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  • 1. HAWKER COLLEGE STUDY GUIDE 2011
  • 2. HAWKER COLLEGE STUDY GUIDE 2011 CONTENTSWelcome to your library ............................................................................................................1 Stepsin research and writing assignments at college...............................................................3 ACT PublicLibrary Service Databases........................................................................................5 Essaywriting ..............................................................................................................................7 Presenting atalk or oral presentation .......................................................................................9 What’s plagiarism?How you avoid it .....................................................................................10 Studying effectively atHawker College ...................................................................................11 Further assistance andreading................................................................................................13 Facultyguides ..........................................................................................................................15 Science Faculty Documents HELMS survival guide Writing a psychologyreport ....................................................................................................44 Librarypamphlets....................................................................................................................48 Essay Guide How to write a bibliography (Harvard system) Textual references or in text citations (Harvard system) Writing an annotated bibliography
  • 3. Welcome to your library The library is a great place for reading, quiet study, homework and collaboration on your researchtasks. Student network computers are available. Teacher librarians at the HELP desk will provide youwith assistance and guidance either individually or when you are with a class. We will explain theoperation of the library in an Orientation session early in your first term. Whatever your query, please askat the library HELP desk.Library home page on school’s website www.hawkerc.act.edu.au/libraryOliver home page & OPAC – on your desktopLibrary Myclasses pages www.hawkerc.act.edu.au/myclassesStaffYour teacher librarians are Keith Mullumby and Jocelyn Thompson. Contact us at the HELP desk, emaillibrary@hawkerc.act.edu.au or phone 62057754Your library assistants are Patty Kruger and Regina van Zomeren. Contact at the circulation desk orphone 62057753.Opening hoursDuring normal semester class timetable, the library opens from 8.30 until just after the end of the day’sclasses - except Line 8 Thursday and recess when the library is closed.OliverOliver the library catalogue is accessed via an icon on your computer desktop. Students wishing tomanage their Oliver account may do so initially with their id number. Oliver is a searchable databaseof library records. From the information (eg call number, title etc) provided on the catalogue, studentslocate, use and borrow resources. The library database includes catalogued websites which areaccessed directly from the OPAC. Try using Oliver’s Advanced Search to limit your search and usetruncation by inserting an asterisk* in place of a letter or letters in your search term.The library collectionTextbooks for each faculty are shelved downstairs in the library’s textbook room and are issued toclasses as needed. You can also ask for textbooks at the circulation counter.Fiction—the fiction collection upstairs includes a short fiction section. Main floor is the children’sfiction section. Fiction is shelved alphabetically, according to the first three letters of the author’ssurname.Non-fiction—on the main floor and arranged in Dewey Decimal order eg 150 Psychology, 530Physics, 770 Photography, A820 Australian Literature, 994 Australian History. 1
  • 4. Newspapers - The Canberra Times and The Sydney Morning Herald are received daily and are ondisplay downstairs and are kept for a month from their date of publication.Magazines—a variety of journals and magazines are kept upstairs. The latest volume is kept ondisplay in the wooden display stand just in front of the stairs on the mezzanine floor. Somemagazines are indexed in Oliver by Newscan.Video and DVD collection—these are shelved in the AV room. When requesting a video or DVD at thecirculation counter, please record it’s title and call number and show this to the staff at the counter.Equipment—laptops, digital and SLR cameras and data projectors, are available for authorisedstudents. The conditions of these loans will be explained in class and in your library orientation.DVC—Digital Video Commander content is available. It is accessed via an icon on student networkdesktop. My files area of DVC allows students to manage their own resources.Loan periodsLibrary resources are generally available for loan. Books have a 2 week loan period, magazines, videosand DVD’s are lent overnight. Equipment will generally be available for part of a day, but can includeovernight loans. Textbooks are issued for a term, semester or whole year. Reference books are not forloan. If you have an