diversity… difference takes many forms disruptive
↑diversity = ↑variance in performance groups with more diversityperform better or worse than groups with less diversity
identity diversity:Differences in our socialidentities.cognitive diversity:Differences in how we think andsolve problems.
The Social Origin of Good Ideas -Ronald Burt, University of ChicagoTeams with greater training and experiential diversity introduce more innovations. “Management Team Tenure and Organizational Outcomes” Finkelstein, Hambrick (1999) Administrative Science Quarterly &“Management and Innovation” Bantel, Jackson (2002) Strategic Management Journal
sharing information making meaning from information quality decision makingcreative problem solving innovation fully utilizing talent
always disagree lack of trust dysfunctionaldysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement us vs. them personal conflict
always always agree lack of disagree lack of honesty trust dysfunctionaldysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement avoid us vs. conflict meeting them personal after the conflict meeting
Groups often fail to outperform individualsbecause they prematurely move to consensus, withdissenting opinions beingsuppressed or dismissed.-Hackman, Morris (1975) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology
Minority dissent, even dissent that is wrong, stimulates divergent thought. Issuesand problems are considered from more perspectives and group members find more correct answers. -Nemeth, Staw (1989) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology
Where do good ideas come from? That is simple…fromdifferences. Creativity comes from unlikely juxtapositions. The best way to maximize differences is to mix ages, cultures and disciplines. -Nicolas Negroponte, founder MIT Media Lab
high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
high low difference difference high move to low difference: move to low Tell a joke. interaction:interaction State a shared value or Stop communicating. belief. Leave the area. Share personal experience. Explain yourself. Pick a low difference topic. Pick a low communication topic. low move to high move to high interaction: difference:interaction Ask a question. Amplify little Use another medium. differences Listen more. Play devils advocate Pick a high communication Pick a high differenceDifference Matrix topic. topicGlenda Eoyang HSDI
social network analysisFrom time to time people discuss important matters with other people. Looking back over the past six months, who are thepeople with whom you discussed matters important to you?
social network analysis Consider the people youcommunicate with in order to get your work done. Of all thepeople you have communicated with during the last six months,who has been the most important for getting your work done?
social network analysis Consider an important project orinitiative that you are involved in.Consider the people who would be influential for getting it approved or obtaining the resources you need. Who would you talk to, to get the support you need?
social network analysis Who do you socialize with? (spending time with people afterwork hours, visiting one another at home, going to social events, outfor meals and so on) Over the last6 months, who are the main people with whom you have socialized informally?
other ideas for mixing it up…• social technology• solution & idea contests• open space technology• decision accelerator• random assignment• more social• communities of practice
resources• The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies | Scott Page• The Wisdom of Crowds | James Surowiecki• A Whole New Mind | Daniel Pink• The Medici Effect | Frans Johansson• The Geography of Thought | Richard Nisbett
resources• Achieving Success Through Social Capital: Tapping Hidden Resources in Your Personal and Business Network | Wayne E. Baker• The Whole Brain Business Book Ned Herrmann• Competitive Advantage Through People: Unleashing the Power of the Work Force | Jeffrey Pfeffer
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