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Westward expansion(1)

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  • 1. Westward Expansion
  • 2. CAUSES OF WESTWARD EXPANSION Oregon had fertile land Texas was ideal for raising cattle and growing cotton Many Americans believed in “Manifest Destiny” EFFECTS OF WESTWARD MOVEMENT U.S. annexed Texas Britain and the U.S. divided the Oregon Territory U.S. gained southwestern territory after Mexican War U.S. made The Gadsden Purchase Gold was discovered in California Mormons sought a safe home The U.S. stretched “from sea to shining sea” Cotton Kingdom spreads
  • 3. By the time you are finished studying this unit you should understand the following ideas: The period from 1790-1850 is defined by growth of territory and federal power There were significant changes ushered in by the first presidential administrations Not everyone benefited from the nation's growth
  • 4. Westward Expansion AKA “Manifest Destiny”
  • 5. DEFINITIONS… “Clear or obvious” MANIFEST: DESTINY: “Something that is sure to happen” MANIFEST DESTINY: “Belief that the United States had the right to all the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and was destined to own it”
  • 6. Many Americans saw the culture and democratic government of the U.S. as the best in the world The U.S. had the right and duty to spread its rule Many Americans believed that they were better than the Native Americans and Mexicans Racism and ethnocentrism justified taking over lands belonging to the Natives and Mexicans
  • 7. WHAT? MORE DEFINITIONS? “Hatred or intolerance of another race” RACISM: ETHNOCENTRISM: “Belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group or culture” “The tendency to view other groups or cultures from the perspective of one's own” “The idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others”
  • 8. The Louisiana Purchase (1803)
  • 9. In 1795, Spain signed a treaty with Napoleon Bonaparte , the ruler of France, giving the Louisiana Territory back to France
  • 10. President Thomas Jefferson feared that Napoleon might attempt to build an empire in North America Jefferson wanted to be sure that Americans would always be able to ship their goods through the port of New Orleans
  • 11. Jefferson offered Napoleon $2 million for New Orleans and Western Florida and was willing to offer as much as $10 million Napoleon needed money to finance his wars in Europe, so offered ALL of the Louisiana Territory for $15 million DOUBLING THE SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES!
  • 12. Did the U.S. Constitution give Jefferson the power to purchase this land from Napoleon? CONSTITUTIONALITY? Jefferson had a very strict interpretation of the Constitution and believed strongly in a small Federal government
  • 13. CONSTITUTIONALITY? Jefferson reasoned that he COULD purchase the territory because the Constitution specifically allows the President to make treaties
  • 14. Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • 15. Few Americans knew anything about the Louisiana Purchase Territory Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the land In May of 1804, Lewis and Clark began their expedition from St. Louis Sacajawea, a Shoshone native woman, offered to guide the explorers across the mountains and translate with other natives On November 7, 1805, Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific Ocean
  • 16. The War of 1812
  • 17. Britain was at war with France in Europe The U.S. as a neutral power, had the right to trade with both “War Hawks” in Congress wanted war with Britain: Land hunger – Canada? Britain was interfering with American trade British Royal Navy was impressing American sailors British were supporting hostile Natives in Spanish-owned Florida
  • 18. MILITARY CAMPAIGNS American three-pronged attack on Canada: Niagra, Detroit, Lake Champlain Failed due to American incompetence U.S. naval victories on Lake Erie and Lake Champlain prevented British counter-attacks British Royal Navy overwhelmed the small American navy and blockaded the entire eastern coastline Americans burn York (now Toronto)
  • 19. MILITARY CAMPAIGNS 4,000 British troops attacked Washington, D.C. and burned the Capitol and White House Americans held out at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, where Francis Scott Key wrote “The Star Spangled Banner” during the British bombardment of the fort
  • 20. WAR’S CONCLUSION Napoleon abdicated in April 1814, leaving America alone to fight the British Treaty of Ghent Ended the war in December, 1814 Returned all land to pre-war claims Recognized pre-war U.S / Canadian border Nothing was settled
  • 21. "A Hundred Years Peace" The signature of the Treaty of Ghent between Great Britain and the United States of America - 24 December 1814
  • 22. BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS Took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812 American General Andrew Jackson defeated invading British forces attacking New Orleans The battle took place after the treaty of peace was signed because the news did not reach New Orleans until February, 1815
  • 23. General Andrew Jackson oversees the defense of New Orleans against British attack, January 8, 1815. Jackson's resounding victory in the war's largest battle propelled him all the way to the White House.
  • 24. Adams-Onis Treaty (1821)
  • 25. The U.S. was having many conflicts with the Seminole natives in Spanish-owned Florida President James Monroe purchased Florida from Spain for $5 million Spain needed the money to fight the Mexican War of Independence against the people of Mexico Which Spain would lose later in 1821… allowing the U.S. to later bully a weak new Mexican government
  • 26. The Monroe Doctrine
  • 27. Stated that the U.S. would not interfere in the affairs of European nations or European colonies in the Americas Warned European nations not to interfere with Latin America Britain supported the statement, and with its strong navy, could enforce the doctrine
  • 28. anDrew Jackson’s Presidency and the Indian Removal Act
  • 29. “Jacksonian Democracy” • During the colonial and federal period, the power rested in a few, Jackson tried to change that. • The Kitchen Cabinet: – He paid little attention to cabinet – politicians. – He relied on friends around the country who were closer to the people. • Supported Rotation in Office: – Democracy would be better if people served only for a short period of time.
