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Arthropoda ( Joint - Foot )
Characteristics 1 <ul><li>Jointed appendages </li></ul><ul><li>Versatile exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion of segments ...
Characteristics contd. <ul><li>Complex muscular system (smooth & striated) </li></ul><ul><li>Malpighian tubules, coxal, or...
Subphyla <ul><li>Trilobita (extinct for 200 million years) </li></ul><ul><li>Chelicerata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horseshoe c...
Chelicerata <ul><li>Cephalothorax & abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>6 pr. of cephalo-thoracic appendages </li></ul><ul><li>1 pr....
Xiphosurida:  Horseshoe crabs <ul><li>Ancient (over 400 million years old) </li></ul><ul><li>Generalists </li></ul><ul><li...
Horseshoe Crabs
Pantopoda :  Sea Spiders <ul><li>All legs! </li></ul><ul><li>intertidal to deep ocean; Polar waters </li></ul><ul><li>Thin...
Sea Spider
Araneae :  spiders <ul><li>40,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalothorax and abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Chelicerae with fa...
Brown Recluse bite
Jumping Spider
Scorpiones <ul><li>1400 species </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest terrestrial arthropods </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt using sensilla on l...
Scorpion under UV light
Acari : Ticks & Mites <ul><li>40,000 species identified </li></ul><ul><li>Est. of 50,000+ </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial & ...
Blood Engorged Tick, Right
Opiliones : Daddy Longlegs <ul><li>Related to scorpions </li></ul><ul><li>5000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalothorax & a...
Opiliones Left, Cellar Spider Right
Crustaceans   Insects of the sea Crusta = shell (CaCO 3 ) More
Crustacea we know… <ul><li>Crabs </li></ul><ul><li>Lobsters </li></ul><ul><li>Crayfish </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimp </li></ul>...
Lesser known Crustacea: <ul><li>Copepods </li></ul><ul><li>Ostracods </li></ul><ul><li>Water fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Whale...
Features of  Crustacea <ul><li>Biramous appendages  </li></ul><ul><li>Paired  Antennae (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Maxillae (eg....
Reproduction <ul><li>Most are dioecious - sexual reproduction by separate males and females </li></ul><ul><li>Oviparous  <...
<ul><li>Growth and Development: </li></ul><ul><li>Two strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Direct development:  eg.  Crayfish </li...
NAUPLIUS ZOEA Megalopae
Largest class = Malacostra <ul><li>Rostrum - anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Telson - posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Carapace </li...
Serial Homology - all appendages derived from the same ancestral structures
Molting:   making a larger cuticle Example Necessary for Growth Hormonal control X-organ (brain/eye stalks) MIH removal  ...
Feeding <ul><li>Complete digestive systems </li></ul><ul><li>Filter feeders  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirripedia (Barnacles) ...
<ul><li>Feeding contd. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are parasitic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whale lice >> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mo...
Terrestrial Mandibulates
Classes: <ul><li>Chilopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Diplopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Pauropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Symphyla </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Pauropod A </li></ul><ul><li>Symphyla  B </li></ul>A B
Chilopoda:   Centipedes <ul><li>One pair of legs per segment </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 177 segments (per text) </li></ul><ul...
Diplopoda:  Millipedes <ul><li>2 pair of legs per segment </li></ul><ul><li>25 -100 segments </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 30 cm...
Pauropoda <ul><li>Soft bodied </li></ul><ul><li>Small head </li></ul><ul><li>No true eyes </li></ul><ul><li>No trachae, sp...
Symphyla <ul><li>.2 to 1cm (small) </li></ul><ul><li>Humus, leaf debris </li></ul><ul><li>14 segments and 12 pair of legs ...
Insecta  ( Hexapoda ) <ul><li>Three segments </li></ul><ul><li>Six legs (tripod) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Pair each segment...
Insects contd. <ul><li>Feeding: </li></ul><ul><li>Three section gut </li></ul><ul><li>Food specialization reduces competit...
Insect  Growth  and Reproduction <ul><li>Complete or  Holometabolous  Metamorphosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>88% of all insec...
Growth contd. <ul><li>Direct or Ametabolous development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg, juvenile, & adult </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Complete Metamorphosis  <ul><li>Under hormonal control </li></ul><ul><li>Brain secretes PITH which inhibits </li></ul><ul>...
