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    in the 1600's New Zealand and Australia (former known as New Holland) belonged to The Netherlands. The netherlands was in the beginning up unitil half of 17th century the most powerfull nation. this was because of the VOC or Verenigde Oostindishe Compangie.
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  • Superpowergeographies

    1. 1. CONTESTED PLANET SUPERPOWER GEOGRAPHIES Edexcel Unit 3 Topic 4 <ul><li>AIMS </li></ul><ul><li>To know what a superpower is </li></ul><ul><li>To understand what makes a superpower </li></ul>
    2. 2. WHAT IS NEEDED TO BECOME A SUPERPOWER? COMMON INGREDIENTS NEEDED <ul><li>Geographical influence </li></ul><ul><li>Large land/ sea area </li></ul><ul><li>Enough resources to be self sustaining if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Large population. </li></ul><ul><li>Military influence </li></ul><ul><li>Large ability to project power over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Large land, sea and air army which can be easily deployed. </li></ul><ul><li>Possession of nuclear power advantageous. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic influence </li></ul><ul><li>Large national economy (high GDP) </li></ul><ul><li>High economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of companies (MNC’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic self suffiency </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural influence </li></ul><ul><li>.Strong cultural influence over other nations. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Superpower societies <ul><li>IMPERIALIST SYSTEMS – E.g. The British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The culture, economy and politics of Britain dominated its subordinate colonies. Democracy in a very limited form existed within Britain not in the colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>CAPITALIST SYSTEMS – E.g. USA </li></ul><ul><li>This is a democratic system. It means that there is a division between people who own businesses and make profit and those who work for them. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNIST SYSTEMS – E.g. USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Private ownership of the means of production (businesses and property is not allowed. Karl Marx developed this theory that private ownership of business meant that the rich would seek to maximise profits at the expense of workers creating an elite. He argued that means of production should be owned in common to create an equal society. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Changing patterns of power <ul><li>Superpowers shift over time; the Uni-polar world of the British Empire gave way to the Bi-polar cold war world </li></ul><ul><li>In 1990, as the USSR collapsed, a new USA dominated Uni-polar world was ushered in; the EU has grown to be increasingly powerful also </li></ul><ul><li>Many people think the future will be a more complex, fragmented and regional multi-polar world </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to recognise that power can decline as well as grow </li></ul>
    5. 5. Are superpowers invincible? British empire Soviet Union Ottoman Empire Roman Empire The above were once giant empires with vast areas of land under their control, huge armies and thriving economies. So what made them decline? China India European Union USA? The above are emerging and current superpowers. So what is it that is making them develop such power?
    6. 6. The rise and fall of superpowers Extent of the British empire at its height. The British empire is the largest physical empire that has ever existed. How many of these countries can you identify?
    7. 7. The rise and fall of superpowers WW2 British Empire – The fall Economic decline Britain had overspent on war efforts and after WW2 was showing serious signs of economic ‘slowdown’ Loss of military influence Heavy losses after the war. Loss of land control Many colonies fought for the allies with their own independent armies. One by one after the war, for a range of reasons most of the colonies became independent. The USA and the Soviet Union –The rise Economic prosperity for the USA The USA emerged from the war as the worlds leading economic power. Their economy had grown during the war as they had supplied ships and weapons to the allies. Largest land army Soviet Union The Soviet Union emerged with the largest land army after many European losses.
    8. 8. Superpowers and the rest of the world Theoretical framework <ul><li>Dependency theory </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence </li></ul><ul><li>The reliance on something or someone for support or survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency Theory </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of a capitalist world system </li></ul><ul><li>Countries become reliant on the more powerful countries as these countries exploit the resources of the weaker countries. </li></ul><ul><li>In this system exists a core, a periphery and semi-periphery. </li></ul>Newly industrialising countries who have role as both core and periphery. Poorer, primary product producing countries with low GDP and growth rate including many African and Latin American nations. Rich, industrialised countries of the West including existing superpower USA, emerging superpower Europe and also Japan. Semi periphery Periphery Core
    9. 9. CORE PERIPHERY Low value primary products (raw materials and food) High value added products (industrial, processed goods) Superpowers and the rest of the world Theoretical framework Dependency theory also stresses that the only way out of this unequal relationship for less developed nations is to be self reliant and to control national resources (import substitution)
    11. 11. 2. THE ROLE OF SUPERPOWERS What impacts and influence do superpowers have?
