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Motivation theoriesltppt

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  • One of the big points of biosocial theory is that they are creative thinkers and have personality issues, for example, a very famous person who is thought to fit under biosocial theory is Van Gogh. You can also see and learn about the theory of arousal in this presentation which is all about our cues and romance and many other things that you will be surprised about throughout this power point presentation.
  • Motivation and behavior depend “on both nature (heredity) and nurture (environment)” (Deckers, 2010, p. 62). Biosocial theory of motivation examines the interaction between these two things. Biosocial theory believes that both genetic and social factors work together to create motivation in a way that is both independent and interactive (Beaver & Holtfreter, 2009). This means that one is not dependent on the other and sometimes act alone in producing motivation but sometimes they work together and have similar goals for behavior. Biological characteristics might lead individuals to be motivated to act a certain way based on how society views them. For example, someone larger might be pushed into sports more due to their strength and size, which might increase their motivation towards competition. On the other hand, someone who is smaller might be treated more delicately and therefore be motivated more by emotion.
  • Example 1: Sex/Gender Differences: When it comes to sex/gender differences, Deckers (2010) explains that biosocial theory “stresses the interaction between social experiences and the evolved sex differences of strength and reproductive capacity” in explaining behavior and motivation in people (p. 64). Since women have the capacity to bear children and then feed them once they are born, their motivation to stay home and care for the children are somewhat biologically based. As a result, since the woman must stay near the child during infancy to feed them, the men are more motivated to go out and provide for the family unit. However, society plays a role in reinforcing these roles and gender stereotypes of women as more sensitive and caregiving than men, who are seen as better providers. As a result, “biological differences between men and women contribute to the increase in psychological differences” and vice versa (Deckers, 2010, p. 64).Example 2: Antisocial Behavior: With antisocial behavior, Beaver and Holtfreter (2009) point to a great deal of research that supports biological influences as well as environmental influences to antisocial behavior. Certain genetic makeups and/or chemical imbalances are found at higher rates among individuals who exhibit antisocial behavior. There are also found similarities amongst childhood experiences (violent parents, history of antisocial behavior in the family, etc.) of those who exhibit antisocial behavior. Either the biological characteristics or the environmental characteristics are enough to increase the likelihood of antisocial behavior and together even more so.
  • There were many great individuals that were associated with different theories of biosocial, but the three that were chosen in this assignment were Robert C. Cloninger, Van Gogh and M.M Lineman.
  • Robert Cloninger was known for his theory of personality dimensions. He produced the model of four different personality factors P.A.E.I this stands for Persistence, Harm avoidance Novelty Seeking and Reward Dependency. Van Gogh was the creator of Creative thinking theory that was also apart of the biosocial theory. M.M Linehan created a model of development of border line personality disorders.
  • Cognitive arousal theory “focuses on the interaction between arousal and cognition” and the effect of this process on motivation (Deckers, 2010, p. 329). In some ways, certain emotions are linked to particular parts of the body, both physically as well as culturally (Deckers, 2010, p. 330). For example, when we think of sadness we think of a broken heart or if we are disgusted we often gag. However, there is a more important connection between emotion and specific parts of the body. When we experience emotions our body responds by preparing for a response. This is what arousal is: preparedness for action. Action readiness is a term related to this that is defined as “a state of preparedness to execute a particular kind of behavior” (Deckers, 2010, p. 331).
  • Example 1: Emergency Response – One example of how emotions cause the body to prepare to act, increasing the ability and motivation to react is when a person is faced with a need to respond to an emergency situation. When people experience fear, they experience many biological changes. The body is preparing the individual to either deal with the situation (fight) or flee the danger (flight). Biological changes include the liver producing glucose so that muscles have the fuel needed to function. Heart rate increases so more blood is pumped, and more blood goes towards the major organs preparing them for stress. The body is ready to respond to the situation due to its heightened state of arousal. This preparation increases motivation to act.Example 2: Sexual Arousal – When a person is in a situation that is sexually arousing, the body reacts in many ways in order to prepare for possible sexual activity. Blood flow is directed to the genitals, pupils dilate, and heart rate increases. The body is preparing itself for potential action. This preparation also causes more motivation for action.
