joys Joys Implementing ideas Expressing ideas Developing plans Understanding group dynamics Follow-up and completion Team building Frustrations Frustrations “Blue Sky” thinking Logic ahead of feelings Not following the rules No interaction with people ORGANIZE PERSONALIZE Limbic Mode (concrete and emotional processing)
  39. 39. analytical risk taker rational creative realistic flexible factual synthesizer logical conceptualdefinitive intuitivepersistent passionate planner cooperativeorganized empatheticdisciplined expressive detailed harmonizing practical responsive
  40. 40. analytical risk taker rational creative realistic flexible factual synthesizer logical conceptualdefinitive intuitive potentialpersistent passionate planner cooperativeorganized empatheticdisciplined expressive detailed harmonizing practical responsive
  41. 41. analytical risk taker rational creative realistic flexible factual synthesizer logical conceptualdefinitive intuitive tensionpersistent passionate planner cooperativeorganized empatheticdisciplined expressive detailed harmonizing practical responsive
  42. 42. share information quality decision making creative problem solving innovation fully utilize talentdevelop new relationships manage relationships
  43. 43. The Social Origin of Good Ideas -Ronald Burt, University of ChicagoTeams with greater training and experiential diversity introduce more innovations. “Management Team Tenure and Organizational Outcomes” Finkelstein, Hambrick (1999) Administrative Science Quarterly &“Management and Innovation” Bantel, Jackson (2002) Strategic Management Journal
  44. 44. share information quality decision making creative problem solving innovation fully utilize talentdevelop new relationships manage relationships
  45. 45. Where do good ideas come from? That is simple…fromdifferences. Creativity comes from unlikely juxtapositions. The best way to maximize differences is to mix ages, cultures and disciplines. -Nicolas Negroponte, founder MIT Media Lab
  46. 46. MBAHarvard University 100 people
  47. 47. team #1 MBAHarvard University 100 people
  48. 48. team #1 MBA Harvard University 100 peopleteam #2
  49. 49. team #1 MBA Harvard University 100 peopleteam #2
  50. 50. team #1 friends withcognitivebenefits MBA Harvard University 100 peopleteam #2
  51. 51. These theorems that whensolving problems, diversity can trump ability and that when making predictions diversity matters just as much as ability are not political statements. They are mathematical truths. -Scott Page
  52. 52. but…
  53. 53. team #1This team greatlyoverrates its ownproblem solving capacity.
  54. 54. This team greatly underrates its problem solving capacity.team #2
  55. 55. Taking it back…What doesthis mean foryourorganization What needs Where will? to happen? you start?
  56. 56. What’s in the toolbox?•perspectives•heuristics
  57. 57. perspectivesPerspectives are ways of representing situations and problems, how we organize knowledge.
  58. 58. what do you see?
  59. 59. Do you seek out other perspectives? peers other departments customers other organizations other professions
  60. 60. heuristics Heuristics are ways of generating solutions. Heuristics can vary in theirsophistication, and they can be immediate reactions to situations or simple rules of thumb.
  61. 61. …if you do notknow the answer, choose “C”
  62. 62. please add these numbers…
  63. 63. please add these numbers…1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 =
  64. 64. please add these numbers…1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 = 55
  65. 65. please add these numbers…1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 = 55 …but how did you do it?
  66. 66. Draw a 9 dot matrix on a blankpaper …
  67. 67. Draw a 9 dot matrix on a blankpaper …Without lifting your pencil fromthe paper, draw exactly fourstraight, connected lines that willgo through all nine dots, butthrough each dot only once.
  68. 68. “…given enougheyeballs, all bugs are shallow.” -Eric Raymond (Linus’ Law)
  69. 69. so…perspectives are how wesee things (problems andopportunities)heuristics are how weapproach or solve them
  70. 70. who how
  71. 71. dysfunction
  72. 72. dysfunctional dysfunctional agreement disagreement
  73. 73. alsodysfunction
  74. 74. dysfunctionaldysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement
  75. 75. always disagree lack of trust dysfunctionaldysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement us vs. them personal conflict
  76. 76. always always agree lack of disagree lack of honesty trust dysfunctionaldysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement avoid us vs. conflict meeting them personal after the conflict meeting
  77. 77. dysfunctional dysfunctionaldysfunctionalsweet agreement disagreement agreement spot
  78. 78. Groups often fail to outperform individualsbecause they prematurely move to consensus, withdissenting opinions beingsuppressed or dismissed.-Hackman, Morris (1975) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology
  79. 79. sweet spot
  80. 80. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  81. 81. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  82. 82. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  83. 83. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  84. 84. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  85. 85. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them & theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  86. 86. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  87. 87. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  88. 88. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  89. 89. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  90. 90. let’s takea break…
  91. 91. If everyone is thinking the same thing, someone isn’t thinking at all.-George S. Patton
  92. 92. share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
  93. 93. • triaging / identifying different kinds of decisions• unanimity, democracy, consensus, boss
  94. 94. Group vs. Individual Decision Making groups individuals accuracy x speed x creativity x degree of xacceptance efficiency x
  95. 95. brain basics1.threat vs. reward
  96. 96. brain basics1.threat vs. reward2.efficiency
  97. 97. brain basics1.threat vs. reward2.efficiency3.pattern recognition
  98. 98. when the brainlocks onto a pattern,it does not seekalternative
  99. 99. stereotypeAn idea or image; a mentalframework that contains our knowledge, beliefs, expectations and feelings about a social group. Stereotypes allow for no individuality.
