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Chapter 3 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199408234400754 3[1]
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  • Prepared by Michael J. Renner, Ph.D. These slides ©1999 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.

Chapter 3 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199408234400754 3[1] Chapter 3 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199408234400754 3[1] Presentation Transcript

  • Sensation and Perception Chapter 3
  • Sensation, Perception and Psychophysics
    • Vision
    • Hearing
    • Taste
    • Smell
    • Body position
    • Movement
    We receive and process information about:
  • Sensation, Perception and Psychophysics
    • Sensation refers to stimulation or activation of the receptors.
    • Perception is the organization of what you have sensed.
  • Sensation, Perception and Psychophysics
    • Receptors for each sensory system respond to only one type of environmental stimulus.
    • Transduction – physical properties are converted to a form we can perceive.
    • Adaptation occurs when continued presentation of the same stimulus results in a loss of sensitivity.
  • Sensation, Perception and Psychophysics
    • Psychophysicists, such as Ernst Weber and Gustav Fechner, studied the relationship between the mind and the body.
    • Weber: Just noticeable difference (jnd) – The smallest amount of energy that must be added or subtracted to detect change 50% of the time
    • Absolute Threshold
  • Sensory Systems Vision
    • Light waves differ in terms of wavelength (hue) or color, anplitude (intensity), and saturation (purity).
    • The psychological counterpart of wavelength is color .
  • Sensory Systems Vision
    • Saturation = “trueness” of only one hue.
    • Amplitude = intensity.
  • Additive and Subtractive Processes of Color Mixing
    • Radiant light is visible energy emitted by an object
    • Reflected light is light waves that are reflected from objects
  • Sensory Systems Vision
    • Sensory systems of the eye consists of Rods and Cones. –The c ones have greater acuity, respond to c olor , and have a higher threshold for activation. About 120 million per eye. –The rods have lower acuity, respond to black and white and shades of gray, and have a lower threshold. About 7 million per eye.
  • Sensory Systems Vision
  • Sensory Systems
  • Sensory Systems Visual Pathways
  • Two theories of color vision
    • The trichromatic theory proposes that there are three different types of cones;
    • The opponent-process theory argues that color-sensitive cells are arranged in pairs.
    • Both theories are supported by research findings.
  • Opponent-process Theory
    • Pairs of Yellow-Blue and Red-Green Cones
  • Color Blindness
    • Dichromats lack the ability to see one of the three primary colors.
    • Monochromats are unable to see color.
    Ishihara Plate
  • Sensory Systems Audition
    • Audition is initiated by the movement of molecules in the air.
    • Varies by wavelength (frequency), amplitude (intensity), and purity (timbre)
    • Vibration of the eardrum starts a chain reaction that results in movement of fluid in the inner ear and the bending of specialized hair cells, which are the receptors for hearing.
  • Sensory Systems
  • Hearing Disorders
    • Conduction deafness
    Sensorineural deafness Central deafness
  • Sensory Systems Gustation
    • Molecules in solution stimulate taste.
    • Hairs on taste buds, serve as the receptors.
    • Each receptors may respond to several tastes, but each one is maximally sensitive to one of four tastes salty, sweet, sour, or bitter. Some people add metallic and alkaline
  • Gustation
  • Sensory Systems
    • Molecules in the air stimulate the sense of smell.
    • Hairs located in the nasal cavity serve as the receptors.
    • Olfaction has a direct connection to the limbic system [next]
  • Sensory Systems Vestibular Sense
    • The vestibular sense enables us to adjust to different bodily movements.
  • Sensory Systems Kinesthetic Sense
    • The kinesthetic sense allows us to determine the position of our extremities.
  • Sensory Systems Cutaneous Senses
    • Mechanoreceptors
    • Nocioreceptors
    • Thermoreceptors
    Cutaneous receptors for pressure, pain, and temperature are located in the skin.
  • Perception
    • We engage in selective attention because we cannot process all of the stimuli we encounter.
    • Dichotic listening experiments study divided attention.
    • With practice we can learn how to divide our attention effectively.
  • Perception Size Constancy
    • We experience perceptual constancies when our perception of an object does not change, even though the retinal image.
  • Shape Constancy
    • Perception of shape remains constant even though image on retina changes.
  • Depth Perception and Binocular Disparity Close objects translate very fast (brush) and distant objects pass very slow (mountains).
  • Gestalt Principles of Perception
    • We actively organize our perceptual world into meaningful groups or wholes.
    • The figure-ground relation is one of the most basic perceptual organizations.
  • Gestalt Principles of Perception
    • Proximity
  • Perception
    • Perceptual hypotheses are inferences about the nature of the stimuli we sense.
    • Perceptual illusions and ambiguous figures may cause us to develop incorrect perceptual hypotheses.
    • Hermann grid
  • Ames Room In the Ames Room, even the size of a familiar object (such as a person) is perceived largely distorted, because the misleading geometry generates an incorrect frame of reference
  • Zener Cards
  • Skeptics Zener Cards, ESP, Telekinesis