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  • Eliminate bottlenecks
  • Add benchmarks?

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  • 1. Virtualization Tips and Techniques Michael Otey Technical Director Windows IT Pro Magazine
  • 2. What this session covers
    • General Performance Tips
    • Virtual PC Tips
    • VMware Workstation Tips
    • Microsoft Virtual Server Tips
    • ESX Server Tips
  • 3. General Performance Tips
  • 4. Server and Desktop Performance
    • Add RAM to the host
      • RAM is the #1 limiting factor
      • Reserve 512 MB for the host
      • RAM per guest + 32MB
    • Add CPUs
      • One thread per VM
      • Multiple threads can be spread across CPUs
    • Use a fast disk subsystem
      • 7200 RPM, 10,000 better, 15,000 better
      • Multiple drives enable separation of host OS and VHDs
      • SAN for server consolidation
        • Multipath I/O
    • Add NICs
      • Spreads network traffic across NICs
  • 5. Laptop Hardware Performance
    • Add RAM
      • Up to the max
      • look for laptops supporting 4MB
    • Hard drive considerations
      • Fastest possible
        • Not 4500
        • 5400rpm, 7200rpm better
      • Multiple spindles
        • Separate host OS and VHDs
    • One to two active VMs at the most
  • 6. VM Memory Performance Tips
    • Reserve adequate RAM for the host
      • 512 MB
    • Reserve adequate RAM for guests
      • 256 is the minimum
    • Exclude VMs from AV scanning
    • Run VMs in full screen mode
      • Slight better performance in VMware
      • Noticeably better for VPC
    • Disable Windows Paging of Executive Components
      • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE SYSTEM CurrentControlSet Control Session Manager Memory Management DisablePagingExecutive
      • Change from 0 to 1
  • 7. VM Disk Performance
    • Make sure the host maintains at least 20GB of free space
    • Create VHDs on a different disk than the host OS
    • Use virtual SCSI hard disks
      • 20% faster than virtual IDE
    • For better performance use fixed sized virtual hard disks
      • No expansion
  • 8. VM Performance Tips
    • Install Virtual Machine Additions / VMware Tools
      • Enables moving more of the guest OS into the kernel
      • Host drag-and-drop (Desktop products)
      • Host time synchronization
      • Higher performance drivers
        • SVGA, Mouse
  • 9. VM Disk Defragmentation
    • Multi-level Defragmentation
      • Guest
        • Contained in VHD
        • Stores guest OS and file system
        • Regular maintenance
        • Third party defragmentation tools provide better results
          • Raxco, Diskeeper, Winternals
        • Make sure multiple guest don’t schedule this for the same time
      • VM
        • Compacts VHD – reclaims unused space
        • Guest must be powered of
        • VMWare
          • VM Settings > Tools > Defragment
        • VPC
          • VPC SP1 – Virtual Disk Precompacter
          • Connect Virtual Disk Precompactor.iso
          • %ProgramFiles%Microsoft Virtual PCVirtual Machine Additions
          • Run Precompact
      • Host
        • Stores all VM VHDs
        • Regular maintenance
        • Third party defragmentation tools provide better results
  • 10. Windows Guest OS Performance
    • Maximize hardware acceleration
      • Desktop Properties (Right-click Desktop, choose properties)
      • Settings > Advanced > Troubleshoot
      • Hardware Acceleration to Full
    • Turn off visual effects
      • Desktop Properties (Right-click Desktop, choose properties)
      • Appearance > Effects
      • Disable Use the following transition effect for menus and tooltips
      • Disable Show window contents when dragging
      • Disable Show Shadows under menus
    • Set menu delay
      • My ComputerHKEY_CURRENT_USERControl PanelDesktop
