Chapter 6 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199903926935200 3[1]

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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.

Transcript

  • 1. Motivation and Emotion Chapter 6
  • 2. What Is Motivation?
    • What causes (motivates) behavior?
    • Motivation = physiological or psychological factors that account for the arousal , direction , and persistence of behavior.
    • Parts of motivation:
      • (a) state
      • (b) goal
      • (c) variability in intensity
  • 3. Theories of Motivation
    • Biological theories
    • Instincts are unlearned; more complex than reflexes; triggered by environmental events called releasing stimuli.
      • Fight or flight
      • Altruism?
      • Survival
      • Competition?
  • 4. Theories of Motivation
    • Drives - Internal motivational states created by physiological needs e.g., need for food.
    • Drives produce motivated behavior.
    • Because drives are aversive, the goal of motivated behavior is drive reduction.
  • 5. Theories of Motivation
    • Optimum-level theories: there is a level of arousal at which organisms function best.
    • Goal: reduce discomfort
  • 6. Cognitive Theories of Motivation
    • Cognitive-consistency - b/t beliefs and behaviors
      • E.g., cognitive dissonance: incompatible cognitions provide evidence.
  • 7. Theories of Motivation
    • Maslow: motivational needs are arranged in a hierarchy.
  • 8. Theories of Motivation
    • Multiple motives often results in conflicts.
    • The most common conflicts are:
      • approach-approach,
      • avoidance-avoidance,
      • approach-avoidance,
      • and multiple approach-avoidance.
  • 9. Specific Motives
    • Hunger
    • Genetic factors play a key role in determining a person's weight.
    • The resting metabolic rate is the rate at which a person burns calories to keep the body functioning.
  • 10. The Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • 11. Hunger/Weight
    • Set-point
    • Anorexia-Nervosa
    • Bulima
  • 12. Theories of Emotion
    • The commonsense view:
      • emotional stimulus > emotion > physiological changes
    • James-Lange- physiological changes create emotions
      • emotional stimulus > physiological changes > emotion
  • 13. Emotion
    • Cannon-Bard > stresses the role of the thalamus in simultaneously relaying emotional input to the cortex and sympathetic nervous system.
  • 14. The Physiological Components
    • Blushing
    • Alexithymia
  • 15. The Expressive Components
    • Strong evidence for universal recognition of six basic emotions:
      • Anger
      • Disgust
      • Sadness
      • Fear
      • Happiness
      • Surprise
      • Interpretation = rt brain
  • 16. The Expressive Components
    • The Duchenne Smile
  • 17. The Expressive Components
    • Nonverbal communication involves communication through body language, movements, and gestures.
    • Compared with men, women report more emotional experiences and greater comfort with emotions.