Chapter 1 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199299941496334 2[1]

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  • Chapter 1 Psych 1 Online Stud 1199299941496334 2[1]

    1. 1. Psychology Ron Mossler Ph.D. Los Angeles Valley College
    2. 2. Psychology 1 Introductory Psychology <ul><li>Be on time! </li></ul><ul><li>Silence your cell phones and pagers. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Have fun! </li></ul>
    3. 3. Psychology 1 Introductory Psychology Eating for two, gaining too much With more than half of women already overweight, some doctors say pregnancy guidelines should be scaled back. Family: A Smooth Divorce http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/features/redir/http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/education/lesson16_overview.html Explore how &quot;The Invisible Man&quot; changed forever the way Americans and people around the world think about race, on-air and online this week. WWW.Psychology.net
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is both scientific and applied . </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific research in psychology is systematic . </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Law of Parsimony (Occam’s Razor) <ul><li>When there are two (or more) competing explanations for an event or claim, we should select the one requiring the fewest assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>No big deal! </li></ul>
    6. 6. Becoming a Psychological Detective Basic Guidelines <ul><li>Ask good questions </li></ul><ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze data </li></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Become good consumers of psychological research. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Research Methods <ul><li>Case study and interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational research </li></ul>
    8. 8. Research Methods in Psychology <ul><li>Correlational research tells whether the values of two variables are related. </li></ul>IT DOES NOT SHOW CAUSALITY!
    9. 9. Research Methods <ul><li>Survey/Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological measures </li></ul><ul><li>The experimental method </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Experimental Method <ul><li>How do changes in one variable affect another? </li></ul><ul><li>The constant variable is Independent (The IV) </li></ul><ul><li>The variable that is measured is Dependent (the DV) </li></ul>In the experimental method, we manipulate the IV to determine the effect on the DV
    11. 11. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Compare outcomes of: </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental group </li></ul><ul><li>Control group </li></ul>
    12. 12. Research Methods in Psychology <ul><li>By manipulating an independent variable (the cause), the researcher determines whether it influences the dependent variable (the effect). </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Experimental Method <ul><li>Single blind vs. double blind </li></ul><ul><li>Placebo effect </li></ul>
    14. 14. Statistics <ul><li>Descriptive statistics summarize data. </li></ul><ul><li>Inferential statistics are used to determine whether or not the results of an experiment are significant </li></ul>
    15. 15. Research Methods in Psychology <ul><li>Statistics involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics summarize data. </li></ul><ul><li>Inferential statistics are used to determine whether or not the results of an experiment are significant. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Normal Curve
    17. 17. The Origins of Modern Psychology <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879. </li></ul><ul><li>Wundt’s school of psychology was known as structuralism . </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Origins of Modern Psychology <ul><li>William James – functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Now called cognition </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Origins of Modern Psychology <ul><li>Gestalt psychology is concerned primarily with our perception of our environment. </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Origins of Modern Psychology The Rise of Applied Psychology <ul><li>William James : Psychology is the study of mental life . </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud : Influenced by the unconscious . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic/ psychoanalytic </li></ul></ul>Freud's granddaughter Sophie (a doctor in her own right), on Freudian theory: &quot;I think it's such a narcissistic indulgence that I cannot believe in it.&quot;
    21. 21. The Origins of Modern Psychology The Rise of Applied Psychology <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavlov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skinner </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. B.F. Skinner Skinner Box
    23. 23. The Origins of Modern Psychology The Rise of Applied Psychology <ul><li>The humanistic perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestalt psychology </li></ul><ul><li>The Cognitive Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ulrich Neisser , 1967 </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Psychological Specialties Clinical and Counseling <ul><li>Difference between a psychologist (Ph.D or Psy.D. and a psychiatrist (M.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>School Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>LCSW </li></ul><ul><li>MFT </li></ul>
    25. 25. Psychological Specialties Others <ul><li>Research Psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>IO </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul>

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