      • MenuShowDelay 400
    • Disable unnecessary pointer options
      • Mouse Control Panel
      • Disable Pointer trails, Shadow cursors
  • 11. Don’t Virtualize Everything
    • Not all hardware implementation are good candidates for virtualization
      • USB Devices
    • Not all workloads are good candidates for virtualization
      • Heavy disk I/O
      • Low latencies are always needed
  • 12. Microsoft Virtual PC 2004
  • 13. Differencing Disks
    • Shared base VHD image
    • Saves disk space
    • Do not change the parent (read–only)
  • 14. VPC VM Files
    • .vhd – Virtual hard disk & Differencing disk
    • .vmc – VM configuration file
    • .vud – Undi disk
    • .vsv - Save state file
  • 15. Differencing Disks
    • File > Virtual Hard Disk Wizard
    • Create a new virtual disk > Virtual Hard Disk
    • Select the location
    • Select Differencing
  • 16. Cloning VMs
    • Copy VM files directly
      • Edit the .vmc revove MAC address
      • Duplicate server name and SID
  • 17. Cloning VMs
    • Sysprep -XPSupportTools Deploy.cab
    • Create a new VM and install Windows
    • Run setupmgr.exe
      • Answer wizard settings (automate installation, generate system name, administrative password, network settings)
      • Creates sysprep.inf
    • Run sysprep.exe
      • Select Reseal
      • Generate SIDs
    • Remove original .VM
    • Copy VHD
    • Add new VM selecting VHD
  • 18. Virtual PC 2007
    • Currently in beta
      • http://www.microsoft.com/windows/virtualpc/default.mspx
    • Will remain free
    • 32-bit only
      • Can run on 64-bit as a 32-bit application
    • Supports Intel-VT and AMD-V
    • Support for Vista and the AERO UI
    • Virtual PC Express
      • Vista Enterprise, Vista Ultimate
      • Supports a single VM
  • 19. VMware Workstation 5.0
  • 20. VMware Workstation Files
    • .vmdk - Virtual Hard Disk
    • .vmx – VM configuration files
    • .vmx.bak - Backup configuration file
    • .vmsd – Snapshot metadata
    • .vmsn – Snapshot state file
    • .vmss – Suspended state file
    • .nram – Store the VM state
    • .log - Records VM activity
    • .vmtm – VM team configuration file
  • 21. Cloning a VM
    • VM > Clone…
      • Must be powered off
    • Select VM state
      • Current or snapshot
    • Select Clone type
      • Linked or full
  • 22. Creating a Clone Template
    • VM > Settings > Options > Advanced
    • Accessed by users with VM write permissions
  • 23. Creating a VM Team
    • Teams can span Linux, UNIX and Windows
    • Defines VM realtionships
      • VM start together, optional delay
      • Private LAN connections
    • Home > New Team
      • Team Name, location
      • Add VMs
  • 24. Linux and Windows File Sharing
    • Create a Linux VM
    • Use SAMBA to access the Windows files system
      • Part of most distributions (www.samba.org)
    • Windows System Message Block (SMB) protocol
      • Firewall ports
        • 137,138, 139, 445
  • 25. Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 R2
  • 26. VS2005 Files
    • vhd – Virtual hard disk & Differencing disk
    • .vmc – VM configuration file
    • .vud – Undo disk
    • .vsv - Save state file
  • 27. Accessing Virtual Server 2005
    • Web URL
      • http://localhost:1024/VirtualServer/VSWebApp.exe?view=1
    • Firewall
      • Port 1024 Administrative Interface
      • Port 5900 VM Remote Control
  • 28. Setting up a VM Cluster
    • Windows Server 2003 EE
    • 2-Node Cluster Only
    • VMs must be on single host or use iSCSI
    • VMs must use SCSI virtual disks
    • Virtual disk must be fixed
      • Undo feature must be disabled
    • Two virtual NICs
      • Heartbeat
      • public
  • 29. AutoStart Virtual Machines
    • Edit Configuration
  • 30. Automatically Shutdown Guest OS
    • Edit Configuration
