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Chapter 14
 

Chapter 14

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    Chapter 14 Chapter 14 Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
    • Chapter 14 Emergency Operations
    • Objectives
      • Identify the role of the fire department at various types of emergencies
      • List limitations of the fire department in certain emergency types
      • List important safety considerations when operating at different types of emergencies
    • Introduction
      • Two general areas of emergency functions
        • Operations
          • Application of resources towards mitigation of incidents
        • Support
          • Aids the front line personnel
    • Personnel
      • Variety of emergency responders
        • EMS
        • Firefighters
        • Law enforcement
      • Fire Department may or may not be in charge of all incidents that they respond to
    • Life Safety Initiatives (National Fallen Firefighter Foundation)
      • Duty and responsibility
        • Make every day a training day so everyone goes home
      • Firefighter maintenance program
        • Receive regular medical checkups, get regular exercise, and eat healthy
      • Rehab guidelines
        • Stop before you drop, stay hydrated, and monitor vital signs
    • Life Safety Initiatives (con’t.)
      • Passengers responding to incidents
        • Wear full PPE, get in the apparatus, sit down, fasten your seatbelt, and ride with drivers that will get you there in one piece
      • Drivers responding to incidents
        • It is not a race, safe is more important than fast, stop at all red lights and stop signs, and if others do not pull over – don’t run them over
    • Life Safety Initiatives (con’t.)
      • Interior firefighting
        • Work as a team, stay together, stay oriented, manage your air supply, take the proper tools with you for any interior operation, every member should have a radio, provide constant updates and constantly assess for risk versus benefit
    • Rapid Intervention Teams (RIT) or FAST
      • Assigned at incident scenes
      • Have proper equipment
      • Rescue trapped firefighters
        • RITs not used for trapped occupants
        • If using more than one entrance or numerous firefighters are inside, may need more than one RIT
    • Two In, Two Out
      • OSHA regulation
      • Operating in areas that require SCBA
        • Must maintain buddy system in IDLH environment
        • Must maintain minimum of two person rescue team outside
        • Must maintain direct contact with personnel inside/outside
    • Two In, Two Out (con’t.)
      • Only exception to two in, two out is “imminent rescue”
        • Has to be sufficient reason to believe a life can be saved to violate the regulation
      • If making an exception, announce it over the radio and give your reasons
      • Electronic contact shall not be substituted for visual or voice contact
    • Structure Firefighting
      • Basic fire department responsibility
      • Most departments spend the bulk of their time and money on this one function (see Figure 14-2)
      • Structure fires present many hazards:
        • Contents
        • Roof loads
        • Structure collapse
        • Backdraft and flashover
    • Structure Firefighting (con’t.)
      • Key safety points
        • SCBA will not protect you from skin contact hazards
        • Stay away from windows due to backdraft potential
        • Always leave yourself a second way out
        • Do not freelance
        • Look up before raising ladders
    • Structure Firefighting (con’t.)
      • Key safety points (con’t.)
        • Turn off the electrical power
        • Use lights when appropriate
        • Establish a Rapid Intervention Team whenever possible
        • Use the buddy system
        • Stay focused on the “big picture”
    • Fire Department Operations at Sprinklered Occupancies
      • Three main causes of unsatisfactory sprinkler performance
        • Closed valve in system
        • Delivery of inadequate water supply to system
        • Occupancy changes that render the installed system unsuitable
      • Establish SOP for operations
        • Boost supply to system
    • Fire Department Operations at Sprinklered Occupancies (con’t.)
      • Establish SOP for operations (con’t.)
        • Ensure valves are open
        • Advance hoselines to seat of fire
        • Only turn off necessary areas for salvage and overhaul operations
        • Place system back into service ASAP
        • If unable to restore, notify responsible party
    • Electrical Installations
      • Key safety points
        • Do not enter without power company personnel
        • Some equipment may contain carcinogens
        • Water may be the wrong extinguishing agent to use
    • Wildland Firefighting
      • Basic methods of extinguishment
        • Apply water or fire retardant to fire edge
        • Create a fire break or control line around the perimeter
      • May use the following tools/techniques
        • Pumpers, dozers, hand tools
        • Class A foam
        • Create a backfire
    • Wildland Firefighting (con’t.)
      • The Ten Standard Firefighting Orders
        • F ight fire aggressively, but provide for safety first
        • I nitiate all action based on current and expected fire behavior
        • R ecognize current weather conditions and obtain forecasts
        • E nsure instructions are given and understood
        • O btain current information on fire status
    • Wildland Firefighting (con’t.)
      • The Ten Standard Firefighting Orders (con’t.)
