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  • 1. Running head: MEMORY WORKSHEET 1 Memory Worksheet Jody Marvin PSY 360 July 30, 2012 Brenda Van Wyck, Psy.D
  • 2. MEMORY WORKSHEET 2 Memory Worksheet Primary Memory and Its Characteristics Primary memory is more commonly known as short-term memory. Considered the workstation, information is temporarily manipulated, held, operates on representations from the memory, and is a “staging ground for operations of representations to make cognition happen” (Willingham, 2007, p. 244). Since the 19th century, early span of apprehension, how forgetting occurs, and how much information is stored simultaneously has been studied (Willingham, 2007). The short term model is relatively incorrect “but proves to be so important to cognitive psychology” familiarity to the concept is important (Willingham, 2007, p. 245). Taking in information from the environment, before entering the primary memory, information is buffered in the sensory memory (Willingham, 2007). For example, when asked a simple question such as, “What color is a polar bear?” the answer is retrieved in your secondary memory where it is put into your primary memory and is now available for sentence structure to answer the question (Willingham, 2007, p. 247). In addition, according to Willingham, “ The primary memory is limited to 2 seconds of acoustic code, four seconds of visiospatial objects, and is temporary because interference and decay (Sperling,1960) act to mediate what is simultaneously retrieved” (Willingham, 2007, p. 253). Process of Memory from Perception to Retrieval Results from Di Lollo’s (1980) experiment shows that iconic memory starts to decay at the onset of the perceived stimulus, not when the stimulus disappears (Willingham, 2007). Studies show both iconic (visiospatial and semantic) memory and echoic (auditory memory) have a duration of between 500 ms and one second while existing within the framework of sensory memory. Although a very large capacity information in the sensory memory quickly decays and
  • 3. MEMORY WORKSHEET 3 is manipulated whereas attention and semantics determine which memories are actively brought into primary memory awareness (Willingham, 2007). Concurrently, results are inconclusive where the iconic memory fits into the cognitive process, but it shows importance to the “visual system and primary memory interaction” (Willingham, 2007, p. 257). The Process is Compromised Forgetting in primary memory is effected by interference as initially shown in Brow-Peterson paradigm. Proactive interference occurs “when older learning interferes with new learning” whereas retroactive interference occurs when “later learning interferes with earlier learning” (Willingham, 2007, p. 267). Subsequently, acoustic confusion effect is a result of randomly substituting letters and sounds one assumes is correct. The digit span task and word length effect (shows importance of time) measure the capacity of primary memory when a semantic code (depends on chunking) is used (Willingham, 2007). Reliability and Unreliable Memory Retrieval Whether we remember something (stored in the warehouse) depends on “what we do with the information”, whether you think hard about it and use it” and whether the information is periphery information rather than central information (Willingham, 2007, p. 245). Depths of processing (Craik and Lockhart, 1972) refer to greater degrees of semantic involvement, relating the information to something emotional and personal. Most information people remember have an emotional component. Again, another dichotomy in the psychological realm of reality, does emotion helps memory, “or is emotion just focusing attention”. Subsequently, once the cognitive process is completed the neural mechanisms are still hard at work. Consolidation, (the neural process) continues for hours until days, depending. In the surrounding environment,
  • 4. MEMORY WORKSHEET 4 In addition cueing is paramount in memory retrieval whether it is contextual cueing, situational cueing, or locality cueing. Also encoding is determined by how we process the material and think about it. Furthermore, it is clear that recognition is much more successful when you are trying to remember something in the same situation and the same context. Previous knowledge reduces what you have to remember, guides your interpretations, and of ambiguous details, and makes unusual things stand out (Willingham, 2007). Furthermore it is clear that recognition is much more successful that recall in memory retrieval. When using recall as a means of remembering we are trying to retrieve information without cues. Without the benefit of semantic cues such as the link between and table and chair, we are left to recall the memory individually (Willingham, 2007).
  • 5. MEMORY WORKSHEET 5 Reference Willingham, D. (2007). Cognition: The thinking animal (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearson. WK 3 Individual Assignment 150 words each Available Points 1 Points Earned 1 Comments You followed this criteria. Question 1 What is primary memory? What are the characteristics of primary memory? 1.5 1.5 You did a great job with this question. You followed the elements and described primary memory as well as the characteristics well. Question 2 What is the process of memory from perception to retrieval? What happens when the process is compromised? Question 3 Is it possible for memory retrieval to be unreliable? Why or why not? What factors may affect the reliability of one’s memory? Format, Grammar, Punctuation, and APA 1.5 1.5 You did a great job describing the process of memory as well as what happens when the process is compromised. 2 Nice job with this question. You discussed how memory retrieval can be unreliable-as well as a comprehensive discussion on the factors that affect reliability. 1 See paper for comments. Overall, I’m impressed with this worksheet. You did a really nice job with formatting, grammar, punctuation, and APA style. Very comprehensive and demonstrated a strong understanding of the material! Nice job Jody! Late Penalty 10% per day Total 2 1 7 7/7