    12. 12. Superpowers and the rest of the world <ul><li>COLONIALISM </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism is when one state has political control over other territories. </li></ul><ul><li>It began in the 15 th C when rich and powerful European countries such as Spain, Portugal, France and Britain began to search the globe for territories with more wealth and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain gained its empire in this way thus earning its status as the largest superpower (in terms of land area) in history. Colonial leaders acted as the rich core and colonies were the poor periphery. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Britain as a colonial superpower British colonies Many European countries claimed colonies in other lands to make profits, find new resources and convert indigenous tribes to certain religions and cultures. In terms of land area, Britain had the largest of any superpower in history,
    14. 14. Britain’s colonial rule in Kenya <ul><li>Britain took political control of Kenya in 1895. </li></ul><ul><li>The colony was established only after large numbers of indigenous people were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>British exploited Kenya for both land and labour. </li></ul><ul><li>They established taxes which Kenyans were forced to pay yet received no benefit from the money. </li></ul><ul><li>Kenyans were restricted in what they could grow and sell and where they could live </li></ul><ul><li>In 1964 Kenya finally gained its independence. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Superpowers and the rest of the world <ul><li>NEO-COLONIALISM </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-colonialism is a term used by critics of MEDC’s over their ‘involvement’ in the developing world. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism = political control = direct power </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-colonialism = economic control = indirect power </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency theorists argue that superpowers actively perpetuate a state of dependency through various policies and initiatives including… </li></ul><ul><li>Tied Aid (Aid which comes from powerful countries but has conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>Loans (Offered with high interest from organisations such as World Bank) </li></ul><ul><li>Investment (Often in the form of MNC’s who benefit few in host countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Trade (Trade patterns remain unfair with LEDC’s providing primary goods, MEDC’s manufacturing them and then selling them back at a higher price) </li></ul>
    16. 16. IS NIGERIA A NEO COLONY? <ul><li>Nigeria is the world’s 6 th largest oil exporter. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, the Niger Delta (the source of the countries $20billion industry) is one of Africa’s poorest regions. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1992, Nigerias debt was $33 billion. As a result it has had a long relationship with the IMF as a loans institution. </li></ul><ul><li>The IMF pressured the government to privatise public assets and promote free trade. This led to assets being sold to MNC’s and little of the money going to local people. Poverty therefore persists. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Superpowers as international decision makers <ul><li>Superpowers have both DIRECT and INDIRECT influence as policy and decision makers. Indirect influence often occurs through involvement in many intergovernmental organisations. </li></ul>Some Intergovernmental Organisations The United Nations ( UN ) aims to facilitate cooperation in international law, security, economic development, social progress, human rights and world peace. HQ = New York. 192 countries involved The G8 is a group of 8 wealthy and powerful countries whose leaders meet at an annual summit to discuss issues such as development and social security. HQ = None, members meet each year. The OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) includes 30 high income, powerful countries. They promote a free market economy. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) contains 28 wealthy countries. It is a political and defense organisation whose members agree to be military allies. HQ = Belgium.
    18. 18. Can you identify which map belongs to which IGO? NATO UNITED NATIONS G8 OECD A D C B
    19. 19. World Trade patterns <ul><li>International trade has been and continues to be a determinant of inequality around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>TRADE FACTS </li></ul><ul><li>75% of world exports from LEDC’s. </li></ul><ul><li>25% of world exports from MEDC’s. </li></ul><ul><li>63% of world manufacturing export from MEDC’s. </li></ul>Map of trade flows from and to the USA.
