Chapter 07


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Chapter 07

  1. 1. Hazardous Materials for First Responders 4th EditionChapter 7 — Terrorist Attacks, Criminal Activities and Disasters
  2. 2. Terrorism “the unlawful use of force againstpersons or property to intimidate orcoerce a government, the civilianpopulation, or any segment thereof, inthe furtherance of political or socialobjectives 7–2
  3. 3. Terrorism“the unlawful or threatened use of forceor violence against individuals or propertyto coerce and intimidate governments orsocieties, often to achieve political,religious, or ideological objectives Haz Mat for First Responders 6–3
  4. 4. Three elements make up the U.S.Federal Bureau of Investigation’s(FBI) definition of terrorism. (Continued) 7–4
  5. 5. Terrorism is designed to causedisruption, fear, and panic. Courtesy of U.S. Department of Defense 7–5
  6. 6. There are several key differencesbetween routine emergencies anda terrorist attack. 7–6
  7. 7. Terrorist tactics traditionallyinvolve conventional weapons butnow include WMDs. 7–7
  8. 8. The different types of terroristattacks typically involve WMDs. 7–8
  9. 9. Explosive Attacks• Most likely greatest WMD threat 7–9
  10. 10. Explosive devices are designed tokill, maim, or destroy. 7–10
  11. 11. An explosion results in a shockfront and a two phase blast-pressure wave. 7–11
  12. 12. Explosives are classified in two mainways important to first responders. 7–12
  13. 13. There are a variety of typesof explosives a firstresponder may encounter. 7–13
  14. 14. Homemade/improvised explosivematerials are typically made bycombining an oxidizer with a fuel. 7–14
  15. 15. Improvised explosive devices(IEDs) are usually constructedfor a specific target. 7–15
  16. 16. IEDs are typically categorized bytheir container type. (Continued) 7–16
  17. 17. IEDs are typically categorized bytheir container type. Courtesy of August Vernon Courtesy of August Vernon 7–17
  18. 18. Mail, package, or letter bombscarry common indicators. 7–18
  19. 19. Other types of IEDs take variousunusual and typical forms. 7–19
  20. 20. Identification of IEDs meansthat responders should becautious of out-of-the-ordinaryitems. 7–20
  21. 21. Person-borne devices can beidentified by several indicators. Courtesy of August Vernon 7–21
  22. 22. PBD Indicators• Fear and Nervousness- profuse sweating- hands in pockets- repeated or nervous handling of clothing- slow paced walking while constantly shifting eyes- major attempts to stay away from security personnel• Bulky suicide vests or belts (contours may be visible prior to detonation)• Unseasonable attire• Wires or other exposed material around body• Carrying or wearing items that can conceal a bomb i.e. briefcase , luggage, backpacks Haz Mat for First Responders 6–22
  23. 23. Indicators• Obvious or awkward attempts to blend in with crowd• Obvious disguising of appearance• Dyed or short cut hair• Actions indicating a strong determination to get to a target• Repeated visits to a location• Anything that seems out of place, unusual, abnormal, or arouses curiosity• Any combination of the above Haz Mat for First Responders 6–23
  24. 24. Vehicle bombs (VBIEDs) can beidentified by several indicators. 7–24
  25. 25. Response to explosive/IED eventsmust be conducted within an ICS. (Continued) 7–25
  26. 26. Response to explosive/IED eventsmust be conducted within an ICS. 7–26
  27. 27. Stand-off Distances Haz Mat for First Responders 6–27
  28. 28. Stand-off Distances
  29. 29. Chemical AttacksDeliberate release of toxic gas, liquid, or solid that canpoison people and the environment. Two main types•Chemical agents or Chemical Warfare Agents –chemical substances intended for use in warfare withthe intention to kill•Toxic Industrial Material (TIMs)- chemical substancesnormally used for industrial purposes 7–29
  30. 30. Chemical Agents• 6 categories of agents- Nerve- Blister (vesicants)- Blood (cyanide agents)- Choking (pulmonary or lung-damaging agents)- Riot control (irritants)- Toxic industrial materials Haz Mat for First Responders 6–30
  31. 31. Nerve agents attack the nervoussystem by affecting thetransmission of impulses. 7–31