Quiescent Periods <ul><li>Hibernation (winter) </li></ul><ul><li>Estivation (Summer) </li></ul><ul><li>Diapause (Either - ...
Defense styles <ul><li>Mimicry of noxious species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg.  Viceroy and Monarch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ap...
Insect Behavior <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pheromones </l...
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Arthropoda Final

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  • Transcript of "Arthropoda Final"

    1. 1. Arthropoda ( Joint - Foot )
    2. 2. Characteristics 1 <ul><li>Jointed appendages </li></ul><ul><li>Versatile exoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion of segments (tagmosis) to form specialized tagmata </li></ul><ul><li>Open circulation (Coelom ≈ hemocoel ) Little or no respiratory pigment needed. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Complete digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration by diffusion, book lungs, gills, or trachae </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal brain with ventral nerve cord </li></ul><ul><li>Dioecious </li></ul>
    3. 3. Characteristics contd. <ul><li>Complex muscular system (smooth & striated) </li></ul><ul><li>Malpighian tubules, coxal, or antennal glands (excretion) </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holometabolous (complete metamorphosis) butterfly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemimetabolous (incomplete metamorphosis) grasshopper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ametabolous (direct development) scorpion, silverfish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termites </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Subphyla <ul><li>Trilobita (extinct for 200 million years) </li></ul><ul><li>Chelicerata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, mites, sea spiders, sun spiders, scorpions & whip scorpions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crustacea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobsters, Crayfish, Crabs, Barnacles, Shrimps, Isopods, Amphipods, & others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uniramia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insects, Millipedes, Centipedes, Pauropods, & Symphyla </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Chelicerata <ul><li>Cephalothorax & abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>6 pr. of cephalo-thoracic appendages </li></ul><ul><li>1 pr. Chelicerae (mouth parts) </li></ul><ul><li>One pair of Pedipalps </li></ul><ul><li>4 pr. of walking legs </li></ul><ul><li>Horsehoe crab: 5 pr. legs and one pr. of chelicerae. </li></ul><ul><li>Classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merostomata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horsehoe crabs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pycnogonida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sea spiders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arachnida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Araneae - spiders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scorpiones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acari - ticks & mites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opiliones - harvestmen </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Xiphosurida: Horseshoe crabs <ul><li>Ancient (over 400 million years old) </li></ul><ul><li>Generalists </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds on molusks & worms </li></ul><ul><li>Book gills </li></ul><ul><li>Carapace, abdominal plates, & telson </li></ul><ul><li>Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Come to beach to mate </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae appear like trilobites </li></ul>
    7. 7. Horseshoe Crabs
    8. 8. Pantopoda : Sea Spiders <ul><li>All legs! </li></ul><ul><li>intertidal to deep ocean; Polar waters </li></ul><ul><li>Thin body </li></ul><ul><li>4 pairs of long legs </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth @ end of a long proboscis </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on soft bodied organisms (e.g.. cnidarians) </li></ul><ul><li>No respiratory or excretory systems needed due to a large surface area to volume ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Open circulatory system </li></ul>
    9. 9. Sea Spider
    10. 10. Araneae : spiders <ul><li>40,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalothorax and abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Chelicerae with fangs </li></ul><ul><li>Pedipalps (sensory & reproductive function) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory setae </li></ul><ul><li>Four pair of walking legs </li></ul><ul><li>Most fluid feeders (some have teeth ) </li></ul><ul><li>Female spins cocoon </li></ul><ul><li>Malpighian tubules & coxal glands in some </li></ul><ul><li>Book lungs </li></ul><ul><li>8 simple eyes ( SALTICIDAE ) </li></ul><ul><li>Silk glands & spinnerets (2-3 pr.) </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid scleroprotein with many uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Venom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotoxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemolytic </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Brown Recluse bite
    12. 12. Jumping Spider
    13. 13. Scorpiones <ul><li>1400 species </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest terrestrial arthropods </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt using sensilla on legs to detect surface waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Pectines (comb-like sensors; ventral side of abdomen) </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalothorax, preabdomen (7) and postabdomen (5) </li></ul><ul><li>Small chelicerae </li></ul><ul><li>Large chelipeds (pincers) </li></ul><ul><li>Mating dance: males pulls female over spermatophore </li></ul><ul><li>Viviparous (live bearing) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct development </li></ul>
    14. 14. Scorpion under UV light
