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Ghanasan secondary research


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Secondary research report from IDEO, Unilever, and WSUP project in Kumasi, Ghana.

Secondary research report from IDEO, Unilever, and WSUP project in Kumasi, Ghana.

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  • 1. Themes and Opportunitiesfrom Initial Research ExplorationsIDEO, Unilever, and Water and Sanitation for the Urban PoorHousehold Toilet Project for Kumasi, GhanaNovember 26, 2010Themes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 1
  • 2. Customer Journey LEARN BUY USE MAINTAIN TREATThe IDEO team spent the first week of the project conducting secondary research and expert interviewsin preparation for our trip to Kumasi. We synthesized these learnings and mapped them to the five-stepcustomer journey related to sanitation to see it from a human-centric perspective. This document laysout the themes and opportunity areas for each step of the process and includes inspirational product,service, and business models that have come from our research and user submissions from OpenIDEO.Themes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 2
  • 3. LEARNThe customer begins the journey by hearing and learning about sanitation options. This could happenthrough local entrepreneurs, social marketing campaigns, and/or a facilitated CLTS program.Themes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 3
  • 4. LEARNThemes:• Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an effective community-driven intervention which moves people from disgust to shame to pride• CLTS focuses on showing people feces and getting them to see what a big issue it is• Educators/facilitators from nearby communities are key to leading the CLTS methodology The "No Loo, No I Do" social marketing campaign• Health benefits are only seen at the communal level, few health in India encourages brides to put pressure on their benefits for a family when they improve their own sanitation fiancees to install a latrine before they will agree to marriage• Private sector latrine providers do little to market their products• Demonstrating the product in use is critical and oftentimes not done• The urban poor must be specifically targeted for marketing messages, social marketing campaigns, and promotions• Celebrities and public figures (football players, musicians, movie stars, political leaders) are effective advocates of sanitation solutions IDE Easy Latrine provides marketing training and• Children can drive the purchasing decisions of their parents materials to entrepreneurs and showcases by putting on pressure demonstration toiletsThemes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 4
  • 5. LEARNOpportunities:• How might we shift the conversation from shame to pride to encourage people to invest in their familys sanitation?• How might we support sanitation entrepreneurs to effectively market their products and services?• How might we target the urban poor with messages about a new offering?• How might we identify the appropriate advocates for sanitation? UNICEF’s CLTS program has facilitators ask• How might we encourage community-wide acceptance and people if they will drink water with a piece of hair adoption, rather than individual? covered in feces to encite disgust WaterAID CLTS in Bangladesh has been effective at getting communities to make sanitation decisions together by exerting social pressure on one anotherThemes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 5
  • 6. BUYThe next step of the journey is for the customer to pay for a household toilet or for use of a community latrine.Themes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 6
  • 7. BUYThemes:• People value and pay for status, dignity, privacy, and odor reduction, not health, safety, access, or convenience• Social pressure (bringing communities together to make sanitation decisions) is an effective way to drive uptake• Those without household solutions say it’s because they can’t afford it - 3% if income is an appropriate target• The flying toilet (using a plastic bag and throwing it outside) CHF and Boafo have developed a sanitation and bucket latrines are free and the real competition credit program to provide loans to landlords• There’s a large opportunity to develop an affordable, safe, household solution• People will invest in a toilet when it’s seen as part of a home improvement project• The perception of lack of space is a barrier to in-home sanitation• People will pay more for nicer-looking toilets and offering a comparison is critical when selling• Current toilet solutions are technology-driven and not necessarily designed based on human preferences and behaviors Camping and portable toilets are well-designed but have limited capacityThemes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 7
  • 8. BUYThemes (continued):• Landlords make decisions about housing improvements and when financing options are provided may choose to invest in upgrading• Lack of expertise is a huge barrier to installation and purchase• Financing is uncommon, but desirable for landlords and families - loans or installment payments• Usage is increased when people pay for their own toilets• Reserve subsidies for the hard-core poor who truly need them Peepoople has developed a plastic bag that is safer to use than existing plastic bags• No one wants to pay to urinate, however, they are more likely to pay to defecate• People will buy toilets when needs become extreme- elderly, disabled, pregnant woman, menstruating daughter• Parents don’t pay for children to use toilets Urine diversion toilets are effective but require a lot of maintenanceThemes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 8
  • 9. BUYOpportunities:• How might we encourage people to move away from free sanitation alternatives?• How might we offer people a range of sanitation alternatives?• How might we overcome fears associated with lack of expertise to allow people to have the confidence to make purchasing decisions?• How might we explore financing opportunities?• How might we get people on the sanitation ladder and then help them move up?Themes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 9
  • 10. USEThe third step of the journey is the use of the household or community toilet and the associated behaviors,stigmas, and preferences surrounding it.Themes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 10