  32. 32. Nerve Agents• Tabun, Sarin, Soman VX – Greatest concern from chemical family - pesticides for humans – Tabun, Sarin, Soman can easily be aerosolized and disseminated, VX is consistency of motor oil – Nerve agents interfere with normal body chemistry – Death would normally occur from cardiopulmonary failure30.32
  33. 33. Recognize: Nerve Agents • Dissemination: Liquid or gas • Types: Tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), VX • Availability: Not commercially available • Volatility: Nonpersistent (tabun, sarin, soman) Persistent (VX)30.33
  34. 34. Recognize: Nerve Agents(continued) • Vapor density: Heavier than air • Odors: Slightly fruity (tabun), faintly sweet (sarin), camphor (soman), odorless (VX) • Routes of entry: Inhalation or absorption • General signs and/or symptoms: Pinpointed pupils, respiratory arrest, sweating, weakness, disorientation, diarrhea, general increase in secretions and tremors, SLUDGEM: Acronym for salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, gastric distress, emesis 30.34
  35. 35. Symptoms of Nerve AgentExposure• SLUDGEM – Salivation – Lacrimination (tearing) – Urination – Defecation – Gastrointestinal pain – Emesis (vomiting) - Miosis (pin point pupils)30.35
  36. 36. Blister agents burn and blister theskin or any other part of the bodythey contact. 7–36
  37. 37. Blister Agents• Mustard, Lewsite, and Phosgene Oxime• Most often referred to as Mustard Agents• Mustard freezes at 58 degrees• Material is liquid and may be disseminated as a spray or mist• Mustard exposure may not show immediate effects while Lewsite will cause immediate burning of skin, respiratory tract, eyes – large blisters will form on skin30.37
  38. 38. Recognize: Blister Agents • Types: Mustards (H), lewisite (L), phosgene oxime (CX) • Dissemination: Liquid • Availability: Not commercially available • Volatility: Most are relatively persistent30.38
  39. 39. Recognize: Blister Agents(continued) • Vapor density: Heavier than air • Odors: Onions, garlic, or horseradish (H); geraniums (L); intense and irritating (CX) • Routes of entry: Inhalation, ingestion, or absorption • General signs and/or symptoms: Mustard agent exposure (no effects for hours) lewisite and phosgene oxime produce pain (effect seen immediately) 30.39
  40. 40. Blood agents interfere with thebody’s ability to use oxygen in twomain ways. 7–40
  41. 41. There are three main types ofblood agents first respondersshould be familiar with. 7–41
  42. 42. Blood Agents• Hydrogen Cyanide & Cyanogen Chloride• Both agents are commercially available & used in many manufacturing processes• Primary threat is from inhalation of material• Blood agents affect the body by blocking normal transfer of oxygen from blood stream to individual body cells – blood is rich in oxygen - blood gases normally transferred and exhaled are locked in blood 30.42
  43. 43. Recognize: Blood Agents • Types: Hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK) • Dissemination: Liquid or gas • Availability: Commercially available, used in various manufacturing processes, such as electroplating, metallurgy, metal cleaning, and photography • Volatility: Nonpersistent30.43
  44. 44. Recognize: Blood Agents(continued) • Vapor density: Range from slightly lighter than air to significantly heavier than air • Odor: Bitter almonds (peach pits) • Routes of entry: Inhalation • General signs and/or symptoms: Gasping for air, froth or vomit, lose consciousness, and die, process will occur very rapidly 30.44
  45. 45. Choking agents attack the lungsand may be encountered duringnormal haz mat incidents. 7–45
  46. 46. Choking Agents• Phosgene and Chlorine – Used in WWI trench warfare – Chlorine is widely used for water treatment – Phosgene is commonly used in industry – Once inhaled - immediately irritate throat & lungs – When agent comes in contact with fluid in lungs it hydrolyzes and makes Hydrochloric Acid in lungs30.46
  47. 47. Choking Agents - Cont’d – Initial signs of coughing may be present – Critical medical signs of exposure - two or three hours later when lungs may start to fill with liquid and oxygen transfer process diminishes (gasping for breath)30.47
  48. 48. Recognize: Choking Agents • Vapor density: Heavier than air, and settle into low places • Odor: Specific odor (newly mown hay) • Routes of entry: Inhalation • General signs and/or symptoms: Airway irritation, fluid filled lungs and pulmonary edema (dry-land drowning) 30.48
