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the diversity advantage
 

the diversity advantage

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slides from a daylong leadership retreat facilitated by joe gerstandt focused on cognitive diversity, innovation and decision making

slides from a daylong leadership retreat facilitated by joe gerstandt focused on cognitive diversity, innovation and decision making
joegerstandt.com
@joegerstandt

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    the diversity advantage the diversity advantage Presentation Transcript

    • joegerstandt.comlinkedin.com/in/joegerstandt facebook.com/joegerstandt youtube.com/joegerstandt twitter.com/joegerstandt slideshare.net/joeg
    • MTengineers
    • MTengineers MT management
    • MT engineers NASAmanagement MT management
    • MT engineers NASAmanagement MT management
    • MT engineers NASAmanagement MT management
    • TuesdaymorningJanuary 28th 1986
    • MT engineers NASAmanagement MT management
    • NASAmanagement MT management
    • So, how do you do…consider Whatdecision makes itmaking… 1 - 10 better?
    • We simply decide without thinking much about the decision process.-Jim Nightingale
    • groupthink
    • groupthink:mode of thinking that happenswhen the desire for harmony in adecision-making group overrides arealistic appraisal of alternatives.Group members try to minimizeconflict and reach a consensusdecision without critical evaluationof alternative ideas or viewpoints.
    • Group vs. Individual Decision Making groups individuals accuracy speed creativity degree ofacceptance efficiency
    • Group vs. Individual Decision Making groups individuals accuracy x speed x creativity x degree of xacceptance efficiency x
    • Group vs. Individual Decision Making groups individuals accuracy x speed x creativity x degree of xacceptance efficiency x
    • What looks likeresistance isoften a lack ofclarity. -Switch, Dan and Chip Heath
    • diversity…
    • diversity… difference
    • di·ver·si·ty[dih-vur-si-tee]noun, plural –ties1.the state or fact of beingdiverse; difference; unlikeness.2.variety; multiformity.3.a point of difference.
    • diversity… difference relational
    • diversity… difference relational takes many forms
    • diversity… difference relational takes many forms disruptive
    • ↑diversity = ↑variance in performance groups with more diversityperform better or worse than groups with less diversity
    • difference makes a difference…• “we vs. they” mentality• stereotyping• in-group favoritism• inter-group conflict• satisfaction, performance, turnover all get worse
    • inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
    • inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
    • inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
    • inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
    • inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
    • inclusion: The actions that we take to include additional difference in a process or group.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks• balanced outcomes
    • let’s takea break…
    • inclusion: “…being at home…” “…belonging…”“…able to bring my whole self to work…” “…feeling that my unique contribution was valued…” “…my perspective is always considered…” “…I have a say in what happens…”
    • identity diversity:Differences in our socialidentities.cognitive diversity:Differences in how we think andsolve problems.
    • di id ve en rt si it ty y
    • cognitive diversity The extent to which the group reflects differences in knowledge, including beliefs, preferences and perspectives. -Miller, et al (1998) Strategic Management Journal
    • analytical risk taker rational creative realistic flexible factual synthesizer logical conceptualdefinitive intuitivepersistent passionate planner cooperativeorganized empatheticdisciplined expressive detailed harmonizing practical responsive -Ned Herrmann
    • Cerebral Mode (abstract & intellectual thought) ANALYZE STRATEGIZE Joys Joys Solving technical problems Conceptualizing Analyzing complex issues Innovating Logical approach Seeing the big picture Frustrations Frustrations Interpersonal aspects of situations Routine Meetings Ice breakers Details Right Mode Socializing in meetings StructureLeft Mode Joys Joys Implementing ideas Expressing ideas Developing plans Understanding group dynamics Follow-up and completion Team building Frustrations Frustrations “Blue Sky” thinking Logic ahead of feelings Not following the rules No interaction with people ORGANIZE PERSONALIZE Limbic Mode (concrete and emotional processing)
    • analytical risk taker rational creative realistic flexible factual synthesizer logical conceptualdefinitive intuitivepersistent passionate planner cooperativeorganized empatheticdisciplined expressive detailed harmonizing practical responsive
    • analytical risk taker rational creative realistic flexible factual synthesizer logical conceptualdefinitive intuitive potentialpersistent passionate planner cooperativeorganized empatheticdisciplined expressive detailed harmonizing practical responsive
