Arthropoda Final
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Arthropoda Final

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Arthropoda Final Arthropoda Final Presentation Transcript

  • Arthropoda ( Joint - Foot )
  • Characteristics 1
    • Jointed appendages
    • Versatile exoskeleton
    • Fusion of segments (tagmosis) to form specialized tagmata
    • Open circulation (Coelom ≈ hemocoel ) Little or no respiratory pigment needed. Why?
    • Complete digestive system
    • Respiration by diffusion, book lungs, gills, or trachae
    • Dorsal brain with ventral nerve cord
    • Dioecious
  • Characteristics contd.
    • Complex muscular system (smooth & striated)
    • Malpighian tubules, coxal, or antennal glands (excretion)
    • Metamorphosis
      • Holometabolous (complete metamorphosis) butterfly
      • Hemimetabolous (incomplete metamorphosis) grasshopper
      • Ametabolous (direct development) scorpion, silverfish
    • Social organization
      • Bees
      • Ants
      • Termites
  • Subphyla
    • Trilobita (extinct for 200 million years)
    • Chelicerata
      • Horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, mites, sea spiders, sun spiders, scorpions & whip scorpions
    • Crustacea
      • Lobsters, Crayfish, Crabs, Barnacles, Shrimps, Isopods, Amphipods, & others
    • Uniramia
      • Insects, Millipedes, Centipedes, Pauropods, & Symphyla
  • Chelicerata
    • Cephalothorax & abdomen
    • 6 pr. of cephalo-thoracic appendages
    • 1 pr. Chelicerae (mouth parts)
    • One pair of Pedipalps
    • 4 pr. of walking legs
    • Horsehoe crab: 5 pr. legs and one pr. of chelicerae.
    • Classes:
      • Merostomata
        • Horsehoe crabs
      • Pycnogonida
        • Sea spiders
      • Arachnida
        • Araneae - spiders
        • Scorpiones
        • Acari - ticks & mites
        • Opiliones - harvestmen
  • Xiphosurida: Horseshoe crabs
    • Ancient (over 400 million years old)
    • Generalists
    • Feeds on molusks & worms
    • Book gills
    • Carapace, abdominal plates, & telson
    • Marine
    • Come to beach to mate
    • Larvae appear like trilobites
  • Horseshoe Crabs
  • Pantopoda : Sea Spiders
    • All legs!
    • intertidal to deep ocean; Polar waters
    • Thin body
    • 4 pairs of long legs
    • Mouth @ end of a long proboscis
    • Feed on soft bodied organisms (e.g.. cnidarians)
    • No respiratory or excretory systems needed due to a large surface area to volume ratio
    • Open circulatory system
  • Sea Spider
  • Araneae : spiders
    • 40,000 species
    • Cephalothorax and abdomen
    • Chelicerae with fangs
    • Pedipalps (sensory & reproductive function)
    • Sensory setae
    • Four pair of walking legs
    • Most fluid feeders (some have teeth )
    • Female spins cocoon
    • Malpighian tubules & coxal glands in some
    • Book lungs
    • 8 simple eyes ( SALTICIDAE )
    • Silk glands & spinnerets (2-3 pr.)
    • Liquid scleroprotein with many uses.
    • Venom
      • Neurotoxins
      • Hemolytic
  • Brown Recluse bite
  • Jumping Spider
  • Scorpiones
    • 1400 species
    • Oldest terrestrial arthropods
    • Hunt using sensilla on legs to detect surface waves.
    • Pectines (comb-like sensors; ventral side of abdomen)
    • Cephalothorax, preabdomen (7) and postabdomen (5)
    • Small chelicerae
    • Large chelipeds (pincers)
    • Mating dance: males pulls female over spermatophore
    • Viviparous (live bearing)
    • Direct development
  • Scorpion under UV light
  • Acari : Ticks & Mites
    • 40,000 species identified
    • Est. of 50,000+
    • Terrestrial & aquatic (fresh water, few marine)
    • 1mm to 3cm
    • Fusion of cephalothorax & abdomen
    • Mouth on capitulum
    • Legs: usually 4 pr.