    15. 15. Acari : Ticks & Mites <ul><li>40,000 species identified </li></ul><ul><li>Est. of 50,000+ </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial & aquatic (fresh water, few marine) </li></ul><ul><li>1mm to 3cm </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion of cephalothorax & abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth on capitulum </li></ul><ul><li>Legs: usually 4 pr. </li></ul><ul><li>Oviparous </li></ul><ul><li>Nymphal stages </li></ul><ul><li>Spider mites - web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant parasite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important disease vectors! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RMSF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme disease (deer tick) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tularemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust mites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scabies (mite) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Blood Engorged Tick, Right
    17. 17. Opiliones : Daddy Longlegs <ul><li>Related to scorpions </li></ul><ul><li>5000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalothorax & abdomen broadly joined </li></ul><ul><li>2 eyes </li></ul><ul><li>4 pr. spindly legs </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Non-venemous </li></ul><ul><li>Oviporous; male uses penis for sperm transfer </li></ul>
    18. 18. Opiliones Left, Cellar Spider Right
    19. 19. Crustaceans Insects of the sea Crusta = shell (CaCO 3 ) More
    20. 20. Crustacea we know… <ul><li>Crabs </li></ul><ul><li>Lobsters </li></ul><ul><li>Crayfish </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>Isopods (eg. pill bugs) </li></ul><ul><li>There are more than 67,000 species that have been identified. Together with Insects, they make up over 80% of all animal species! </li></ul>
    21. 21. Lesser known Crustacea: <ul><li>Copepods </li></ul><ul><li>Ostracods </li></ul><ul><li>Water fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Whale lice </li></ul><ul><li>Tadpole shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>& Krill Examples </li></ul>
    22. 22. Features of Crustacea <ul><li>Biramous appendages </li></ul><ul><li>Paired Antennae (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Maxillae (eg. Crayfish Bailor = 2 maxillae) </li></ul><ul><li>Mandibles </li></ul><ul><li>Chelipeds (claws) </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalothorax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carapace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Brain (ganglia) </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Gills (most) or.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lungs (hermit crabs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusers (phyllopodia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudotrachea (terrestrial isopods) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cuticle … procuticle (outer) impregnated with calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile hairs </li></ul><ul><li>Smell & taste - antennae </li></ul><ul><li>Compund Eyes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ommatidia - apposition image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark adaptation (retracted pigment) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statocysts (antennal base) & Statolyths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron filings alter perception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excetory organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antennal glands (Green Glands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ionic balance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gills & cuticle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous waste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Malpighian Tubules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemocoel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open circ. System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemocyanin or hemoglobin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal Heart & venous sinuses </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Reproduction <ul><li>Most are dioecious - sexual reproduction by separate males and females </li></ul><ul><li>Oviparous </li></ul><ul><li>Barnacles are Monoecious </li></ul><ul><li>Some are Parthenogenic (male scarcity or need for rapid population growth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ostracods (mussel shrimp) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Copepods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cladocerans (eg. Daphnia) </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Growth and Development: </li></ul><ul><li>Two strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Direct development: eg. Crayfish </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphosis: eg. Barnacles, crabs, shrimp, lobsters </li></ul><ul><li>Three typical metamorphic larvae: </li></ul><ul><li>Nauplius (most common form) </li></ul><ul><li>Zoea ( swimming crabs ) </li></ul><ul><li>Megalopae ( dungenous crabs ) </li></ul><ul><li>There are other types as well </li></ul>
    25. 25. NAUPLIUS ZOEA Megalopae
    26. 26. Largest class = Malacostra <ul><li>Rostrum - anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Telson - posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Carapace </li></ul><ul><li>Tergum </li></ul><ul><li>Paired Appendages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each segment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serial Homology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheliped vs. 2 nd legs </li></ul></ul>1. Isopoda 2. Amphipoda 3. Euphausiacea 4. Decapoda
    27. 27. Serial Homology - all appendages derived from the same ancestral structures
    28. 28. Molting: making a larger cuticle Example Necessary for Growth Hormonal control X-organ (brain/eye stalks) MIH removal  ecdysis Y-organs (mandibles) MH Helpless state - quiescent
    29. 29. Feeding <ul><li>Complete digestive systems </li></ul><ul><li>Filter feeders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirripedia (Barnacles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branchiopoda (…respire through feet ! Fairy shrimp, Daphnia, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order Rhizocephala (crab parasites) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order Isopoda (some are fish exoparasites) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lobster & Crayfish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandibles, Esophagus, Gastric mill (cardiac stomach), Setae (pyloric s.), Intestine, and digestive gland </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Feeding contd. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are parasitic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whale lice >> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most are predatory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantis shrimp fluoresce >> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pistol shrimp (see video) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some are suspension feeders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barnacles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairy shrimps </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Terrestrial Mandibulates