        • R emain in communication with crew members, your supervisor, and adjoining forces
        • D etermine safety zones and escape routes
        • E stablish lookouts in potentially hazardous situations
        • R etain control of yourself/your crew at all times
        • S tay alert, keep calm, think clearly, and act decisively
    • Wildland Firefighting (con’t.)
      • 18 Situations That Shout Watch Out
        • The fire is not scouted or sized up
        • You are in country not seen in daylight
        • Safety zones and escape routes are not identified
        • You are unfamiliar with the weather and local factors influencing fire behavior
        • You are uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards
    • Wildland Firefighting (con’t.)
      • 18 Situations That Shout Watch Out (con’t.)
        • Instructions and assignments are not clear
        • You have no communications link with crew members/supervisor
        • You are constructing a line without a safe anchor point
        • You are constructing a line downhill with fire below
    • Wildland Firefighting (con’t.)
      • 18 Situations That Shout Watch Out (con’t.)
        • You are attempting frontal assault on a fire
        • There is unburned fuel between you and the fire
        • You cannot see the main fire, and you’re not in contact with someone who can
        • You are on a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below
    • Wildland Firefighting (con’t.)
      • 18 Situations That Shout Watch Out (con’t.)
        • The weather is getting hotter and drier
        • The wind increases or changes direction
        • There are frequent spot fires across the line
        • Terrain and fuels make escape to safety zones difficult
        • You feel like taking a nap near the fire line
    • Wildland Firefighting (con’t.)
      • Two condensed safety messages have been adopted as a general reminder of the previous rules
      • LCES
        • Lookouts
        • Communications
        • Escape routes
        • Safety zones
    • Wildland Firefighting (con’t.)
      • Look three ways
        • Look up
        • Look down
        • Look around
      • These safety messages apply to every type of firefighting
        • Main focus is to stay alert
    • Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting
      • Structures in path of wildland fires
      • Often assigned to engine companies
      • May be in front of advancing fire
      • Dangerous operation
        • Has caused injuries, lost lives and equipment
    • Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting (con’t.)
      • TRIAGE
        • T ake time to evaluate water needs and availability.
        • R econ safety zones and escape routes.
        • I s the structure defendable based on construction type, topography and anticipated fire behavior?
    • Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting (con’t.)
      • TRIAGE (con’t.)
        • A re flammable vegetation and debris cleared within a reasonable distance?
        • G ive a fair evaluation of the values at stake versus resources available, and do not waste time on the losers
        • E valuate the safety risk to the crew and the equipment
    • Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting (con’t.)
      • PROTECTION
        • P ark engines backed in so a rapid exit can be made, if necessary
        • R emember to maintain communication with your crew and adjoining forces
        • O n occasions when you are overrun by fire, use apparatus or structures as a refuge
    • Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting (con’t.)
      • PROTECTION (con’t.)
        • T ank water should not get below 50 gallons in case it is needed for crew protection
        • E ngines should keep headlights on, windows closed, and outside speakers turned on
        • C oil a charged 1 ½-inch hose at the engine for protection crew and equipment
    • Wildland Urban Interface / Intermix Firefighting (con’t.)
      • PROTECTION (con’t.)
        • T ry not to lay hose longer than 150 feet from your engine
        • I t is important to keep apparatus mobile for maximum effectiveness
        • O nly use water as needed and refrain from wetting ahead of the fire
        • N ever sacrifice crew safety to save property
    • Oil Firefighting
      • Three main problems in crude oil tank fires
        • Boil over: occurs when hot oil contacts subsurface water in tank
        • Slop over: occurs when oil is forced over tank edge by direction of hose streams
        • Froth over: occurs when hose streams stir up surface of hot oil
    • Oil Firefighting (con’t.)
      • Extinguishment Methods
        • Subsurface injection of foam through a manifold
        • Direct application of foam to burning surface
        • Hose streams directed to cool exposed tanks
        • Floating roof tank seal may be extinguished with fire extinguisher or foam
        • Shut off plumbing and let material burn itself out
    • Gasoline Spills
      • Use foam to seal off vapors
      • Water may just spread spill
      • Never walk in the spill
        • May disturb foam blanket and spill will reignite around you
    • Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
      • Stored in cylindrical tanks
      • When exposed to fire, pressure rises
      • Relief valve may fail
      • BLEVE can occur
        • Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion
        • Container pieces can fly one-half mile
      • Control ignition sources and dissipate vapors with water fog
    • Natural Gas
      • Poses little hazard when released because lighter than air
      • Collects in structures where leaks occur
      • Static electricity can cause ignition
      • Any gas smell call should be treated as life-threatening situation
    • Hazardous Materials Incidents (HAZMAT)
      • Approximately 2,000 new chemicals are produced each year
      • Hazardous materials may be present in almost any type of incident
      • Every incident requires a precautionary approach
        • Upwind, uphill, and upstream
    • Hazardous Materials Incidents (HAZMAT) (con’t.)