    • Oviparous
    • Nymphal stages
    • Spider mites - web
      • Plant parasite
    • Important disease vectors!
      • RMSF
      • Lyme disease (deer tick)
      • Tularemia
      • Cattle fever
      • Dust mites
      • Scabies (mite)
    • Viruses, bacteria, fungi, etc.
  • Blood Engorged Tick, Right
  • Opiliones : Daddy Longlegs
    • Related to scorpions
    • 5000 species
    • Cephalothorax & abdomen broadly joined
    • 2 eyes
    • 4 pr. spindly legs
    • Carnivorous
    • Non-venemous
    • Oviporous; male uses penis for sperm transfer
  • Opiliones Left, Cellar Spider Right
  • Crustaceans Insects of the sea Crusta = shell (CaCO 3 ) More
  • Crustacea we know…
    • Crabs
    • Lobsters
    • Crayfish
    • Shrimp
    • Isopods (eg. pill bugs)
    • There are more than 67,000 species that have been identified. Together with Insects, they make up over 80% of all animal species!
  • Lesser known Crustacea:
    • Copepods
    • Ostracods
    • Water fleas
    • Whale lice
    • Tadpole shrimp
    • & Krill Examples
  • Features of Crustacea
    • Biramous appendages
    • Paired Antennae (2)
    • Maxillae (eg. Crayfish Bailor = 2 maxillae)
    • Mandibles
    • Chelipeds (claws)
    • Cephalothorax
      • Carapace
    • Abdomen
    • Brain (ganglia)
    • Primarily Marine
    • Gills (most) or..
      • Lungs (hermit crabs)
      • Diffusers (phyllopodia)
      • Pseudotrachea (terrestrial isopods)
    • Cuticle … procuticle (outer) impregnated with calcium
    • Tactile hairs
    • Smell & taste - antennae
    • Compund Eyes
      • Ommatidia - apposition image
      • Dark adaptation (retracted pigment)
    • Statocysts (antennal base) & Statolyths
      • Iron filings alter perception
    • Excetory organs
      • Antennal glands (Green Glands)
        • ionic balance
      • Gills & cuticle
        • Nitrogenous waste
      • No Malpighian Tubules
    • Hemocoel
      • Open circ. System
        • Hemocyanin or hemoglobin
      • Dorsal Heart & venous sinuses
  • Reproduction
    • Most are dioecious - sexual reproduction by separate males and females
    • Oviparous
    • Barnacles are Monoecious
    • Some are Parthenogenic (male scarcity or need for rapid population growth)
      • Ostracods (mussel shrimp)
      • Some Copepods
      • Cladocerans (eg. Daphnia)
    • Growth and Development:
    • Two strategies
    • Direct development: eg. Crayfish
    • Metamorphosis: eg. Barnacles, crabs, shrimp, lobsters
    • Three typical metamorphic larvae:
    • Nauplius (most common form)
    • Zoea ( swimming crabs )
    • Megalopae ( dungenous crabs )
    • There are other types as well
  • NAUPLIUS ZOEA Megalopae
  • Largest class = Malacostra
    • Rostrum - anterior
    • Telson - posterior
    • Carapace
    • Tergum
    • Paired Appendages
      • Each segment
    • Serial Homology
      • Cheliped vs. 2 nd legs
    1. Isopoda 2. Amphipoda 3. Euphausiacea 4. Decapoda
  • Serial Homology - all appendages derived from the same ancestral structures
  • Molting: making a larger cuticle Example Necessary for Growth Hormonal control X-organ (brain/eye stalks) MIH removal  ecdysis Y-organs (mandibles) MH Helpless state - quiescent
  • Feeding
    • Complete digestive systems
    • Filter feeders
      • Cirripedia (Barnacles)
      • Branchiopoda (…respire through feet ! Fairy shrimp, Daphnia, etc.)
    • Parasites
      • Order Rhizocephala (crab parasites)
      • Order Isopoda (some are fish exoparasites)
    • Lobster & Crayfish
      • Mandibles, Esophagus, Gastric mill (cardiac stomach), Setae (pyloric s.), Intestine, and digestive gland
    • Feeding contd.
