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Sex identifies the biological difference between men and women. (This is something that cannot be changed and is universal.)
Gender identifies the social relations between men and women. It describes differences between men and women that are determined by cultural, social and economic conditions. Gender roles are dynamic and change over time.
Gender analysis is fundamental to effective, sustainable development.
We need to know who does what, who can access what, and who has decision making power about what, before we can determine how people will be effected by development.
There are many examples of water and sanitation projects that have failed because community decision-makers were consulted, rather than women, who in most communities do most of the practical day to day work that requires water, particularly washing, growing food, tending animals and preparing food.
Developing an activities profile involves an analysis of tasks/labour done by men and women, girls and boys.
It is a gender analysis tool that identifies who does what work, and helps to raise awareness of the distribution of domestic, market and community activities according to gender.
An activities profile draws out information essential to the planning of effective project interventions, allowing project designers to identify the degree of role flexibility associated with different activities, and participants’ allocation of time to existing tasks.
Resource access assessment is a participatory technique that provides insights into how access to and control of domestic and community resources varies according to gender.
Simple activities can be adapted for use in various professional and cultural contexts, drawing on the daily experience of participants.
One gender analysis technique uses large drawings of a man, a woman and a couple, and a set of cards depicting different resources and assets owned by people in a community (eg house, land, animals, farm implements). Participants then assign the resources to the man, woman or couple, depending on the patterns of ownership (as distinct from use) in their community (Rietbergen-McCracken and Narayan 1997)
Why is it important to distinguish between access and control?
Projects are implemented in a social context and are influenced by the gender division of labour in families and communities.
For example, if women’s time is disproportionately engaged in reproductive labour and social maintenance, then this will impact the time they have available for participating in community decision making about a project.
What are some ways you could take account of the gender division of labour in planning community consultations? Or Project Design implementation monitoring, evaluation
All development projects impact on both men and women, and will generally impact on men and women differently
Gender has to be taken into consideration at all stages of the project cycle
Gender analysis tools are a key resource for project designers and managers in identifying existing gender roles and relations, how planned interventions are likely to affect these, and ways in which project activities can promote gender equity.
Not all projects will have gender as their primary focus. But all projects should ensure that gender equity is addressed in a way that is appropriate to effectively address the targeted development challenge.
Gender equality should be explicitly considered in the analysis underlying the rationale for choice of project focus and implementation approach;
The project approach needs to reflect awareness of the resources available to strengthen gender equality;
Project design must clearly reflects a gender-nuanced analysis
Gender-analysis conclusions must be integrated into the project implementation strategy
there is no point in doing the analysis if you don’t incorporate it in the project design and implementation arrangements!
Using the data collected, what are the specific obstacles to men or women gaining equal access to the benefits of the project?
Step 3 – Identification of strategies to promote gender equality
Describe a strategy for dealing with the obstacle(s) identified so that women and men would not be prevented from enjoying equal access to the benefits of the project.
This strategy should identify “entry points,” which would allow obstacles to the full participation of women and men to be addressed and effective actions to be taken.
Step 4 – Formulation of gender-equality results
Based on the strategy and entry points you have identified, identify the activities, outputs, outcomes and indicators that are specifically meant to ensure that the disadvantaged gender group is not excluded from the benefits of the project.
These should be included in the project implementation plan and reported on.