Chapter 4 States of Consciousness RM: Py Test
What Is Consciousness? <ul><li>Awareness? Aware of what? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it like a stream?  </li></ul><ul><li>Nor...
Circadian Rhythm <ul><li>Circadian rhythms > biological changes that occur on a daily schedule </li></ul>Hormones
Circadian Rhythm
Circadian Rhythm <ul><li>The free-running sleep-wake cycle is ~25 hours.  </li></ul><ul><li>To = a 24-hour day, the cycle ...
Circadian Rhythm <ul><li>Jet travel, shift work can disrupt rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Jet lag > difference between interna...
The Study of Sleep <ul><li>About 90 minutes > NREM (Stages I to 4) REM.  </li></ul><ul><li>Adults repeat cycle 4-6 times p...
Sleep and aging
Sleep and aging
Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Apnea </li></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy   Narcolepsy II </li></ul><ul><li>Sl...
Dreams <ul><li>REM sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Freud > dreams fulfill sexual and aggressive wishes; we forget dreams because o...
Hypnosis <ul><li>~90 – 95 % hypnotizable </li></ul><ul><li>Used in pain relief:  Relaxation? Distraction? Expectations?   ...
Hypnosis <ul><li>Crime recall - Improves recall, more sure, but sometimes more distorted </li></ul><ul><li>Age regression ...
Psychoactive Substances <ul><li>Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Incidence of Illicit Drug Use
Theories of Addiction <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Ego-Deficit (Psychosocial) </li></ul>
Drug Use: Alcohol <ul><li>~ 40% of traffic fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>~ 80% of HS students in last year have had a drink...
Ilicit Drugs <ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CNS depressant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to benzodiazapin...
Long-Term Effects of Ecstasy Growing evidence that MDMA can have dramatic effects on memory and attention.
Nicotine Largest single preventable cause of premature death in USA Anti-smoking commercial
Second-hand smoke
Altering Consciousness With Drugs <ul><li>Hallucinogens > changes in perception, including hallucinations.  </li></ul><ul>...
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Chapter 4 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199645350968437 2[1]

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Chapter 4 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199645350968437 2[1]

  1. 1. Chapter 4 States of Consciousness RM: Py Test
  2. 2. What Is Consciousness? <ul><li>Awareness? Aware of what? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it like a stream? </li></ul><ul><li>Normal consciousness? </li></ul><ul><li>Altered states of consciousness? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Circadian Rhythm <ul><li>Circadian rhythms > biological changes that occur on a daily schedule </li></ul>Hormones
  4. 4. Circadian Rhythm
  5. 5. Circadian Rhythm <ul><li>The free-running sleep-wake cycle is ~25 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>To = a 24-hour day, the cycle is reset by external cues. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Circadian Rhythm <ul><li>Jet travel, shift work can disrupt rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Jet lag > difference between internal clock and time in environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to adapt to phase delays (east-west travel) than to phase advances </li></ul><ul><li>Rotating shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep deprivation </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Study of Sleep <ul><li>About 90 minutes > NREM (Stages I to 4) REM. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults repeat cycle 4-6 times per night </li></ul>Sleep and Consciousness
  8. 8. Sleep and aging
  9. 9. Sleep and aging
  10. 10. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Apnea </li></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy Narcolepsy II </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepwalking (Stage 4) </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep terrors (Stage 4) sleep; usually disappears w/o tx. </li></ul><ul><li>REM sleep behavior disorder > usually men </li></ul><ul><li>SIDS </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dreams <ul><li>REM sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Freud > dreams fulfill sexual and aggressive wishes; we forget dreams because of repression. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze manifest content to get at latent content (the “true meaning”). </li></ul><ul><li>Latent content </li></ul><ul><li>Activation-synthesis </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hypnosis <ul><li>~90 – 95 % hypnotizable </li></ul><ul><li>Used in pain relief: Relaxation? Distraction? Expectations? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hypnosis <ul><li>Crime recall - Improves recall, more sure, but sometimes more distorted </li></ul><ul><li>Age regression </li></ul><ul><li>Past-life regression </li></ul>
  14. 14. Psychoactive Substances <ul><li>Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know if you are addicted? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work/school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most widely used illicit drug? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Incidence of Illicit Drug Use
  16. 16. Theories of Addiction <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Ego-Deficit (Psychosocial) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Drug Use: Alcohol <ul><li>~ 40% of traffic fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>~ 80% of HS students in last year have had a drink </li></ul><ul><li>CNS inhibitant </li></ul><ul><li>Most states have lowered the BAC that defines intoxication to .08. </li></ul><ul><li>Korsakoff’s syndrome </li></ul>DUI
  18. 18. Ilicit Drugs <ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CNS depressant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to benzodiazapines; includes valium and rohypnol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amphetamines/stimulants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritalin, Cylert, Adderall; Caffeine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methamphetamine (ice, crystal, glass, tweak, crank) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cocaine - leaves of coca plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opiates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heroin, morphine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hallucinogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCP, Ecstasy (MDMA, X, XTC), LSD (acid) </li></ul></ul>[next]
  19. 19. Long-Term Effects of Ecstasy Growing evidence that MDMA can have dramatic effects on memory and attention.
  20. 20. Nicotine Largest single preventable cause of premature death in USA Anti-smoking commercial
  21. 21. Second-hand smoke
  22. 22. Altering Consciousness With Drugs <ul><li>Hallucinogens > changes in perception, including hallucinations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phencyclidine piperidine (PCP). </li></ul></ul>

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