    • Some are parasitic.
      • Whale lice >>
    • Most are predatory.
      • Mantis shrimp fluoresce >>
      • Pistol shrimp (see video)
    • Some are suspension feeders
      • Barnacles
      • Fairy shrimps
  • Terrestrial Mandibulates
  • Classes:
    • Chilopoda
    • Diplopoda
    • Pauropoda
    • Symphyla
    • Insecta
    • Pauropod A
    • Symphyla B
    A B
  • Chilopoda: Centipedes
    • One pair of legs per segment
    • Up to 177 segments (per text)
    • Venomous
    • Carnivorous
    • Up to 30 cm in length
    • 3000 species
    • Rapid locomotion
  • Diplopoda: Millipedes
    • 2 pair of legs per segment
    • 25 -100 segments
    • Up to 30 cm in length
    • Herbivorous
    • Repugnatorial glands
    • 10,000 species
    • Slow moving
    • Larvae have 1 pair of legs per segment!
  • Pauropoda
    • Soft bodied
    • Small head
    • No true eyes
    • No trachae, spiracles, or circulatory system
    • Moist soil & leaf litter
    • 12 segments and 9 pair of legs
    • 500 species
  • Symphyla
    • .2 to 1cm (small)
    • Humus, leaf debris
    • 14 segments and 12 pair of legs
    • Eyeless
    • Only anterior trachae and spiracles
    • 160 species
  • Insecta ( Hexapoda )
    • Three segments
    • Six legs (tripod)
      • 1 Pair each segment of thorax
    • Usually 2 pair of wings (fig. 20.13)
    • All habitats but marine
    • Highly adaptable
    • Durable eggs
    • Scleroproteins (cuticle)
    • Compound eyes
    • Sophisticated sense organs
    • 1 pair of antennae (smell, hearing, or tactile sense)
    • Extensive tracheal system & spiracles
    • Open Circulation
    • Malpighian tubules (uric acid)
    • Complete, Incomplete & Direct metamorphosis
    • 1.1 million species identified
  • Insects contd.
    • Feeding:
    • Three section gut
    • Food specialization reduces competition.
      • Among species
      • Within species
    • Predaciious, parasitic, herbivorous, or saprophagus.
    • Specialized mouth parts
    • Sensory functions:
    • Vision (simple or compound)
    • Tympanum (moths & bats)
    • Chemoreception (CO 2, pheromones, etc.) - mosquitoes , Sphinx moth
    • Proprioception, gravity, etc.
    • Mechanoreception
      • Sensilla on antennae, legs, and body
  • Insect Growth and Reproduction
    • Complete or Holometabolous Metamorphosis
      • 88% of all insects
      • Egg, larva, pupa, & adult.
      • Eg. Butterflies
    • Incomplete or Hemimetabolous Metamorphosis
      • Egg, larva, adult
      • Larva goes through several instars
      • Eg. Grasshoppers
  • Growth contd.
    • Direct or Ametabolous development.
      • Egg, juvenile, & adult
      • Juveniles almost identical to adults
      • Eg. Silverfish
  • Complete Metamorphosis
    • Under hormonal control
    • Brain secretes PITH which inhibits
    • Ecdysone (molting hormone)
      • Secreted by prothoracic gland
    • Juvenile hormone
      • Corpora allata (p.739 of text)
      • Ceases production as insect approaches adult stage.
      • This signals pupation.
  • Quiescent Periods
    • Hibernation (winter)
    • Estivation (Summer)
    • Diapause (Either - Adverse environmental conditions)
      • Genetically determined
      • @ end of growth stage (before molt)
  • Defense styles
    • Mimicry of noxious species
      • Eg. Viceroy and Monarch
    • Aposematic coloration
    • Crypsis (camouflage)
  • Insect Behavior
    • Communication
      • Chemical signals
        • Pheromones
      • Visual signals
        • fireflies
      • Sound signals
        • Crickets
    • Social Insects (altruistism)
      • Hymenoptera ( honey bee dance )
      • Isoptera - termites