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Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Fire Protection 3rd Edition
  • 2. Chapter 13 Emergency Incident Management
  • 3. Objectives
    • Explain the need for a plan at every incident
    • Differentiate between offensive, defensive, and transition modes of attack
    • Explain the need for organized thought processes in incident assessment
    • Describe the strategic priorities at an incident
    • Explain the terms strategy, tactics, and tasks
  • 4. Objectives (con’t.)
    • Explain the need for size-up of an incident
    • Explain how a size-up is performed and what information must be communicated
    • Describe the NIIMS Incident Command System
    • Explain the need for unified command on a multijurisdictional incident
  • 5. Introduction
    • Every firefighter at a scene is responsible for assisting in the control of the incident
      • Size-up the incident
      • Apply strategic priorities in proper order
      • Assist person in command
    • Incident command system aids in effective management
      • Presents structures that are adaptable to all types of incidents
  • 6. Management Responsibility
    • First-in officer initiates the plan
    • All firefighters at scene must:
      • Remain alert
      • Be aware of the plan and the hazards present
    • Standard rule
      • “ Victims do not arrive at the scene in fire trucks”
  • 7. Incident Planning
    • Every incident must have a plan
    • Establish objectives first
    • Determine strategies to accomplish objectives
    • Plans must be flexible to address changes in the incident as it progresses
  • 8. Incident Planning (con’t.)
    • Operational modes
      • Offensive
        • Aggressive, direct attack
      • Defensive
        • Protecting exposures, indirect attack
      • Transition
        • Using different modes on areas of incident
        • Coordinate to avoid conflicting tactics
        • Requires clear communication
  • 9. Strategic Priorities
    • Seven areas
      • Rescue
      • Exposures
      • Confinement
      • Extinguishment
      • Overhaul
      • Salvage
      • Ventilation
      • NOT NECESSARILY PERFORMED IN THIS ORDER
  • 10. Strategic Priorities (con’t.)
    • Rescue
      • This is first strategic priority
      • May have to be delayed while hose lines are placed between victims and fire
      • Primary, secondary searches
    • Exposures
      • Prevent fire from spreading to adjoining structures or improvements
  • 11. Strategic Priorities (con’t.)
    • Confinement
      • Attack from unburned toward burned
      • Cut off spread of fire
    • Extinguishment
      • Putting fire out or stopping leak of hazardous materials
    • Overhaul
      • Search for hidden fire
      • Make sure all fire is out
  • 12. Strategic Priorities (con’t.)
    • Salvage
      • Save contents of building from additional damage
      • May be concurrent with other operations
    • Ventilation
      • May have to happen before any of the other priorities are attempted
      • Can be performed at any time during operation
      • Reduces risk of flashover/backdraft while increasing visibility and reducing heat
  • 13. Tactics
    • Methods to accomplish objectives
      • Interior search
      • Laying supply lines
      • Advancing hose lines to seat of fire
      • Cutting holes in roof to release smoke and heat
      • Spreading salvage covers
  • 14. Tasks
    • Jobs completed in a specified amount of time
      • Don SCBA
      • Advance hose lines
      • Raise (throw) ladders
      • Cut holes
      • Operate equipment
  • 15. Size-Up
    • Ongoing mental process that results in a plan
    • Components
      • Facts
      • Probabilities
      • Situation
      • Decision
      • Plan of operation
  • 16. Size-Up (con’t.)
    • Continues as operations are carried out because situations change
    • Always critique incidents afterward
      • Look for what went right
      • Look for what went wrong
      • Don’t make the same mistakes twice
  • 17. DONE AT ALL INCIDENTS
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  • 33. Vegetation Fire Size-Up / Report of Conditions
    • Correct location – may need to direct units in
    • Size – best estimate in acres (currently)
    • Fuel type – light fuels ( grass) heavy fuels ( brush/timber)
    • Slope and aspect – affects rate of spread, points of compass (south-lighter drier fuels , north heavier fuels)
    • Rate of spread – slow, moderate, or rapid
  • 34. Vegetation Fire Size-Up / Report of Conditions (con’t.)
    • Exposures in path – number and type
    • Weather conditions - wind
    • Potential of the fire – quick work , long haul
    • Additional resources needed – best estimate
    • Objectives – clearly stated plan
  • 35. Structure Fire Size-Up / Report of Conditions
    • Correct location
    • Height/stories – height of structure , floor fire is on
    • Size and type of structure
    • Location and area involved
    • Level of involvement – is fire/smoke showing?