    20. 20. Trade patterns
    21. 21. Share of world trade over time
    22. 22. AS Recap: TRADING BLOCS <ul><li>What is a trading bloc? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify the following trading blocs? </li></ul><ul><li>NAFTA </li></ul><ul><li>EU </li></ul><ul><li>MERCOSUR </li></ul><ul><li>ASEAN </li></ul><ul><li>Can you name any others? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages of trading blocs? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the disadvantages of trading blocs? </li></ul><ul><li>How do trading blocs affect countries on the outside? </li></ul>
    23. 23. Global culture <ul><li>On the USA and Europe’s quest for world power, traditional ethnic, religious and kinship and cultural ties could be seen as largely irrelevant. </li></ul><ul><li>The dominance of the USA as an unrivalled superpower since 1990, plus the growing power of the EU has led some people to identify a global culture. It is difficult to define what it is but some characteristics linked to it are: </li></ul><ul><li>A culture of consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>A culture of capitalism and importance of attaining wealth </li></ul><ul><li>A white Anglo Saxon culture with English as dominant language </li></ul><ul><li>A culture that cheery picks and adapts the best part of other world cultures. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Americanisation/ Westernisation
    25. 25. Superpower cultures <ul><li>AMERICANISATION = WESTERNISATION = MCDONALDISATION! </li></ul><ul><li>Americanisation is the term used to describe the influence that superpower USA has on other cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Fast food companies such as coca cola and McDonalds are symbols of the USA cultural power and dominance and so we often hear the term Mcdonaldisation used to mean the same thing. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Westernisation – good or bad? What is your opinion? Westernisation inhibits the growth of local cultures in the third world. The spread of chain stores and the same foods, music, T.V. etc… means that everywhere becomes similar. E.g. Every city centre in Britain has the same shops. Loss of identity. Many cultures are even losing their language. Youngsters in South Korea speak English as much as Korean. Globalisation and the associated spread of Western culture is enhancing other nations. Globalisation creates wealth in poorer nations and wealth increases ability to watch films, listen to music, buy clothes etc… Are countries choosing to become Westernized. Its not imposed on them by force. English is now a global language which brings people together. Anti Westernisation Pro westernisation
    27. 27. 3. SUPERPOWER FUTURES What are the implications of the future rise of superpowers?
    28. 28. The rise of the BRIC’s Goldman Sachs argued that, since they are developing rapidly, by 2050 the combined economies of the BRIC’s could eclipse the combined economies of the current richest countries of the world. Who are the BRIC’s? BRAZIL INDIA CHINA RUSSIA
    29. 29. Visions of the future The rise of the BRIC’s. <ul><li>In 2007, China overtook the UK as the world’s 4 th largest economy and by the end of 2010 will be third to Japan and USA. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2050, it is likely that the BRIC’s (Brazil, Russia, India and China) will be in the G8 along with Germany, USA and Japan. This means Italy, France and the UK will not longer be a part of this IGO. </li></ul><ul><li>The balance of trade and power is likely to shift from East to West. </li></ul><ul><li>Can there be more than one superpower or does the rise of China and India mean the fall of the USA? </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Brazil and Russia are two of the worlds largest suppliers of raw materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia controls massive reserves of oil and natural gas, which it supplies to Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese, Indian and Russian companies are acquiring European businesses and opening plants in the USA </li></ul>Visions of the future The rise of the BRIC’s.
    31. 31. The rise of ‘Chindia’ China and India, because of their size (a combined population of over 2.5 billion) and rapid economic growth (6-10% a year), have a critical role to play as emerging superpowers.
