Sarah Glover


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Sarah Glover

  1. 1. Sarah Glover and Tonic Sol-fa By Jody GawronSarah Glover: A Forgotten Pioneer in Music Education Peggy Bennett Journal of Research in Music Education,22(1), 49-65
  2. 2.  Sarah Glover is a little known early music educator who is the originator of the Tonic Sol- fa system of note reading, still in use today. The goal of the times was to improve congregational singing. Sarah’s written piece, “Scheme to Render Psalmody Congregational” had her system of note reading included in it.
  3. 3. Sarah Glover ht /0 ges? t Nd9G w w 7fw 3 tp:/t .gst t ima q= bn:A cR T _G fv 1252pxQPt 5iKu5Zs_ziqmM sw M W ej N9a 9XdnoX6BQ
  4. 4.  E R YL E A L IF  Sarah was born in Norwich, England in 1786.  Her father was a rector.  Sarah had early training in music, as was common for Englishwomen of the day.  Late in her 20’s, Sarah became the music teacher of her father’s church.
  5. 5.  Word spread about the exceptional quality of Miss Glover’s choirs.  People wanted to know who the choirmaster was.  People wanted to know the method for teaching being used.  Young women began coming to train with her.
  6. 6.  T SolfaSyst onic - em  Sarah Glover would pick and choose parts of established educational methods and then add her own ideas.  She said it was “best to instruct them on the same principle they learn speech…deducing theory from practice rather than practice from theory”. Bennett, P.D.(1984). Sarah Glover: A forgotten pioneer in music education. Journal of Research in Music Education,22(1), 49-65.
  7. 7.  Sarah’s method for note-reading was not intended to replace traditional notation; it’s function was to aid in understanding how to read it. Four ways traditional notation was difficult to understand:  1. Note values and placement of notes on the staff.  2.Use of sharps and flats of the key signatures made understanding the scales difficult.  3.Clef signs made note names confusing.  4.Too many varying characters used to represent notes.
  8. 8.  Impl ement t aion  Miss Glover’s method was not well-supported.  She was able to begin trying it out with a few girls from her school.  It soon became apparent she needed a visual aid.  Sarah created the “Norwich (English)Sol-fa Ladder”.  The ladder was a series of charts matching keynotes with the sol-fa syllables.
  9. 9.  She invented the “glass harmonicon”.  The instrument was a type of dulcimer or autoharp.  It was playable by anyone, even with no musical background or training.  Not to be confused with the glass harmonica.  It aligned with the moveable do system for ease of playing.  It was inexpensive, so available to many people.
  10. 10.  T Syla es he l bl  Sarah used a version of Guido’s solfege syllables.  Guido’s basic syllables were used with additional syllables added or adapted to illustrate the following scales:  Major  Minor  Melodic minor  Chromatic with sharps  Chromatic with flats
  11. 11.  Sarah Glover’s version of Guido’s solfege syllables are as follows for the diatonic scale: “Doh, ra, me, fah, sol, lah, te” Doh is moveable, always the first note of the scale. Other scale degrees use the same pattern of half and whole steps. Other syllable adaptations were given for differing scales, including the word endings of “oy” and “ow”. Bennett, P.D.(1984) p. 54
  12. 12.  Ot musica concept her l s  Part Singing  Part singing was taught by canon or harmonic parts sung by either teacher or students.  Interval Study  Only a few intervals were learned apart from others • Doh, me, soh, doh  Other intervals were learned within the canons.  Rhythm  Upper case letters followed by the appropriate number of lower case letters indicated duration.  This was later adapted to using + - signs.
  13. 13.  Saa Gov a J Cur en r h l er nd ohn w  John Curwen is often mistakenly credited with inventing the system of tonic sol-fa with moveable “do”.  Curwen was not a music educator.  His book, The History of Nelly Vanner, launched Curwen as an educational authority.  In his lectures on education, he began to include music as a topic, which familiarized him with Sarah . htp:/ Glover’s work t / connect t Pla .com/bf/ ques_files/ ge0 .j ima 28 pg
  14. 14.  Curwen became so engrossed in Sarah Glover’s successful teaching method that at times he seemed to present it as his own material. He finally wrote to Glover in 1841, suggesting changes and alterations to her Tonic Sol-fa system of teaching. Glover did not accept Curwen’s alterations in 1841 or at any time in the future. There was often tension between the two of them. Curwen and Glover continued to write to each other until Glover’s death in 1867.
  15. 15.  Summay r  Sarah Glover’s contribution to music education is the moveable do Tonic Sol-fa method of teaching music, also know as the “Norwich Sol-fa” system.  150 years after its inception, it is still in use today.  Sarah Glover’s work to find a way to teach singing and note reading for ease and beauty of sound still affects the work of music teachers today.
  16. 16.  Bibl a iogr phy Bennett, Peggy D.Sarah Glover: A Forgotten Pioneer in Music Education.Journal of Research in Music Education,22.1(1984):49-65.