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Chapter 02

Chapter 02






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    Chapter 02 Chapter 02 Presentation Transcript

    • Hazardous Materials for First Responders 4th EditionChapter 2 — Hazardous Materials Identification
    • Clues1. Occupancy type, location, pre-incident plans2. Container shape3. Placards, labels, and markings4. Other markings and colors5. Written resources6. Senses7. Monitoring and detection devicesPrepare for the unexpected 2–1
    • Risk increases when moving closer to identify hazardous materials. Click fornext slide
    • Occupancy Type/Location• First clue upon response notification• Not always obvious• On scene personnel vital• Certain occupancy types are highly probable haz mat locations• Location may indicate terrorist target• Residential occupancies are not excluded from having hazardous chemicals 2–3
    • Some occupancies are highlyprobable locations for hazardousmaterials. Courtesy of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, photo by Charles Csavossy 2–4
    • Locations That May IndicateHazardous Materials• Roadways• Railways• Waterways• Airways• Pipelines• Water level in rivers Courtesy of Phil Linder and tidal areas 2–5
    • Potential terrorist targets thatshould be considered. Mass Areas of public Industrial sites transportation assembly and recreation Educational Critical sites infrastructure High profile buildings and Medical and locations science facilities 2–6
    • Pre-Incident Surveys• Reduce on-site decisions for first responders• Reduce oversights, confusion, and duplication of effort• Identify several items• Ongoing process; includes review and updates• Not always accurate 2–7
    • Identify where a potentialattack can do the greatest harm. Courtesy of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, photo by Gerald L. Nino 2–8
    • Container Shapes 2–9
    • Categories of Containers• Bulk and nonbulk• Pressure and nonpressure• Bulk-capacity fixed-facility containment systems and transportation packaging Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–10
    • Bulk/Non-bulk• Max capacity greater • Anything small than than 119 gal. bulk• Net mass greater • Drums, boxes, than 882lbs. carboys etc.• Or 1,001 lbs. for a gas •Haz Mat for First Responders 2–11
    • There are several types of bulk-capacity fixed-facility containers. Aboveground Buildings storage tanks Underground Machinery storage tanks (Continued) 2–12
    • There are several types of bulk-capacity fixed-facility containers. Reactors Pipelines Vats Open Storage piles or Cabinets bins 2–13
    • Nonpressure/atmospheric storage tanks operate under little pressure. Click fornext slide Courtesy of Rich Mahaney
    • Pressure Storage Tanks• Hold contents under pressure• Low-pressure storage tanks – Operating pressures from 0.5 to 15 psi (3.45 kPa to 103 kPa) {0.03 bar to 1.03 bar}• Pressure vessels – Pressures of 15+ psi (103 kPa) {1.03 bar} or greater (Continued) 2–15
    • There are a variety of bulktransportation containers. Railroad Cargo Intermodal cars tanks containers Vessel cargo Unit loading carriers devices Intermediate Ton bulk containers containers 2–16
    • Low-pressure tank cars transportmaterials with low vapor pressures. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–17
    • Pressure tank cars transportmaterials with higher pressures. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–18
    • Cryogenic liquid tank cars carry lowpressure and refrigerated liquids. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–19
    • Other railroad cars carry avariety of materials. Uncovered Covered (open top) hopper cars hopper cars Pneumatically Boxcars and unloaded gondolas hopper cars 2–20
    • Cargo tank construction featuresare designed to fit specific uses. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–21
    • Intermodal containers may containhazardous materials or mixed loads. (Continued) 2–22
    • Some intermodal containers aretank containers. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–23
    • Low- pressure intermodalcontainers are the most common. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–25
    • Intermodal containers can bepressurized or specialized. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–26
    • There are a variety of vessel cargocarriers that are likely to containhazardous materials. • Petroleum carrier Tanker • Chemical carrier • Liquefied flammable Cargo • Bulk carrier • Break bulk carrier vessel • Container vessel Barge 2–27
    • Unit loading devices are used toconsolidate air cargo intotransportable units. Courtesy of John Demyan 2–28
    • Intermediate bulk containers aredesigned for mechanical handling. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–29
    • Intermediate bulk containerscan be flexible or rigid. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–30
    • Ton containers require specialequipment to patch. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–31