    • analytical risk taker rational creative realistic flexible factual synthesizer logical conceptualdefinitive intuitive tensionpersistent passionate planner cooperativeorganized empatheticdisciplined expressive detailed harmonizing practical responsive
    • share information quality decision making creative problem solving innovation fully utilize talentdevelop new relationships manage relationships
    • The Social Origin of Good Ideas -Ronald Burt, University of ChicagoTeams with greater training and experiential diversity introduce more innovations. “Management Team Tenure and Organizational Outcomes” Finkelstein, Hambrick (1999) Administrative Science Quarterly &“Management and Innovation” Bantel, Jackson (2002) Strategic Management Journal
    • share information quality decision making creative problem solving innovation fully utilize talentdevelop new relationships manage relationships
    • Where do good ideas come from? That is simple…fromdifferences. Creativity comes from unlikely juxtapositions. The best way to maximize differences is to mix ages, cultures and disciplines. -Nicolas Negroponte, founder MIT Media Lab
    • MBAHarvard University 100 people
    • team #1 MBAHarvard University 100 people
    • team #1 MBA Harvard University 100 peopleteam #2
    • team #1 MBA Harvard University 100 peopleteam #2
    • team #1 friends withcognitivebenefits MBA Harvard University 100 peopleteam #2
    • These theorems that whensolving problems, diversity can trump ability and that when making predictions diversity matters just as much as ability are not political statements. They are mathematical truths. -Scott Page
    • but…
    • team #1This team greatlyoverrates its ownproblem solving capacity.
    • This team greatly underrates its problem solving capacity.team #2
    • Taking it back…What doesthis mean foryourorganization What needs Where will? to happen? you start?
    • What’s in the toolbox?•perspectives•heuristics
    • perspectivesPerspectives are ways of representing situations and problems, how we organize knowledge.
    • what do you see?
    • Do you seek out other perspectives? peers other departments customers other organizations other professions
    • heuristics Heuristics are ways of generating solutions. Heuristics can vary in theirsophistication, and they can be immediate reactions to situations or simple rules of thumb.
    • …if you do notknow the answer, choose “C”
    • please add these numbers…
    • please add these numbers…1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 =
    • please add these numbers…1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 = 55
    • please add these numbers…1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 = 55 …but how did you do it?
    • Draw a 9 dot matrix on a blankpaper …
    • Draw a 9 dot matrix on a blankpaper …Without lifting your pencil fromthe paper, draw exactly fourstraight, connected lines that willgo through all nine dots, butthrough each dot only once.
    • “…given enougheyeballs, all bugs are shallow.” -Eric Raymond (Linus’ Law)
    • so…perspectives are how wesee things (problems andopportunities)heuristics are how weapproach or solve them
    • who how
    • dysfunction
    • dysfunctional dysfunctional agreement disagreement
    • alsodysfunction
    • dysfunctionaldysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement
    • always disagree lack of trust dysfunctionaldysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement us vs. them personal conflict
    • always always agree lack of disagree lack of honesty trust dysfunctionaldysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement avoid us vs. conflict meeting them personal after the conflict meeting
    • dysfunctional dysfunctionaldysfunctionalsweet agreement disagreement agreement spot
    • Groups often fail to outperform individualsbecause they prematurely move to consensus, withdissenting opinions beingsuppressed or dismissed.-Hackman, Morris (1975) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology
    • sweet spot
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them & theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • let’s takea break…
    • If everyone is thinking the same thing, someone isn’t thinking at all.-George S. Patton
    • share difference & commonalityexplicit agreementsinquiry vs. advocacysolutions vs. problemsempathyi & we vs. them and theymake space for noveltylearn from failuremeta conversations
    • • triaging / identifying different kinds of decisions• unanimity, democracy, consensus, boss
    • Group vs. Individual Decision Making groups individuals accuracy x speed x creativity x degree of xacceptance efficiency x
    • brain basics1.threat vs. reward
    • brain basics1.threat vs. reward2.efficiency
    • brain basics1.threat vs. reward2.efficiency3.pattern recognition
    • when the brainlocks onto a pattern,it does not seekalternative
    • stereotypeAn idea or image; a mentalframework that contains our knowledge, beliefs, expectations and feelings about a social group. Stereotypes allow for no individuality.
    • stereotypewaitress librarian