  • There were several individuals involved with the theory of arousal. Two that captured attention were Lander Et Al and William James they both studied the theory of arousal.
  • Lander Et Al studied the relationship between arousal, attention and performance between two individuals and how arousal became between the two of them. William James created a list of human instincts “ He concluded that attachment, play, shames, anger, fear, shyness, modesty and love are the main problems with arousal. (http://psychology.about.com)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Biosocial Theory & Theory of Arousal Pamela Drake, Priscilla Miles, Tara Neave, & Michelle Wright
    • 2.  In this presentation the theory of Arousal and Biosocial Theory are being presented and discussed as theories of motivation. To do that the major themes, definitions, theorists, and the effectiveness of the theories are being presented. Please enjoy.
    • 3.  Nature & Nurture  Genetic & Environmental  Equally Important  Independent  Interactive
    • 4.  Example 1: Sex/Gender Differences  Example Behavior 2: Antisocial
    • 5.  Identify Individuals Associated with Biosocial Theory – Robert C. Cloninger 1980 Van Gogh M.M Linehan
    • 6.  Identify Individuals Associated with Biosocial Theory –  P.A.E.I Creative thinker Personality disorders
    • 7.  Evaluate the Effectiveness of Biosocial Theory in Explaining Various Behaviors • Antisocial Behavior  Feel neglected and powerless  Negative spirit and pride
    • 8.  Evaluate the Effectiveness of Biosocial Theory in Explaining Various Behaviors  Violent Behavior • Impaired judgment • Continued aggression
    • 9.  Connection  Arousal  Action Between Body & Emotions is Preparedness for Action Readiness
    • 10.  Example 1: Emergency Response  Example Arousal 2: Sexual
    • 11.  Identify Individuals Associated with Theory of Arousal –  Lander Et Al (1985)  William James
    • 12.  Identify Individuals Associated with Theory of Arousal–  Performance, Romance Anger Jealousy
    • 13.  Evaluate the Effectiveness of Theory of Arousal in Explaining Various Behaviors  Disorders of Arousal • Violent behaviors  confusional arousal  sleepwalking  sleep terror
    • 14.  Evaluate the Effectiveness of Theory of Arousal in Explaining Various Behaviors  low levels of autonomic and cortical arousal  negative linear relationship between arousability and delinquent acts
    • 15.  In conclusion we have learned that both theories can be effective in their own right and when practiced right can help those who believe and put them to practice. For example, as stated in previous slides with biosocial theory if a person who is antisocial and or violent with proper guidance and emotional regulation and teaching they can progress and learn to live in our society as well as be happier. Next with the theory of arousal you can see that when the theory of low cortical and autonomic arousal can be linked with delinquent acts which can lead to criminal activity later in life because they seek risky situations and activities in order to feel arousal in their lives. Both of these theories can certainly be applied to us as humans for motivators and both make ample points towards our behaviors and how to help those with what we consider negative behaviors. Hopefully you now know more about Biosocial and the theory of Arousal than at the beginning of this presentation and have a better concept of the two as well.
    • 16.        Beaver, K. M., & Holtfreter, K. (2009). Biosocial influences on fraudulent behaviors. The Journal of Genetic Psychology 170(2), pp. 101-114. Cloninger, C. R. (1986a). “A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants: A proposal.” Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 573-588. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov biosocial theories http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologytopics/tp/theories-ofmotivation.htm Arousal theory Coren, S. (1998) Arousal predisposition as a predictor of antisocial and delinquent behavior Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019188699900028 8 Deckers, L. (2010). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Perth & Kinross Council (2012) Retrieved from http://www.pkc.gov.uk/Community+life+and+leisure/Crime+preventio n+and+community+safety/