  100. 100. stereotypewaitress librarian
  101. 101. smoke bowleat hamburgers
  102. 102. smoke knit bowl wear glasseseat hamburgers eat salad
  103. 103. confirmation biasOur tendency to search for or interpret new information in a way that confirms preconceptions and avoids information and interpretations which contradict prior beliefs.
  104. 104. fundamental attribution error An unjustified tendency to assume that a person’sactions depend on what kind of person that person is rather than on the social environmental forces influencing the person.
  105. 105. consider this… …a long time ago, in a far away galaxy, there was a mannamed Uri Treisman…
  106. 106. consider this…1.Lack of Adequate Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
  107. 107. consider this…1.Lack of Adequate Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
  108. 108. consider this…1.Lack of Adequate Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
  109. 109. consider this…1.Lack of Adequate Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
  110. 110. consider this…1.Lack of Adequate Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
  111. 111. consider this…1.Power of Assumptions
  112. 112. consider this…1.Power of Assumptions2.Intentions vs. Outcomes
  113. 113. consider this…1.Power of Assumptions2.Intentions vs. Outcomes3.Power of Stereotypes
  114. 114. consider this…1.Power of Assumptions2.Intentions vs. Outcomes3.Power of Stereotypes4.Problem is “out there”
  115. 115. how
  116. 116. high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
  117. 117. high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
  118. 118. high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
  119. 119. high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
  120. 120. high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
  121. 121. high low difference difference high move to low difference: move to low Tell a joke. interaction:interaction State a shared value or Stop communicating. belief. Leave the area. Share personal experience. Explain yourself. Pick a low difference topic. Pick a low communication topic. low move to high move to high interaction: difference:interaction Ask a question. Amplify little Use another medium. differences Listen more. Play devils advocate Pick a high communication Pick a high differenceDifference Matrix topic. topicGlenda Eoyang HSDI
  122. 122. doing inclusion work to have abeginners mind
  123. 123. doing inclusion listen actively
  124. 124. doing inclusionask good open endedquestions
  125. 125. doing inclusionconvey & invite
  126. 126. doing inclusionexpress clearly and completely
  127. 127. doing inclusionthirdchair
  128. 128. doing inclusiondisentangle intentions and outcomes
  129. 129. doing inclusionbuild your discomfort muscles
  130. 130. doing inclusion work to have abeginners mind
  131. 131. who
  132. 132. social network analysisFrom time to time people discuss important matters with other people. Looking back over the past six months, who are thepeople with whom you discussed matters important to you?
  133. 133. social network analysis Consider the people youcommunicate with in order to get your work done. Of all thepeople you have communicated with during the last six months,who has been the most important for getting your work done?
  134. 134. social network analysis Consider an important project orinitiative that you are involved in.Consider the people who would be influential for getting it approved or obtaining the resources you need. Who would you talk to, to get the support you need?
  135. 135. social network analysis Who do you socialize with? (spending time with people afterwork hours, visiting one another at home, going to social events, outfor meals and so on) Over the last6 months, who are the main people with whom you have socialized informally?
  136. 136. analysis• group• proximity• expertise• hierarchy• gender• age• race• ethnicity
  137. 137. analysis• group What do you have?• proximity What do you have a• expertise lot of?• hierarchy• gender What do you not• age have?• race What do you need to• ethnicity do differently?
  138. 138. Who do you discuss newideas with?Who do you turn to for help?Who do you get the mostvaluable information from?Who do you trust to keepyour best interests in mind?
  139. 139. consider a ten person team 1 2 34 5 6 7 8 9 10
  140. 140. 12 7 3 10 4 86 9 5
  141. 141. 12 7 3 10 4 86 9 5 …flow of information?
  142. 142. 12 7 3 10 4 86 9 5 …influence?
  143. 143. 12 7 3 10 4 86 9 5 …inclusion?
  144. 144. other ideas for mixing it up…• social technology• solution & idea contests• open space, appreciative inquiry, etc.• mix up assignment, teams, spaces• more social• communities of practice
  145. 145. www.joegerstandt.com joe.gerstandt@gmail.com www.twitter.com/joegerstandtwww.linkedin.com/in/joegerstandtwww.facebook.com/joegerstandt 402.740.7081
  146. 146. resources• The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies | Scott Page• The Wisdom of Crowds | James Surowiecki• A Whole New Mind | Daniel Pink• The Medici Effect | Frans Johansson• The Geography of Thought | Richard Nisbett
  147. 147. resources• Achieving Success Through Social Capital: Tapping Hidden Resources in Your Personal and Business Network | Wayne E. Baker• The Whole Brain Business Book Ned Herrmann• Competitive Advantage Through People: Unleashing the Power of the Work Force | Jeffrey Pfeffer
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