    • CAUTION Structural fire-fighting gear does not provide adequate protection against the hazardous materials commonly stored in ton containers. 2–32
    • Nonbulk packaging is used totransport smaller quantities ofhazardous materials. Carboys and Bags jerry cans Cylinders Drums Deward flasks 2–33
    • Containers for radioactive materials protect against increasing levels of hazards. Click fornext slide Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Courtesy of Tom Clawson, National Site Office, and U.S. Air Force 2–34
    • Radioactive Material• Excepted – limited radioactivity, no risk to public or environment, not marked or labeled• Industrial – retains and protects content, limited hazard to public• Type A – must demonstrate the ability to withstand tests without a release , relatively high radioactivity level• Type B – must withstand severe accidents, small to large containers, high hazard to public or environment• Type C – Rare high activity material, transported by aircraft, withstands severe accidents 2–35
    • Transportation Placards 2–36
    • UN Recommendations on theTransport of Dangerous Goods• Adopted by U.S., Canada, and Mexico• Establishes minimum requirements for transport by all modes of transportation• Facilitates trade and safe, efficient transport• Includes standards for packaging and multimodal tanks (Continued) 2–37
    • UN hazard classes identifysubstances that pose significanthazard in transportation. Class 1 - Explosives Class 2 - Gases Class 3 - Flammable liquids Class 4 - Flammable solids, substances liable to spontaneous combustion, substances that emit flammable gases on contact with water (Cont.) 2–38
    • UN hazard classes identifysubstances that pose significanthazard in transportation.Class 5 - Oxidizing substances and organicperoxidesClass 6 - Toxic and infectious substancesClass 7 - Radioactive materialsClass 8 - Corrosive substancesClass 9 - Miscellaneous dangerous substancesand articles 2–39
    • UN identification numbers areassigned to individual materials. 2–40
    • U.S. DOT placards are unique foreach hazard class. 2–41
    • U.S. DOT labels provide thesame information as placards. 2–42
    • Canadian and Mexican placards, labels, and markings are based on UN recommendations. Click fornext slide 2–43
    • Other North American highwayvehicle identification markings willinclude various information. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–44
    • North American railroad tank carmarkings have a variety of styles. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney (Continued) 2–45
    • North American railroad tank carmarkings have a variety of styles. (Continued) Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–46
    • North American railroad tank carmarkings have a variety of styles. 2–47
    • International intermodal container/tank markings are generally on theright hand side. 2–48
    • Other Markings and Colors• 704 Diamond• Common hazardous communication labels• Military markings• Pipeline ID• CAS numbers• Globally Harmonized System Symbols• Pesticide labels• Color codes 2–49
    • CAUTION Read the container and understand all of the information provided! 2–50
    • NFPA® 704 System is commonlyrequired for occupancies thatcontain hazardous materials. 2–51
    • U.S. Hazard Communications Labelsand Markings(Right to Know)• Requires employers to: – identify hazards in workplace and train employees how to recognize these hazards – ensure that all containers are labeled, tagged, or marked with identity of substances contained along with appropriate hazard warnings 2–52
    • Canadian Workplace Hazardous MaterialsInformation System (WHMIS) uses twotypes of labels. 2–53
    • Mexican HazardCommunication System• Equivalent to HCS• Employers ensure that hazardous chemical substances in workplace are appropriately and adequately labeled• Adopts NFPA® 704 and related label system as official• Caution symbols triangular 2–54
    • FHSA requirements for household productslabels uses a system of signalwords.(Federal hazard. substance act)CAUTION WARNING DANGER POISON• Minor • Moderate • Highest • In addition health hazards degree of to DANGER effects hazard on labels of highly toxic materials (Continued) 2–55
    • FHSA Requirements forHousehold Products Labels• Name, business address of manufacturer, packer, distributor, or seller•Common/chemical name of ingredients•Principal hazard(s)•Precautionary statements•First-aid instructions•Instructions for special handling or care• Keep out of the reach of children 2–56
    • Chemical AbstractService® (CAS ®) Numbers• Unique numerical identifiers assigned to various products• Can be used to search chemical databases• Typically included on safety data sheets 2–57
    • This EPA sign is an example of howother symbols and signs may varyby facility. 2–58
    • ISO safety symbols areinternational safety signs usedwith OSHA hazard signs. 2–59
