Chapter 06


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Chapter 06

  1. 1. Hazardous Materials for First Responders 4th EditionChapter 6 — Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  2. 2. Strategic Goals• Broad statements of desired achievements to control an incident; achieved by the completion of tactical objectives. Haz Mat for First Responders 6–2
  3. 3. Strategic Goals• Haz Mat -isolation -notification -identification -protection -rescue -spill control/confinement -leak control/containment -crime scene and evidence preservation -fire control -recovery/termination• Will be Prioritized not all will be needed Haz Mat for First Responders 6–3
  4. 4. Tactical Objectives• Specific operations that must be accomplished to achieve strategic goals Haz Mat for First Responders 6–4
  5. 5. Basic Problem-Solving Formula1. Understand the problem2. Devise a plan3. Carry out the plan4. Look back 6–5
  6. 6. Most problem-solvingprocess models contain fourcommon elements. 6–6
  7. 7. Problem Solving Process Models• GEDAPER(National Fire Academy)- Gather information- Estimate potential course and harm- Determine strategic goals- Assess tactical options and resources- Plan of action implementation- Evaluate operations- Review the process Haz Mat for First Responders 6–7
  8. 8. Problem Solving Process Models• DECIDE- Detect the presence of hazardous materials- Estimate likely harm without intervention- Choose response objectives- Identify action options- Do best option- Evaluate progress Haz Mat for First Responders 6–8
  9. 9. Problem Solving Process Models• Eight Step Incident Management Process (Noll , Hildebrand , Yvorra)1. Site management and control2. Identify the problem3. Hazards and risk evaluation4. Select personal protective clothing and equipment5. Information management and resource coordination6. Implement response objectives7. Decontamination8. Terminate the incident Haz Mat for First Responders 6–9
  10. 10. Problem Solving Process Models• APIE (IAFF)- Analyze- Plan- Implement- Evaluate(and repeat)• OODA (U.S. Military)- Observe- Orient- Decide- Act Haz Mat for First Responders 6–10
  11. 11. Problem Solving Process Models• RAIN – WMD incidents- Recognize characteristics of WMDs- Avoid, by protection, the hazards of WMDs- Isolate the hazards of WMDs- Notify the appropriate resources and authorities when responding to an event possibly involving WMDs Haz Mat for First Responders 6–11
  12. 12. Four Step Problem SolvingProcess (APIE)• Analysis Stage and information gathering- Recognize incident type (hazmat , WMD)- Identify all hazards presented by the incident- Predict the likely behavior of the material- Estimate potential harm Haz Mat for First Responders 6–12
  13. 13. Analyzing the incident enables firstresponders to form an overall plan. 6–13
  14. 14. Scene analysis is made up of both size-up and hazard/risk assessment.Six sides of the Incident: Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Top Bottom
  15. 15. Hazard and Risk Assessment• Upon Receipt of alarm- Number of injuries- occupancy type- incident type- product and container info- incident location- responding equipment and resources- time of day- weather Haz Mat for First Responders 6–15
  16. 16. Hazard and Risk Assessment• On scene- unusual signs- life hazards- product(s) involved- container types- amount of product involved- product travel or path of fire- actions taken by on scene personnel Haz Mat for First Responders 6–16
  17. 17. Incident Levels• Defined by Local Emergency Response Plan (LERP)• Most Models use 3 levels Haz Mat for First Responders 6–17
  18. 18. An Incident Level I is within thecapabilities of a fire andemergency services organization. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 6–18
  19. 19. An Incident Level II is beyond thecapabilities of a fire and emergencyservices organization. 6–19
  20. 20. An Incident Level IIIrequires outside resourcesand unified command. Courtesy of Chris Mickal 6–20
  21. 21. NIMS• 5 Types based on resource requirements, 5 least need to 1 greatest need. Haz Mat for First Responders 6–21
  22. 22. Four Step Problem SolvingProcess (APIE)• Determine need for additional help• Identify protective actions• Consult ERG if appropriate• Determine strategies and tactics for stabilization• Determine appropriate PPE• Determine decon methods• Devise incident action plan Haz Mat for First Responders 6–22
  23. 23. Planning the appropriateresponse uses strategic goalsbased on three abilities. 6–23
  24. 24. Risk Based Response• Strategies based on hazards present at the scene- high toxicity=more caution, high level of PPE- activities with significant risk to member safety will be limited to potentially life saving actions- activities normally employed to protect property shall be seen as a safety risk and will be avoided or limited- no risk shall be taken if life or property is not at stake Haz Mat for First Responders 6–24