  • 30. • He pushed to extended voting rights to more “white people”. • He advocated throwing out the property requirements within the states. • Pushed to have presidential electors chosen by popular vote rather then by state legislatures.
  • 31. The National Bank Veto • Jackson opposed the National Bank. He argued that it put way to much power into the hands of a few people. • The First National Bank, was up for renewal, in 1836.
  • 32. Law signed by President Andrew forced Native Americans to sign treaties agreeing to move west of the Mississippi River Most whites at the time thought that land was only a vast desert and didn’t want it In the 1830’s, some 100,000 natives were driven from their homes and forced west by the U.S. government
  • 33. THE TRAIL OF TEARS In 1838, the Cherokees and other tribes were forced at gunpoint to move west The Cherokees and others trekked hundreds of miles west Many suffered from exposure, disease, and starvation while heading west and many died 4,000 of the 15,000 Cherokees forced west died during this long, sorrowful journey that became known as the “Trail of Tears”
  • 34. Texas Annexation
  • 35. Hundreds of Americans began moving into the Mexican province of Texas led by Stephen Austin Mexican Dictator Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna demanded that the Americans obey Mexican laws: No slavery Convert to Roman Catholicism Limits on American settlement
  • 36. American settlers, led by Sam Houston, revolted and declared Texas to be an independent republic (the Lone Star Republic) in March, 1836 Santa Anna led the Mexican army against the Alamo in San Antonio, killing every one of it’s outnumbered Texan defenders Including Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett
  • 37. “The Fall of the Alamo” by Robert Jenkins, depicting Davy Crockett in a charge at the Mexican troops who have breeched the walls of the Spanish mission
  • 38. “You May Take Our Lives, But You Will Never Take Our Freedom” by Kirk Stirnweis
  • 39. Shouting, “Remember the Alamo,” Sam Houston led a Texan counterattack at the Battle of San Jacinto River on April 21, 1836 The Texans killed and captured hundreds of Mexican soldiers, and defeated Santa Anna’s forces in 18 minutes while only losing nine Texans
  • 40. Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign a treaty to recognize the independence of Texas The U.S. Congress voted to annex Texas in 1845
  • 41. Oregon Country
  • 42. President James Polk negotiated a settlement with Britain to divide the Oregon Territory at the 49th parallel Over 5,000 Americans caught “Oregon Fever” and traveled 2,000 miles over the Oregon Trail
  • 43. The Mormons
  • 44. The Church of the Latter-Day Saints was founded by Joseph Smith, and were unpopular with non-Mormons After Smith was killed by an angry mob in Nauvoo, Illinois, Brigham Young led 15,000 Mormons to Salt Lake City, Utah to seek a safe home
  • 45. The Mexican American War (1846 – 1848)
  • 46. The Mexican-American War was an armed conflict between the U.S. and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the U.S. annexation of Texas Mexico claimed ownership of Texas and refused to recognize the secession
  • 47. American General Zachary Taylor seized disputed territory which was claimed by Mexico U.S. stated that the border was the Rio Grande River Mexico stated that the border was the Nueces River 150 miles to the north The U.S. declared war after a border clash stating that “American blood was shed on American soil”
  • 48. U.S. captured Mexico City in September, 1847
  • 49. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war in 1848 Mexico recognized Rio Grande as the border of Texas The U.S. took possession of California and New Mexico (The Mexican Cession - 1/5 of Mexico’s land – 500,000 square miles) The U.S. paid $15 million to Mexico for these territories
  • 50. CASUALTIES: Total Killed: 13,000 American Mexican Total Killed: 25,000? Died in Battle: 1,700 (1.5%) Died in Battle: 5,000? Died of Disease: 11,300 (10%) Died of Disease: ? Deserted / Defected: 9,000 (8.3%) Wounded: 4,000 (12%) Wounded: ? Deserted / Defected: ?
  • 51. The Battle of Chapultepec
  • 52. The Battle of Monterrey
  • 53. The Battle of Veracruz
  • 54. The American Occupation of Mexico City
  • 55. California Gold Rush (1848-1849)
  • 56. James Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s Mill in the new U.S. territory of California on January 24, 1848 In 1849, 80,000 people emigrated to California in hopes of striking it rich
  • 57. Gadsden Purchase (1853)
  • 58. The Gadsden Purchase was a 29,670 square-mile region of what is today southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico The land was purchased in a treaty signed by President Franklin Pierce for $10 million in 1853 The purchase was named for James Gadsden, the American ambassador to Mexico
  • 59. The land was purchased since it was south of the mountains and would be suitable for the construction of the transcontinental railroad along a southern route
  • 60. The End