    • Globally Harmonized System (GHS)symbols help create consistentlabeling standards. 2–60
    • Military markings are notnecessarily uniform. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–61
    • CAUTION The military ships some hazardous materials and chemicals by common carrier. When this is done they are not required to be marked with DOT and TC transportation markings. 2–62
    • Pipeline markers are required where pipelines cross under or over roads, railroads, and waterways. Click fornext slide Courtesy of Rich Mahaney
    • Pesticide labels are regulated bythe EPA. EPA registration and establishment 2–64
    • Color Codes – ANSI Z535.1 Danger or Stop Warning Safety Caution Equipment Safety Information Signage 2–65
    • Written Resources1. Shipping papers2. MSDS sheets3. ERG book4. Facility Documents 2–66
    • Shipping papers accompanyhazardous materials shipments. 2–67
    • Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) areoften the best source of detailedinformation available. 2–68
    • MSDS Sheets Include• Identification• Hazard• Composition/ingredients• First aid measures• Firefighting measures• Accidental release measures• Handling and storage• Exposure control/personal protection• Physical and chemical properties• Stability and reactivity• Toxicological information• Ecological information 2–69
    • MSDS Information (cont.)• Disposal considerations• Transport information• Regulatory information• Other information 2–70
    • The Emergency ResponseGuidebook (ERG) helps quicklyidentify specific/generic hazards. Courtesy of Rich Mahaney 2–71
    • Other Records That May ProvideInformation About Hazardous Materials• Chemical Inventory Lists (CILs)• Shipping and receiving documents• Inventory records• Risk management and hazardous communication plans• Emergency response plans developed by the LEPC 2–72
    • Senses• Vision – safest• Smell – most odors are below dangerous levels some may cause olfactory fatigue• Hear• Taste• Feel 2–73
    • WARNING! Deliberately using the human senses to detect the presence of hazardous materials is both unreliable and dangerous. 2–74
    • Visual and physical chemicalindicators provide evidence of thepresence of hazardous materials. Courtesy of FEMA News Photos, photo by Liz Roll 2–75
    • Visible Evidence of ChemicalReactions• Spreading vapor cloud• Unusual color of smoke• Flames• Gloves melting• Changes in vegetation• Container deterioration/bulging• Sick dead or dying people, birds, animals, insects or fish• Discoloration of piping or valves 2–76
    • Physical Actions• Rainbow sheen• Wavy vapors• Frost buildup• Deformed containers due to accidents• Activated pressure relief devices• Pinging or popping of heat exposed vessels 2–77
    • Chemical Reactions (evidenceof)• Exothermic Heat• Unusual or unexpected heat drop• Extraordinary fire conditions• Peeling or discoloration of containers finish• Spattering or boiling of unheated materials• Distinctively colored vapor clouds• Smoking or self igniting materials• Unexpected deterioration of equipment• Peculiar smells• Unexplained changes in ordinary material• Symptoms of chemical exposure 2–78
    • Physical signs and symptoms ofchemical exposure can occurseparately or in clusters. Changes in level• Difficult breathing of consciousness• Increase or decrease • Dizziness• Tightness of chest • Nausea • Lightheadedness• Irritation • Vomiting • Drowsiness• Respiratory arrest • Cramping • Confusion • Fainting Changes in Abdominal respiration distress (Continued) 2–79
    • Physical signs and symptoms ofchemical exposure can occurseparately or in clusters. Visual• Fatigue Weakness disturbances• Stupor Hyperactivity • Burning sensations• Restlessness • Double vision • Reddening• Anxiety Giddiness • Blurred vision • Paleness• Faulty Judgment • Cloudy vision • Fever • Burning of the eyes • Chills • Dilated or constricted Changes in pupils Skin changes activity level (Continued) 2–80
    • Physical signs and symptoms ofchemical exposure can occurseparately or in clusters. • Uncontrolled tears Pain • Profuse sweating • Mucus flowing from the nose • Headache • Diarrhea • Muscle ache • Frequent Urination • Stomachache • Bloody stool • Chest pain • Intense thirst • Localized pain at sites of substance contact Changes in excretion or thirst 2–81
    • Monitoring andDetection Devices• Can be useful in determining the presence of hazardous materials and concentrations• Can be used to determine scope of incident• Effective use requires actual contact; outside scope for Awareness-Level personnel 2–82
    • Terrorist Attacks/IllicitLaboratories 2–83
    • There are several key differencesbetween hazardous materials andterrorist incidents. Presence of Number of extremely Size and capacity casualties hazardous materials Necessity of Potential for Booby traps crime scene armed resistance preservation Secondary Higher level of devices risk targets 2–84