    32. 32. Classes: <ul><li>Chilopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Diplopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Pauropoda </li></ul><ul><li>Symphyla </li></ul><ul><li>Insecta </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Pauropod A </li></ul><ul><li>Symphyla B </li></ul>A B
    34. 34. Chilopoda: Centipedes <ul><li>One pair of legs per segment </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 177 segments (per text) </li></ul><ul><li>Venomous </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 30 cm in length </li></ul><ul><li>3000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid locomotion </li></ul>
    35. 35. Diplopoda: Millipedes <ul><li>2 pair of legs per segment </li></ul><ul><li>25 -100 segments </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 30 cm in length </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Repugnatorial glands </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Slow moving </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae have 1 pair of legs per segment! </li></ul>
    36. 36. Pauropoda <ul><li>Soft bodied </li></ul><ul><li>Small head </li></ul><ul><li>No true eyes </li></ul><ul><li>No trachae, spiracles, or circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Moist soil & leaf litter </li></ul><ul><li>12 segments and 9 pair of legs </li></ul><ul><li>500 species </li></ul>
    37. 37. Symphyla <ul><li>.2 to 1cm (small) </li></ul><ul><li>Humus, leaf debris </li></ul><ul><li>14 segments and 12 pair of legs </li></ul><ul><li>Eyeless </li></ul><ul><li>Only anterior trachae and spiracles </li></ul><ul><li>160 species </li></ul>
    38. 38. Insecta ( Hexapoda ) <ul><li>Three segments </li></ul><ul><li>Six legs (tripod) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Pair each segment of thorax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually 2 pair of wings (fig. 20.13) </li></ul><ul><li>All habitats but marine </li></ul><ul><li>Highly adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Durable eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Scleroproteins (cuticle) </li></ul><ul><li>Compound eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated sense organs </li></ul><ul><li>1 pair of antennae (smell, hearing, or tactile sense) </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive tracheal system & spiracles </li></ul><ul><li>Open Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Malpighian tubules (uric acid) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete, Incomplete & Direct metamorphosis </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 million species identified </li></ul>
    39. 39. Insects contd. <ul><li>Feeding: </li></ul><ul><li>Three section gut </li></ul><ul><li>Food specialization reduces competition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predaciious, parasitic, herbivorous, or saprophagus. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized mouth parts </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Vision (simple or compound) </li></ul><ul><li>Tympanum (moths & bats) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemoreception (CO 2, pheromones, etc.) - mosquitoes , Sphinx moth </li></ul><ul><li>Proprioception, gravity, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanoreception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensilla on antennae, legs, and body </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Insect Growth and Reproduction <ul><li>Complete or Holometabolous Metamorphosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>88% of all insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg, larva, pupa, & adult. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Butterflies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incomplete or Hemimetabolous Metamorphosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg, larva, adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larva goes through several instars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Grasshoppers </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Growth contd. <ul><li>Direct or Ametabolous development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg, juvenile, & adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juveniles almost identical to adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Silverfish </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Complete Metamorphosis <ul><li>Under hormonal control </li></ul><ul><li>Brain secretes PITH which inhibits </li></ul><ul><li>Ecdysone (molting hormone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secreted by prothoracic gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Juvenile hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpora allata (p.739 of text) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceases production as insect approaches adult stage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This signals pupation. </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Quiescent Periods <ul><li>Hibernation (winter) </li></ul><ul><li>Estivation (Summer) </li></ul><ul><li>Diapause (Either - Adverse environmental conditions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically determined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>@ end of growth stage (before molt) </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Defense styles <ul><li>Mimicry of noxious species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Viceroy and Monarch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aposematic coloration </li></ul><ul><li>Crypsis (camouflage) </li></ul>
    45. 45. Insect Behavior <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pheromones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fireflies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crickets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Insects (altruistism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hymenoptera ( honey bee dance ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isoptera - termites </li></ul></ul>
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