      • Federal law requires establishment of an incident command system on every hazmat incident
      • Fire Department’s primary objectives are to:
        • Isolate
        • Identify
        • Deny entry
    • Hazardous Materials Incidents (HAZMAT) (con’t.)
      • Back equipment in for quick exit
      • Set up perimeters
      • Information on chemicals available from various sources
        • CHEMTREC
        • DOT Emergency Response Guidebook
    • Hazardous Materials Incidents (HAZMAT) (con’t.)
      • Fire department actions
        • Dike
        • Divert
        • Control
        • Cleanup
      • Actions can only be performed safely if proper level of PPE is available
    •  
    • Weapons of Mass Destruction
      • Acts of terrorism are a very real threat
        • Oklahoma City
        • World Trade Center
        • Pentagon, and others
      • The purpose is to take human lives
      • Weapons may be chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear and/or explosive (CBRNE)
    • Weapons of Mass Destruction (con’t.)
      • Different from hazmat incidents in many ways
        • Crime scene
        • Major interaction with federal, state and local law enforcement
        • Scene communication overload
        • Chaos
        • Overwhelmed resources
        • Secondary devices designed to kill responders
    • Weapons of Mass Destruction (con’t.)
      • Different from hazmat incidents in many ways (con’t.)
        • Preincident indicators
        • Deliberate attack
        • Super-toxic material that is difficult to identify
        • Mass casualties with many fatalities
        • Mass decontamination required
        • Unusual risks to emergency responders and civilians
    • Emergency Medical Service Operations (EMS)
      • Proper PPE must be worn every time
      • Treat everyone as though they are infectious
      • Turnouts are not the best protection
        • Necessary if sharp edges or fire are involved
      • Never carry contamination from the scene
    • Vehicle Accidents
      • Dangers from spilled fuel
      • Dangers from passing traffic
      • Dangers from hydraulic rescue tools
      • Built-in dangers
        • Air bags
        • Electric cars
        • LPG vehicles
    • Vehicle Fires
      • Approach from front quarter
      • Avoid exploding tires and five-mile-an-hour bumpers
      • Always use full PPE including SCBA
      • Seams of gas tank may let go and spill burning fuel
    • Aircraft Firefighting
      • There are many on-board hazards in large aircraft
        • Oxygen systems
        • Fuel
        • Hydraulic fluid
        • Magnesium wheels
        • Military aircraft may carry live ordinance (broken arrow)
    • Aircraft Firefighting (con’t.)
      • Fire department operations
        • Clear a path
        • Make entry
        • Effect rescue
        • Complete extinguishment
        • Overhaul
    • EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft
      • Special precautions with helicopters
        • Approach and depart from the side or front in a crouching position in view of the pilot
        • Approach and depart from the downhill side to avoid the main rotor
        • Approach and depart in the pilot’s view; stay clear of the tail rotor
        • Use a chin strap or secure your helmet when working under the main rotor
    • EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft (con’t.)
      • Special precautions with helicopters (con’t.)
        • Carry tools horizontally, beneath waist level to avoid contact with the main rotor
        • Fasten your seat belt when you enter the helicopter and refasten it when you leave
        • Use the door latches as instructed
        • Use caution around plexiglass, antennas, and any moving parts
    • EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft (con’t.)
      • Special precautions with helicopters (con’t.)
        • When entering or exiting the helicopter, step on the skid
        • Any time you ride in a helicopter in a wildland fire situation, you are required to wear full PPE
        • Do not throw objects from the helicopter
      • Contact with any moving part of an aircraft is often fatal
    • EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft (con’t.)
      • Wildland firefighting with helicopters
        • Rotor wash can fan flames or knock limbs out of trees
        • Dropping water can knock you down
        • Exit the drop area whenever possible
        • Stay out from under helicopters with sling loads
    • EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft (con’t.)
      • Wildland firefighting with fixed wing aircraft
        • 3,000 gallons of retardant at over nine pounds per gallon may drop at 130 mph from 200 feet above the ground
        • Wing tip vortices can fan flames
        • Drops can knock limbs from trees
        • Drops can roll rocks
    • EMS and Firefighting with Aircraft (con’t.)
      • If a drop is to be made:
        • Lie face down, head toward approaching aircraft
        • Lay tool aside
        • Keep hard hat on and cover head with arms
        • Retardant is slippery; watch your footing when you get up
        • Wash retardant off vehicles as soon as possible
      • Every situation has its own set of hazards
      • The worst hazard is often one that is unrecognized
      • Firefighter’s responsibility to provide personal safety and safety of others
        • Evaluate situations as they arise
        • Anticipate situations that can be harmful
        • Remain constantly vigilant at incident scene
      Summary