  49. 49. Riot control agents temporarilymake people unable to function. 7–49
  50. 50. Toxic industrial materials are toxicin certain concentrations. 7–50
  51. 51. Chemical attack operationsdiffer from other incidents inseveral ways. 7–51
  52. 52. Biological AttacksAn intentional release of viruses, bacteriaor their toxins for the purpose of harmingor killing citizens 7–52
  53. 53. Biological attacks are the intentionalrelease of viruses, bacteria, or toxinsby four main modes of transmission. 7–53
  54. 54. There are four main types ofbiological agents first respondersshould know. 7–54
  55. 55. Biological agents typically fall intothree categories. 7–55
  56. 56. Disease transmission occurs in oneof six ways. (Continued) 7–56
  57. 57. Disease transmission occurs in oneof six ways. (Continued) 7–57
  58. 58. Disease transmission occurs in oneof six ways. 7–58
  59. 59. Viral Agents - Smallpox• This virus is a concern since general population is no longer vaccinated• Worlds supply of vaccines very low with only two live sources left to make more• Smallpox as a weapon is not readily available. But because of its potential to infect humans it is still a concern30.59
  60. 60. Recognize : Viral Agents • Type: Virus—Variola virus (smallpox) • Dissemination: Aerosol • Availability: No longer naturally occurring; only authorized existing sources are in Atlanta and Moscow laboratories • Routes of entry: Inhalation30.60
  61. 61. Recognize: Viral Agents(continued) • Mortality: The majority of patients with smallpox recover, but death may occur in up to 30% of cases • General signs and/or symptoms: Begin acutely with malaise, fever, rigors, vomiting, headache, and backache • Basic treatment: No proven treatment, but research to evaluate new antiviral agents is ongoing 30.61
  62. 62. Viral Agents - VenezuelanEquine Encephalitis• Normally found in Central/South America and SW parts of USA that have dry & hot climates along with irrigated farming areas• Horses serve as major source of virus• Bites from mosquito’s that have bitten infected horses are major source of infection30.62
  63. 63. Recognize: Viral Agents • Type: Virus—VEE • Dissemination: Solid, liquid, or aerosol • Availability: Naturally occurring; widespread usage in labs throughout the U.S. • Routes of entry: Inhalation; not transmittable through human contact; injection30.63
  64. 64. Recognize: Viral Agents(continued) • General signs and/or symptoms: Fever, severe headaches, malaise, and extreme soreness in the legs and lower back area. Nausea, vomiting, cough, sore throat, and diarrhea may follow • Mortality: Overall rate is 0.5-1%; in patients developing encephalitis, rate range is 20% • Basic treatment: No specific medications are approved 30.64
  65. 65. Bacterial Agent - Anthrax• Occurs normally in cattle, sheep, or other hooved animals• Can cause spores to form which make the organism resilient - remain active for years• Spores/organism can be manipulated for use as a weapon - 1950-60 by US military• Greatest threat is from inhalation• No immediate signs/symptoms• Treatment can include penicillin & others30.65
  66. 66. Recognize: Bacterial Agents • Type: Bacteria—Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) • Dissemination: Solid • Availability: Naturally occurring; widespread usage in labs throughout the U.S. • Routes of entry: Inhalation, contact, ingestion, or injection30.66
  67. 67. Recognize: BacterialAgents (continued) • General signs and/or symptoms: The early symptoms are flu-like—chills, fever, nausea, and swelling of lymph nodes • Mortality: Early treatment of cutaneous anthrax is usually curative, and early treatment of all forms is important for recovery • Basic treatment: Three types of antiobiotics are approved for anthrax: ciprofloxacin, tetracyclines (including doxycycline), and penicillins 30.67
  68. 68. Bacterial Agent - Plague• AKA - Black Death• Normally transmitted to humans by flea bites which have bitten infected rats• Bacteria can be cultured and aerosolized• Symptoms, in addition to flu symptoms, could include spitting up blood30.68