  • 11. USEThemes:• Good sanitation and cleanliness = high status within one’s community• Putting the toilet next to the kitchen is stigmatized, but associating food with sanitation can make the toilet seem cleaner• People prioritize odor removal, especially in the home• Hierarchy within families (father, mother, children, guests) leads to different behaviors• Women and children have special needs, which no one is addressing SHE is providing affordable sanitary napkins and encouraging schools to offer privacy for• Privacy is a huge priority for women, but is not as important girls in the restrooms in Rwanda for men or children• In Kenya, there is a social stigma that the daughter shouldn’t defecate where her father-in-law defecates• Some question about whether safety is a concern for women when they leave the home to defecate• Sanitary napkin disposal is critical for girls and women, especially in schools• The excrement of children is more dangerous than adults’ because of higher concentrations of pathogens Small, plastic children’s potties are common in Ghana and other regions of Africa• Potties for children are prevalent throughout AfricaThemes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 11
  • 12. USEOpportunities:• How might we highlight cleanliness in the design of the toilet?• How might we ensure odor removal of a household solution?• How might we design effective sanitation solutions to address the needs of women and children?• How might we provide privacy for an in-home solution?• How might we delineate the toilet from the rest of the house in a small space? EcoToilet in Kenya sells food next to the community toilets, making customers believe that the toilets must be clean if they’re able to cook next to them In India, wall tiles of religious figures disuade men from urinating on the public streetThemes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 12
  • 13. MAINTAINThe fourth step is the maintenance of the toilet which includes cleaning, emptying, and servicing.Themes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 13
  • 14. MAINTAINThemes:• Ownership is important for maintenance and cleaning• Transporting one’s own waste is shameful• People are willing to pay others to clean, empty, and service their latrine• Waste collection is stigmatized, but uniforms and professional tools can counteract this• Separating the entrepreneur from the waste makes the business seem less dirty SC Johnson and CCS provide youth groups with uniforms and professional cleaning supplies• The waste business appeals more to men and is associated with drugs, crime, and alcoholism• Youth groups are potential entrepreneurs for sanitation businesses because they are self-organized, have the trust of the community, and are young and entrepreneurial The gulper is an affordable manual technology to clean pit latrines without making the service provider do it by handThemes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 14
  • 15. MAINTAINOpportunities:• How might we make cleaning and removal easy and painless?• How might we leverage youth groups to provide sanitation services?• How might we professionalize sanitation entrepreneurs?• How might we provide marketing support to waste entrepreneurs to increase their customer base?• How might we leverage technology to optimize the business Zoomlion trains youth groups to become sanitation and make it more attractive to young entrepreneurs? franchisees and collect waste in Ghana• How might we encourage healthy competition between sanitation entrepreneurs without encouraging territorial disputes? In the U.S., Earth Baby offers a green diaper collection service, picking up waste from people’s homes.Themes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 15
  • 16. TREATThe final step of the customer journey is treatment which includes safe disposal, treatment, and possiblereuse of the waste.Themes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 16
  • 17. TREATThemes:• There are business opportunities at all points of the sanitation ecosystem, except perhaps for treatment• Treatment may need to be subsidized by the public or social sectors because sufficient business opportunities do not exist• Dumping waste is the free alternative and must be seen as the competition• Policy interventions are required to prevent dumping Peepoople uses microdosing (urea embedded• The market or treated waste (as fertilizer) is not nearly big in each bag) to allow the composting process to enough compared to the supply begin immediately and happen more quickly• There is a strong stigma against using human waste as fertilizer for food - it’s more acceptable to use for flowers• Fertilizer from poultry excrement is a free (or nearly free) alternative to fertilizer from human waste in Kumasi• Opportunities to capture biogas and use at home for cookstoves or to sell back to the grid in bulk from community sanitation blocks Sanergy is capturing biogas and selling it back to the grid in KenyaThemes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 17
  • 18. TREATOpportunities:• How might we find treatment solutions that evolve with customer perceptions?• How might we identify appropriate markets for human waste?• How might we liaise with government to put effective policies and subsidies in place to effectively address treatment?• How might we ensure the sustainability of the treatment services we provide? Large rose farm interested in buying fertilizer• How might we make appropriate treatment options more from human waste to get organic certification attractive than existing, free options like dumping? and export to EU• How might we find the appropriate balance between decentralized and centralized treatment options to leverage economies of scale while limiting transportation costs? In Ghana, fish ponds have been created to ingest the human waste and then sell the fish for consumptionThemes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 18
  • 19. Thank you to the following individuals for offering their time for expert interviews:David Auerbach, SanergyTamara Baker, IDEApril Davies, Water.orgJustin DeKoszmovszky, SC Johnson and Community Cleaning ServicesTherese Dooley, UNICEFPeter Hawking, WSP Mozambique/WorldbankAndy Kirby, Yanapuma FoundationJacques Rusts, EnvirosanSuraj Sudhakar, Acumen FundTatiana Thieme, University of CambridgeThemes and Opportunities from Initial Research Explorations Page 19