      • General Properties
        • Action when server stops
        • Shut down guest OS
  • 31. Script to Backup VMs
    • Saves state and backs up:
      • virtual hard disks, undo disks, state, config
    Option Explicit On Error Resume Next Dim objFSO, objVirtualServer, objVM, objSaveTask, objVHD 'Connect to file system object. set objFSO=CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") 'Connect to Virtual Server. set objVirtualServer = CreateObject("VirtualServer.Application") 'Get virtual machine from command-line parameter. set objVM = objVirtualServer.FindVirtualMachine(WScript.Arguments(0)) 'Save state of the virtual machine. set objSaveTask = objVM.Save 'Loop waiting for task completion while not objSaveTask.isComplete WScript.Sleep 1000 wend
  • 32. Script to Backup VMs 'Copy virtual hard disks and undo disks. for each objVHD in objVM.HardDiskConnections If objFSO.FileExists(objVHD.HardDisk.file) Then 'Wscript.Echo objVHD.HardDisk.file & " " & WScript.Arguments(1) objFSO.CopyFile objVHD.HardDisk.file, WScript.Arguments(1) End If If objFSO.FileExists(objVHD.undoHardDisk.file) Then 'Wscript.Echo objVHD.undoHardDisk.file & " " & WScript.Arguments(1) objFSO.CopyFile objVHD.undoHardDisk.file, WScript.Arguments(1) End If Next 'Copy .vmc and .vsv files. objFSO.CopyFile objVM.File, WScript.Arguments(1) objFSO.CopyFile objVM.SavedStateFilePath, WScript.Arguments(1) 'Start the virtual machine. objVM.Startup
  • 33. VM Resource Allocation
  • 34. VS2005 Hardware Virtualization
    • Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 beta2
    • Processor must support virtualization
    • Enable Virtualization in the BIOS
    • Enable Virtualization in the VM
      • General Properties
    • Verify in Perfmon
      • Virtual Processors Object
      • HVM-VP counter = 1
  • 35. VMware Virtual Server 1.01
  • 36. VM Files
    • C:Virtual Machines<VM Name>
    • .vmdk - Virtual Hard Disk
    • .vmx – VM configuration files
    • .vmx.bak - Backup configuration file
    • .vmsd – Snapshot metadata
    • .vmsn – Snapshot state file
    • .vmss – Suspended state file
    • .nram – Store the VM state
    • .log - Records VM activity
    • .vmtm – VM team configuration file
  • 37. Accessing Virtual Server
    • Web URL
      • http://localhost:8333/vmware/en
    • Firewall
      • Management Interface
        • Port 8333 (8222 if SSL is disabled)
      • Virtual Server Console
        • Port 902
  • 38. Auto Start and Shutdown VMs
    • Right Click VM > Settings
    • Options
      • Startup/Shutdown
    • Must specify user account or Local System
  • 39. Install Guest OS from ISO
    • Fast diskless install
    • Right click VM
    • Settings
    • CD-ROM
    • Use ISO
    • Start VM
  • 40. Silent Install for VM Tools
    • Connect CD to windows.iso
      • %Program Files%VMwareVMware GSX Server
      • msiexec -i &quot;D:VMware Tools.msi&quot; ADDLOCAL=ALL /qn
  • 41. Configuring Virtual SMP Support
    • New Virtual Machine wizard
    • Custom
    • Select Guest (guest must have SMP capabilities)
    • Name the VM
    • Set Access Rights
    • Startup/Shutdown options
    • Processor options
  • 42. Migrating Virtual Machines
  • 43. Migrating Physical Machines
    • Microsoft Virtual Server Migration Toolkit http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserversystem/virtualserver/evaluation/vsmt.mspx
      • Requires ADS (Automated Deployment Services
      • P2V no V2P Migration
    • VMware Importer
      • Built-in to Workstation and Server
      • P2V no V2P
      • Imports VPC and VS2005 images
      • http://www.vmware.com/download/vmimporter/
    • VMware Converter (beta)
      • P2V & V2P
      • Two way conversion
        • Microsoft, Symantec BackpP Exec, Norton Ghost, VMware
      • Sector based
      • X86 and x64 support