  69. 69. Recognize: Bacterial Agents • Type: Bacteria—Yersinia pestis (plague) • Dissemination: Aerosol • Availability: Naturally occurring; widespread usage in labs throughout the U.S. • Routes of entry: Inhalation, ingestion, or injection30.69
  70. 70. Recognize: Bacterial Agents(continued) • General signs and/or symptoms: Early symptoms are high fever, chills, headache, spitting up of blood, and shortness of breath • Mortality: Without early treatment, patients may die. About 14% (1 in 7) of all plague cases in the United States are fatal • Basic treatment: Early treatment of pneumonic plague is essential. To reduce the chance of death, antibiotics must be given within 24 hours of first symptoms 30.70
  71. 71. Rickettsia - Q Fever• AKA - Rickettsia• Organism similar characteristics to other bacteria and viruses• Source is from cattle - same as anthrax• Mortality rate is very low, responds well to antibiotics30.71
  72. 72. Toxins - Ricin• This agent is made from Castor Beans - Nearly 5% of bean contains protein used to manufacture Ricin• If ingested it attaches itself to cell surfaces such as stomach lining. Once in the blood stream it inhibits protein synthesis• Ricin is 2 to 3 times more toxic than VX, which is the most deadly nerve agent• When inhaled a small particle can produce pathologic changes in 8 hours, respiratory failure in 36 to 72 hours 30.72
  73. 73. Recognize: Ricin• Type: Toxin—Ricinus communis (ricin)• Dissemination: Solid, liquid, or aerosol• Availability: Commercially available; naturally occurring• (Ex. ricin)• Routes of entry: Inhalation, ingestion, or injection 30.73
  74. 74. Recognize: Ricin (continued) • weakness, dizziness, dry mouth and throat, blurred vision, and General signs and/or symptoms: Will vary, but may include the following: generalized respiratory failure • Mortality: Death from ricin poisoning could take place within 36 to 72 hours of exposure • Basic treatment: No antidote exists for ricin. Ricin poisoning is treated by giving victims supportive medical care to minimize the effects of the poisoning 30.74
  75. 75. Toxins - Botulinum• Agent produced by the bacteria Colstridum botulinum• Bacteria principally found in soil and can not grow in presence of oxygen• Toxin often found in closed food containers such as improperly preserved canned foods• This toxin is among the most potent biological toxins30.75
  76. 76. Staphylococcus EnterotoxinsAKA - SEB (Food Poisoning)• Staphylococcus aureous is the bacteria that produces Enterotoxin B toxin (food poisoning) – Toxin poisoning can be caused after ingesting contaminated food that looks and smells ok.• In 1984 an incident in Oregon saw 751 people poisoned from food at salad bars after 2 cult members cultivated Salmonella30.76
  77. 77. Biological attack incidentoperations require both trainingand equipment for safe response. (Continued) 7–77
  78. 78. Additional precautions should beused once the agent is identified. (Continued) 7–78
  79. 79. Radiological and Nuclear Attacks 7–79
  80. 80. Radiological devices are commonlycategorized in three ways. 7–80
  81. 81. There are several factors thatimpede a nuclear attack, howeverthere are exceptions. 7–81
  82. 82. Sabotage of nuclear facilities cantarget any of the following. 7–82
  83. 83. Operations during radiological andnuclear attacks are accomplishedthrough ICS and use specific tactics. 7–83
  84. 84. Illegal Dump Sites Identify hazards of illegal haz mat dumps. 7–84
  85. 85. Illegal haz mat dumps happen for avariety of reasons and presentunique hazards and problems. 7–85
  86. 86. Evidence Preservation 7–86
  87. 87. First responders should not collectevidence but can take steps to helppreserve it for law enforcement. (Continued) 7–87
  88. 88. First responders should not collectevidence but can take steps to helppreserve it for law enforcement. 7–88
  89. 89. Haz Mat and Disasters 7–89
  90. 90. Disasters can create haz matincidents in a variety of ways. Containers can wash away and/ or release contents. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 7–90
  91. 91. Summary• By using IMS, responders can focus on the problem-solving process.• The IC must determine the strategic goals and tactical objectives that will begin to stabilize the incident and bring it to a successful conclusion with the least amount of harm and damage. 7–91