    32. 32. The rise of ‘Chindia’ China statistics India statistics 31 29 20 Trade (as a % of GDP) 9 9 4 GDP growth rate (%) 65 64 62 Life expectancy 2007 2005 2000 67 63 39 Trade (as a % of GDP) 13.0 10.4 8.4 GDP growth rate (%) 73 71 71 Life expectancy 2007 2005 2000
    33. 33. The environmental impacts of the rise of ‘Chindia’ <ul><li>At current rates… </li></ul><ul><li>India’s greenhouse emissions will have risen by 70% in 2025. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 2000 and 2030, China’s emissions increases will have surpassed that of the entire industrialised world. </li></ul><ul><li>India's energy consumption increased by 280% between 1980 and 2001 and half the population still lacks access to electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>China builds a new coal fired powers station every week. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Some consequences of China’s growth There is a widening gap between rich and poor and rural and urban. 20$ of China’s population live on less than $1 a day so the wealth is not evenly spread. China has 16 of the 20 dirtiest cities in the world. 70% of Chinas rivers are polluted. Deforestation rates are high. - Standards of living are increasing on the whole. More money spent on health and education. The country had a GDP growth rate of 13% in 2007. High Investment in roads and power supplies. China has pursued HEP as a power source which is renewable and involves no emissions. + SOCIAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL
    35. 35. Implications of a global power shift <ul><li>With China and India’s size, growth rate and dynamism it is highly likely that they are going to transform the 21 st C global economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither country however can assume its place as a superpower as currently these countries still fall short of Japan and the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>In future (if growth continues) then the USA and EU will need to make room for China and India. </li></ul><ul><li>It is likely that the balance of power and technologies will shift from West to East as education, innovation and consumer numbers increase with economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>The USA has a lot to do to maintain its role as global superpower. </li></ul><ul><li>But remember, history has shown that superpowers always rise and fall? </li></ul>
    36. 36. Investigate Scenarios of the global future <ul><li>Investigate and evaluate the following scenarios. </li></ul><ul><li>Full scale globalisation and co-operation between countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Power sharing between a multiplicity of global players. </li></ul><ul><li>A world without the West (USA loses dominance to China and India) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased potential for conflict between the BRIC’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of regional blocs for power purposes. E.g. European Union. </li></ul><ul><li>What other scenarios might there be? </li></ul>
    38. 38. What makes a top level answer for contested planet questions? <ul><li>To reach the top level with your answers candidates must make sure that they do the following… </li></ul><ul><li>Structure the answer well by using clear paragraphs and putting points in a logical order. </li></ul><ul><li>Use real world examples and good data to exemplify points made. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the command word and apply it appropriately. E.g. Assess the view calls for a 2 sided argument. Explain requires clear reasons behind something. </li></ul><ul><li>Use geographical terminology wherever possible and with accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure good use of grammar, spelling and punctuation. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Examination question 1 Question breakdown <ul><li>Explore the view that the relationship between superpowers and the periphery is a neo colonial one. (15 marks) </li></ul>Command word: Explore the view requires you to examine the subject thoroughly and consider it from a variety of viewpoints. Structure So you need to structure question looking at to what extent IS the relationship neo colonial and to what extent IS IT NOT. Key words Superpowers, periphery and neo colonial are all key concepts that you should define and show clear understanding of.
    40. 40. Examination question 1 <ul><li>To what extent do you agree that the relationship between superpowers and the periphery is neo colonial. (15 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>First break down any definitions in the question and query any controversial points. Define superpower, periphery and neo colonial. </li></ul><ul><li>Would be useful here to briefly outline colonial rule and the political relationship between ‘superpower’ and ‘periphery’. Could use the British empire as a good example. Then compare this to concept of neo colonial (possibly link in theory with dependency theory). </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments for = African debt, terms of trade, tied aid, economic polices applied by IMF (structural adjustment policies) </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments against = relief aid, debt being written off by G8, fair trade being encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplify your points with good clear examples wherever possible. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Examination question 2 Question breakdown <ul><li>Discuss the economic and environmental impacts that the rise of emerging superpowers can have on the world. (15 marks) </li></ul>Command word: Examine means to investigate in detail, offering evidence for and against something. Sometimes a question will specify the type of impacts. If it does make sure you focus only on these. If it does not then bear them all in mind (cultural, social, economic, environmental and political) Impacts: These can be either positive or negative as it does not specify. Economic tends to be positive and environmental more negative.
    42. 42. Examination question 2 <ul><li>Discuss the economic and environmental impacts that the rise of emerging superpowers can have on the world. (15 marks) </li></ul><ul><li>Define superpower and explore briefly who the emerging superpowers are. </li></ul><ul><li>Include a balanced discussion between economic and environmental impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impacts are likely to be more negative including issues such as resource implications for energy, water and land, increased C02 production leading to global warming and possible shortages of water for those in marginal areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic impacts are likely to be positive for the superpower but could have negative implications. Positive impacts include poverty reduction and increased standards of living. Negative implications may be on peripheral countries who are influenced by or under the control from the superpowers. </li></ul>