      • http://www.vmware.com/products/beta/converter/
  • 44. Other Migration Strategies
    • PlateSpin
      • Mass migrations
      • Standalone Mmigration server
      • Oriented towared
    • DIY Migration
      • Backup and Restore
        • NTBackup
        • Ghost
  • 45. Application Virtualization
  • 46. Altris
    • Automatically Start Application Layers
      • File > Start Layer Automatically
    • Reset Layer
      • File > Reset Layer
  • 47. Application Virtualization
    • Don’t use this for AntiVirus or AntiSpyware
      • Not intend for any product that uses a file system driver
    • Don’t attempt to use this for VM products
      • This actually can work but its backward
  • 48. VM Best Practises
    • Build your VMs seprate from the host OS
    • Size you VHDs big enough
    • Used fixed VHds for better performance
    • Don’t put VMs on encrypted or compressed drives
    • Eliminate VMs from host AV scanning
  • 49. Virtualization in Vista
    • Virtual PC 2007 Express
    • Vista Enterprise Edition
    • Vista Ultimate Edition
    • One Active Instance
  • 50. Virtual Server 2005 on Vista
    • Must run IE as Administrator
    • Out-of-box link fails
    • Create desktop shortcut
      • &quot;C:Program FilesInternet Exploreriexplore.exe&quot; &quot;http://localhost/VirtualServer/vswebapp.exe?view=1&quot; 
      • Run As Administrator
  • 51. VM Management Products
    • VMware
      • VMware Infrastructure 3
        • ESX Server
        • VirtualCenter, VMotion
      • http:// www.vmware.com /products/vi/
      • Does not need AD
    • Microsoft
      • System Center Virtual Machine Manager
      • http://www.microsoft.com/ systemcenter/scvmm/default.mspx
      • Requires Active Directory
        • Security
      • Based on PowerShell
        • Scriptable
  • 52. Cool Free Tools
    • VirtuaIQ 525
      • 5 CPUs or 25 VMs
      • Web based
      • http://www.toutvirtual.com/solutions/viq_525.php
    • Virtual Floppy Drive
      • http://chitchat.at.infoseek.co.jp/vmware/vfd.html
    • Flexomizer Defrag
      • http://www.flexomizer.com/PermaLink,guid,ce99367e-158c-487a-879d-b32145cc1957.aspx
  • 53. VM Products
    • PlateSpin – PV2 & V2P
      • www.platespin.com
    • Leostream – P2V, Disk Synchronization
      • www.leatstream.com
    • Acronis True Image
      • www.acronis.com/enterprise/products/choose-trueimage
    • Microsoftr iSCSI Software iniator
      • http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=12cb3c1a-15d6-4585-b385-befd1319f825&DisplayLang=en
    • Microsoft Virtual Machine Additions for Vista
      • http://connect.microsoft.com
  • 54. Additional Resources
    • VMware Workstation Benchmarking Guidelines
      • http://www.vmware.com/pdf/WS55_Benchmarking_Guidelines.pdf
    • Virtual PC Guy’s Weblog
      • http://blogs.msdn.com/virtual_pc_guy/archive/tags/Virtual+PC+_2F00_+Server+Tips+_2700_n_2700_+Tricks/default.aspx
  • 55. Windows IT Pro Articles
    • Troubleshooter: Deciding Whether to Use a Virtual Machine with Exchange
      • InstantDoc 26205
    • Reader’s Choice Virtualization Software
      • InstantDoc 47336
    • Back up a virtual instance running in Microsoft Virtual Server 2005
      • InstantDoc 49656
    • What you need to know about the virtualization formats
      • InstantDoc 92862
    • Running SQL Server in a VM
      • InstantDoc 46018
    • Virtual Server 2005 Cluster Setup Kit
      • InstantDoc 45901
    • VMware Clsutering Recipe
      • InstantDoc 37599
  • 56. Windows IT Pro Product Reviews
    • VMware Workstation 4.5
      • InstantDoc 42271
    • VMware GSX Server 2.5
      • InstantDoc 39182
    • VMware VirtualCenter 1.1
      • InstantDoc 44976
    • VMware ESX Server 2.0
      • InstantDoc 48409
    • Virtual Server Face Off
      • InstantDoc 45253
  • 57. Thank You! Michael Otey [email_address]