    • Cues to Possibilityof Terrorist Attack• Report of 2 or more medical emergencies in public locations• Unusually large number of people with similar signs and symptoms arriving at physicians’ offices or emergency rooms• Reported explosion at public, historic, or government location 2–85
    • Chemical Attack Indicators• Chemical warfare agents – nerve, blister, blood, choking• Toxic Industrial Materials/Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TIM’s/TIC’s) 2–86
    • There are a variety of chemicalattack indicators. Warning/threat of attack; received intelligence Hazardous materials Unexplained odors or presence or lab tastes equipment not relevant to occupancy Unexplained patterns, sudden onset Intentional release (Continued) of similar, nontraumatic illnesses or deaths 2–87
    • There are a variety of chemicalattack indicators. Multiple individuals exhibiting skin, eye, or airway irritation Causalities distributed Unexplained bomb or downwind or near munition-like material ventilation systems Multiple individuals Unexplained vapor exhibiting unexplained clouds, mists, and (Continued) health problems plumes 2–88
    • There are a variety of chemicalattack indicators. Multiple individuals experiencing blisters and/or rashes Dead, discolored, abnormal Unusual security trees, shrubs, bushes, crops, and/or lawns Abnormal number of sick or dead Surfaces exhibiting oily droplets or birds, animals, and/or fish films; oily film on water surfaces 2–89
    • Symptoms of Exposure toChemical Warfare Agents• Salivation• Lacrimation• Urination• Defecation• Gastrointestinal upset• Emesis• Miosis or Muscle twitching 2–90
    • Biological Attacks• Viruses• Bacteria• Rickettsia• Biological toxins 2–91
    • Indicators• Warning or threat• Presentation of unusual diseases• Unusual number of sick or dying/similar signs and symptoms• Unscheduled or unusual spraying• Abandoned spray devices• Non-endemic illness for region• Casualty distribution aligned with wind• Illnesses associated with common source of food or water 2–92
    • Biological attack effects maytake several days to develop. Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture Courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library 2–93
    • Radiological attack indicators canbe exhibited in a variety of ways. Courtesy of Tom Clawson 2–94
    • • Individuals with radiation exposure• Radiological material left in public places• Packages weighing more than they should• Activation of radiation detection devices• Hot material with no external heat source• Glowing material 2–95
    • There are a variety of nuclearattack indicators. Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Energy 2–96
    • • Warning or threat• Mushroom cloud• Exceptionally large/powerful explosion• Electromagnetic pulse 2–97
    • Explosive/incendiary attackindicators may be involved in themajority of terrorists attacks. Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Defense Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Defense 2–98
    • Illicit Laboratories presentnumerous threats. Exterior clues Discarded Blacked out chemical Booby traps windows containers Hidden or Inappropriate Excessive amounts disguised levels of protection of trash entrances and security 2–99
    • Illicit Laboratories presentnumerous threats. Interior clues Covered Flasks and windows in Chemical Unusual heat other an occupied odors sources glassware building Large Containers of Pill packages quantities of Propane unknown or blister lithium bottles substances packs batteries 2–100
    • Secondary attacks and boobytraps are always a possibility. 2–101
    • Protecting AgainstPossible Secondary Devices• Anticipate the presence of a secondary device at any suspicious incident• Visually search for a secondary device before moving into the incident area• Limit number of emergency response personnel to those performing critical tasks (Continued) 2–102
    • Protecting AgainstPossible Secondary Devices• Avoid touching or moving anything that may conceal an explosive device• Manage the scene with cordons, boundaries, and scene control zones• Evacuate victims and nonessential personnel as quickly as possible• Preserve scene as much as possible 2–103
    • Items that should arouse curiositywhen looking for a secondaryattack. Devices containing Ordnance such as Unusual devices or Materials attached to orContainers with unknown quantities of blasting Any combination of these containers with electronic surrounding an item that liquids or materials fuses, fireworks, match caps, detcord, military items components could be use for shrapnel heads, etc. explosives, etc. 2–104
    • Summary• Using the seven clues to the presence of hazardous materials, can help first responders take the first steps toward successful mitigation of a hazardous materials incident.• Correctly identifying a hazardous material may be difficult and dangerous. (Continued) 2–105
    • Summary• First responders must be able to recognize when an incident may be the result of a terrorist attack, and to recognize the signs of illicit laboratories. 2–106