diversity… difference takes many forms relational
diversity… difference takes many forms relational disruptive
↑diversity = ↑variance in performance groups with more diversityperform better or worse than groups with less diversity
inclusion: Our ability to include difference and toutilize the resources that we have access to.• fairness of employment practices• openness to difference• inclusion in decision making• integration of networks
inclusion: “…being at home…” “…belonging…”“…able to bring my whole self to work…” “…feeling that my unique contribution was valued…” “…my perspective is always considered…” “…I have a say in what happens…”
identity diversity:Differences in our socialidentities.cognitive diversity:Differences in how we think andsolve problems.
Cerebral Mode (abstract & intellectual thought) ANALYZE STRATEGIZE Joys Joys Solving technical problems Conceptualizing Analyzing complex issues Innovating Logical approach Seeing the big picture Frustrations Frustrations Interpersonal aspects of situations Routine Meetings Ice breakers Details Right Mode Socializing in meetings StructureLeft Mode Joys Joys Implementing ideas Expressing ideas Developing plans Understanding group dynamics Follow-up and completion Team building Frustrations Frustrations “Blue Sky” thinking Logic ahead of feelings Not following the rules No interaction with people ORGANIZE PERSONALIZE Limbic Mode (concrete and emotional processing)
always disagree lack of trust dysfunctionaldysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement us vs. them personal conflict
always always agree lack of disagree lack of honesty trust dysfunctionaldysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement avoid us vs. conflict meeting them personal after the conflict meeting
Groups often fail to outperform individualsbecause they prematurely move to consensus, withdissenting opinions beingsuppressed or dismissed.-Hackman, Morris (1975) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology
Minority dissent, even dissent that is wrong, stimulates divergent thought. Issuesand problems are considered from more perspectives and group members find more correct answers. -Nemeth, Staw (1989) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology
Where do good ideas come from? That is simple…fromdifferences. Creativity comes from unlikely juxtapositions. The best way to maximize differences is to mix ages, cultures and disciplines. -Nicolas Negroponte, founder MIT Media Lab
stereotypeAn idea or image; a mentalframework that contains our knowledge, beliefs, expectations and feelings about a social group. Stereotypes allow for no individuality.
confirmation biasOur tendency to search for or interpret new information in a way that confirms preconceptions and avoids information and interpretations which contradict prior beliefs.
fundamental attribution error An unjustified tendency to assume that a person’sactions depend on what kind of person that person is rather than on the social environmental forces influencing the person.
high low difference difference high learning celebration growth reinforcementinteraction self-organization energy stress low productivity conflict wasted energy exhaustion factions low reflection comfort safety belonginginteraction clearing the decks rest and recovery isolation boredom misunderstanding stagnationDifference MatrixGlenda Eoyang HSDI frustration death
high low difference difference high move to low difference: move to low Tell a joke. interaction:interaction State a shared value or Stop communicating. belief. Leave the area. Share personal experience. Explain yourself. Pick a low difference topic. Pick a low communication topic. low move to high move to high interaction: difference:interaction Ask a question. Amplify little Use another medium. differences Listen more. Play devils advocate Pick a high communication Pick a high differenceDifference Matrix topic. topicGlenda Eoyang HSDI
personal network analysisFrom time to time people discuss important matters with other people. Looking back over the past six months, who are thepeople with whom you discussed matters important to you?
personal network analysis Consider the people youcommunicate with in order to get your work done. Of all thepeople you have communicated with during the last six months,who has been the most important for getting your work done?
personal network analysis Consider an important project orinitiative that you are involved in.Consider the people who would be influential for getting it approved or obtaining the resources you need. Who would you talk to, to get the support you need?
personal network analysis Who do you socialize with? (spending time with people afterwork hours, visiting one another at home, going to social events, outfor meals and so on) Over the last6 months, who are the main people with whom you have socialized informally?
resources• The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies | Scott Page• The Wisdom of Crowds | James Surowiecki• A Whole New Mind | Daniel Pink• The Medici Effect | Frans Johansson• The Geography of Thought | Richard Nisbett
resources• Achieving Success Through Social Capital: Tapping Hidden Resources in Your Personal and Business Network | Wayne E. Baker• The Whole Brain Business Book Ned Herrmann• Competitive Advantage Through People: Unleashing the Power of the Work Force | Jeffrey Pfeffer