    • smoke bowleat hamburgers
    • smoke knit bowl wear glasseseat hamburgers eat salad
    • confirmation biasOur tendency to search for or interpret new information in a way that confirms preconceptions and avoids information and interpretations which contradict prior beliefs.
    • fundamental attribution error An unjustified tendency to assume that a person’sactions depend on what kind of person that person is rather than on the social environmental forces influencing the person.
    • consider this… …a long time ago, in a far away galaxy, there was a mannamed Uri Treisman…
    • consider this…1.Lack of Adequate Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
    • consider this…1.Lack of Adequate Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
    • consider this…1.Lack of Adequate Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
    • consider this…1.Lack of Adequate Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
    • consider this…1.Lack of Adequate Preparation2.Socio-economic Status3.Lack of Family Support4.Lack of Motivation
    • consider this…1.Power of Assumptions
    • consider this…1.Power of Assumptions2.Intentions vs. Outcomes
    • consider this…1.Power of Assumptions2.Intentions vs. Outcomes3.Power of Stereotypes
    • consider this…1.Power of Assumptions2.Intentions vs. Outcomes3.Power of Stereotypes4.Problem is “out there”
    • how
    • high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
    • high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
    • high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
    • high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
    • high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
    • high low difference difference high move to low difference: move to low Tell a joke. interaction:interaction State a shared value or Stop communicating. belief. Leave the area. Share personal experience. Explain yourself. Pick a low difference topic. Pick a low communication topic. low move to high move to high interaction: difference:interaction Ask a question. Amplify little Use another medium. differences Listen more. Play devils advocate Pick a high communication Pick a high differenceDifference Matrix topic. topicGlenda Eoyang HSDI
    • doing inclusion work to have abeginners mind
    • doing inclusion listen actively
    • doing inclusionask good open endedquestions
    • doing inclusionconvey & invite
    • doing inclusionexpress clearly and completely
    • doing inclusionthirdchair
    • doing inclusiondisentangle intentions and outcomes
    • doing inclusionbuild your discomfort muscles
    • doing inclusion work to have abeginners mind
    • who
    • social network analysisFrom time to time people discuss important matters with other people. Looking back over the past six months, who are thepeople with whom you discussed matters important to you?
    • social network analysis Consider the people youcommunicate with in order to get your work done. Of all thepeople you have communicated with during the last six months,who has been the most important for getting your work done?
    • social network analysis Consider an important project orinitiative that you are involved in.Consider the people who would be influential for getting it approved or obtaining the resources you need. Who would you talk to, to get the support you need?
    • social network analysis Who do you socialize with? (spending time with people afterwork hours, visiting one another at home, going to social events, outfor meals and so on) Over the last6 months, who are the main people with whom you have socialized informally?
    • analysis• group• proximity• expertise• hierarchy• gender• age• race• ethnicity
    • analysis• group What do you have?• proximity What do you have a• expertise lot of?• hierarchy• gender What do you not• age have?• race What do you need to• ethnicity do differently?
    • Who do you discuss newideas with?Who do you turn to for help?Who do you get the mostvaluable information from?Who do you trust to keepyour best interests in mind?
    • consider a ten person team 1 2 34 5 6 7 8 9 10
    • 12 7 3 10 4 86 9 5
    • 12 7 3 10 4 86 9 5 …flow of information?
    • 12 7 3 10 4 86 9 5 …influence?
    • 12 7 3 10 4 86 9 5 …inclusion?
    • other ideas for mixing it up…• social technology• solution & idea contests• open space, appreciative inquiry, etc.• mix up assignment, teams, spaces• more social• communities of practice
    • www.joegerstandt.com joe.gerstandt@gmail.com www.twitter.com/joegerstandtwww.linkedin.com/in/joegerstandtwww.facebook.com/joegerstandt 402.740.7081
    • resources• The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies | Scott Page• The Wisdom of Crowds | James Surowiecki• A Whole New Mind | Daniel Pink• The Medici Effect | Frans Johansson• The Geography of Thought | Richard Nisbett
    • resources• Achieving Success Through Social Capital: Tapping Hidden Resources in Your Personal and Business Network | Wayne E. Baker• The Whole Brain Business Book Ned Herrmann• Competitive Advantage Through People: Unleashing the Power of the Work Force | Jeffrey Pfeffer