  • 36. Structure Fire Size-Up / Report of Conditions (con’t.)
    • Exposures – number , type
    • Potential of fire
    • Additional resources needed – number and type
    • Objectives – state priorities
    • Obtain an “all clear”
  • 37. Incident Command System
    • National Incident Management System (NIMS)
      • Created under HSPD-5 ( Management of Domestic Incidents )
      • Compliance of all federal agencies and departments
      • To prepare for, prevent, respond to and recover from domestic incidents
      • www.fema.gov/nims/.
  • 38. Incident Command System (con’t.)
    • National Incident Management System (NIMS) (con’t.)
      • Five components
        • Incident Command System (ICS)
        • Preparedness
        • Communications and Information Management
        • Joint Information Systems (JIS)
        • NIMS Integration Center (NIC)
  • 39. Incident Command System (con’t.)
    • National Interagency Incident Management System (NIIMS)
      • Provides a common system for federal, state, and local levels
      • Has two components
    • National Interagency Fire Qualification System (NIFQS) (1 st component)
      • Qualification, training, and certification of personnel, currently focused on wildland and wildland/urban interface fire protection problems
  • 40. Incident Command System (con’t.)
    • ICS ( 2 nd component)
      • System based on “Principles of Command” (see Chapter 7)
      • Basic organizational structure for all types of emergencies
      • Large or small incidents
      • Simple or complex in nature
  • 41.
    • Common terminology
      • For organizational functions, resource elements, and facilities
    • Modular organization (see Figure 13-1)
      • Expands and contracts in a logical manner
    • Integrated communications
      • Uses clear text (no codes)
    Components of the ICS (8)
  • 42. Components of the ICS (con’t.)
    • Unified command structure
      • Regardless of jurisdiction or function
    • Incident action plans
      • Unified objectives
      • Operational period
    • Manageable span of control
      • 3 to 7 with 5 the optimum
  • 43. Components of the ICS (cont.)
    • Designated Incident Facilities
    • - Incident command post (ICP) – established at every incident, all should be aware of location
    • - Staging area – where resources report
    • - Base – incident support activities take place
    • - Camp – logistical needs are met i.e. sleeping ,eating
  • 44. Components of the ICS (con’t.)
    • Comprehensive resource management
      • Single resource ( indiv. app.), task force (combo of units with single mission), strike team (set number same kind and type)
    • Resource status
      • Assigned: in use at the incident
      • Available: able to respond in three minutes or less
      • Out-of-service: not ready for immediate deployment; may be in base or camp
  • 45. Organization
    • Five areas of ICS
      • Command
      • Operations
      • Plans
      • Logistics
      • Finance
  • 46. Organization (con’t.)
    • Command – responsible for overall management of the incident
      • Incident commander and command staff
      • Safety officer
      • Liaison officer
      • Public information officer
  • 47. Organization (con’t.)
    • Operations – responsible for direct management of all tactical activities
      • Operations chief and subordinates
      • Staging area manager
      • Branch director
      • Division: based on geography
      • Group: functional in nature, may cross divisional boundaries
  • 48. Organization (con’t.)
    • Planning Section – collects , evaluates, and disseminates tactical information
      • Plans chief and staff
      • Resources unit
      • Situation unit
      • Documentation unit
      • Demobilization unit
      • Technical specialists
  • 49. Organization (con’t.)
    • Logistics – provides all service and support functions
      • Logistics chief
      • Service branch
      • Supply branch
  • 50. Organization (con’t.)
    • Finance
      • Finance chief
      • Time unit
      • Procurement unit
      • Compensation/claims unit
      • Cost unit
      • Incident type sections
  • 51. Incident Command System (con’t.)
    • Advantages of ICS
      • All positions are identified before incident happens
      • Personnel that staff positions are ready to assume positions
      • Teams can be brought in from different locations because of standardization
      • Adaptable to any type of incident
  • 52.
    • At any incident, ask three questions:
      • What do you have?
      • What do you need?
      • What is your plan?
    • Effective management requires a plan
      • Includes strategies, tactics, and size-up
    • Incident command system is a method of placing a plan into operation
    Summary