  25. 25. Modes of Operation• Nonintervention – incident runs it’s course on it’s own• Defensive – provides confinement of the hazard• Offensive – includes actions to control the incident Haz Mat for First Responders 6–25
  26. 26. Modes of operation are determinedby risk, training, and resourcesrequired and available. 6–26
  27. 27. Nonintervention operations areones in which responders taken nodirect actions. Courtesy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 6–27
  28. 28. Nonintervention Mode• Selected when:- Facility or LERP have called for it- Clearly beyond responder capabilities- Explosions are imminent- Container damage threatens a major release Haz Mat for First Responders 6–28
  29. 29. Nonintervention Actions• Withdrawal• Report of scene conditions• Initiate an IMS• Call for additional resources• Isolate hazard and deny entry• Evacuate where needed Haz Mat for First Responders 6–29
  30. 30. Defensive operations are ones inwhich responders seek toconfine the emergency. 6–30
  31. 31. Defensive Mode• Facility or LERP call for it• Responders have the training , equipment and resources to confine the incident Haz Mat for First Responders 6–31
  32. 32. Defensive Actions• Report of scene conditions• Initiate an IMS• Call for additional resources• Isolate hazard and deny entry• Establish zone boundaries• Evacuate where needed• Control ignition sources• Use defensive control tactics• Protect exposures• Perform rescue when safe and appropriate• Evaluate and report progress• Perform emergency decon procedures Haz Mat for First Responders 6–32
  33. 33. Offensive operations are ones inwhich responders take aggressive,direct action. Courtesy of U.S. Navy, photo by Photographer’s Mate 1st Class Aaron Ansarov. 6–33
  34. 34. Implementation Stage• Implement Incident Management System• Transmit info to appropriate authorities and call for needed assistance• Establish and enforce scene control perimeters• Implement Incident Action Plan• Implement strategies and tactics (based on training level)• Identify and preserve evidence Haz Mat for First Responders 6–34
  35. 35. Implementing the Incident Action Plan occurs once a strategic goal has been set. Click fornext slide 6–35
  36. 36. Evaluation and Review Stage• Evaluate effectiveness of approach• Process and provide feedback to IC Haz Mat for First Responders 6–36
  37. 37. Evaluating progress is thefinal aspect and may resultin revised plans. 6–37
  38. 38. Elements of IAP• Strategies/incident objectives• Current situation summary• Resources assignments and needs• Accomplishments• Hazard statement• Risk assessment• Safety plan and message• Protective measures• Current and projected weather conditions• Status of injuries• Communications plan• Medical plan Haz Mat for First Responders 6–38
  39. 39. Isolation and Scene Control 6–39
  40. 40. The isolation perimeter isdetermined by outcomes of anon-site risk assessment. 6–40
  41. 41. Hazard-control zones may beadjusted as the incident changes. 6–41
  42. 42. Each hazard control zone helps protect both responders, the public, and the environment. Click fornext slide
  43. 43. Staging is located at an isolated,safe spot to reduce confusion andfreelancing on scene. 6–43
  44. 44. Notification Process 6–44
  45. 45. Notification can include a varietyof levels of information. (Continued) 6–45
  46. 46. Notification procedures maydiffer depending on the agency. 6–46
  47. 47. Protection 6–47
  48. 48. Protection is the overall goal ofensuring safety of respondersand the public. Courtesy of U.S. Air Force 6–48
  49. 49. Protection of responders is thefirst priority at any incident. 6–49
  50. 50. Protection Measures• Uphill, upstream, upwind• Appropriate PPE• Decon• Accountability• Tracking• Buddy system• Safety officers• Evacuation and escape procedures• Time , distance, shielding Haz Mat for First Responders 6–50
  51. 51. Protection of responders includesuse of time, distance, and shielding. 6–51
  52. 52. Protection of the public is basedon several factors. Courtesy of FEMA News Photos, photo by Win Henderson. 6–52
  53. 53. Protection of the public can includeseveral methods of providing safety. 6–53
  54. 54. Protection of the environmentand property is a defensivecontrol tactic. 6–54
  55. 55. Recovery and Termination 6–55
  56. 56. Recovery has three major goalsthat work to return the incidentscene to pre-incident readiness. 6–56
  57. 57. Three procedures help accomplishthe main goals of recovery. 6–57
  58. 58. Termination includes twoprocedural actions to ensurestrategic goals have been met. 6–58
  59. 59. Summary• By using IMS, responders can focus on the problem-solving process.• The IC must determine the strategic goals and tactical objectives that will begin to stabilize the incident and bring it to a successful conclusion with the least amount of harm and damage. 6–59