Oliver account set up you may manage access to your own loan history andreserve items of interest. Please return your library materials promptly after you’ve finished with themor before the due date. Individual overdue notices may be emailed to you or issued in GAS. You areliable for everything borrowed on your card. Lost material needs to be paid for. An ID card is requiredfor all library loans.Computer rows 3&4 are available for off line students unless booked (see green booking signs). Row 2computers are available for students on free lines. The booking sheet is at the HELP desk. Row 1 isreserved for Oliver OPAC inquiries for staff and students. If there are available computers and no priorbookings you may log on during your study lines. Black and white laser prints are available, but pleaseconsider the environment before printing. Enquiries regarding password resets can be made at thelibrary HELP desk. Acceptable use of library computers is expected by all students. Students not usingthe library computers in accordance with school policy may be excluded from using the computernetwork. Teacher librarians manage the library bookings, please ask at the HELP desk about how tomake or check computer and class bookings. Laptops will be available in the library for use byauthorised students.If you come to the library when you are on a class please talk to us at the HELP desk about yourresearch needs and we will help you access what you need as quickly as possible.Students can save work on their own H drive and access a school email account athttp://www.hawkerc.act.edu.au/myinternet. Access to the Internet is provided for educationalpurposes only. Games, commercial, personal or social activities and chat—if unrelated to your collegework are therefore not permitted. Please be familiar with the details of the computer code of practice.Internet credit is available from the front office for a nominal charge.
  • 5. OtherGreen name signs show an area is booked for use, usually for a class. The discussion room upstairs isbooked at the HELP desk. The room is useful to practice an oral presentation, watch a DVD and is alsosometimes used for group work.Come to the library prepared. You might need some or all of the following items: ID card,headphones, USB, computer log on, laptop, pens, paper, student diary, BSSS guide, library books,assignment sheets and textbooks.Photocopier (takes USB) each copy costs 20c.Please take mobile phone calls out of the library. Food and drink is not permitted. Appropriate andconsiderate use of other portable devices is acceptable in the library. If you are unsure, please ask. email: library@hawkerc.act.ed.au or phone HELP desk 62057754Steps in research and writing assignments at college(1) Define - what you know and what you need to find out(2) Locate - where on the web, where in the library, helpful people(3) Select—the most relevant, accurate, reliable, interesting(4) Organise—according to assignment, faculty and teacher’s requirements(5) Communicate—how you convey your ideas(6) Assessing the process—what have you learnt, how did it go?DefineBrainstorm ideas and concepts graphically. Use mind mapping software, to explore your ideas.Look at some examples Talk to your teacher if you don’t understand what is required or you needsome clarification.Use a dictionary to define difficult or unknown words, list or note keywords, search strategies andsynonyms. Pose questions about the question. Jot your ideas down. How much detail do I need? Is it amajor assignment, how much time have I got?When you know what you are looking for, it is easier to find good information. For example, if historical,factual or statistical information is required you would search differently than if you wanted opinions andarguments. Similarly refereed scientific articles would be found in other places again.LocateUse Oliver to locate library materials. Try basic and advanced searches; keyword and authorsearches. Limit your results, for example: to citations to magazine articles, print, non print, shortfiction, reference, children’s fiction, videos, DVD’s, non-fiction, ephemera and online results.
  • 6. Locate non-fiction by Dewey call number. For example 150’s psychology, 530’s physics, 770’sphotography, A820’s Australian literature. Ask a teacher librarian if you need to.Follow internet links in Oliver or find relevant links at the end of chapters or towards the back ofreference and non-fiction books.Use advanced search options in Google. Use limiters eg file type:.ppt or .doc, site:.gov, site:.edu,site:.org. Look for state, national, local and school libraries and museums and galleries. Theseinstitutions often contain ‘hotlists’ which lead to suitable content.Visit the ANU Library: Search Engines on the Internet page to choose an appropriate search engine ortry Noodle tools Choose the best search for your information need for a lot of really useful links.Compare what you find on a major Australian topic in TROVE National Library of Australia with aGoogle search on the same topic. Then choose the best for your need.Databases –a wide variety of free full text databases are available from the ACT Public Library Service.Join online. If you are already a member of the library, obtain a PIN number for access to the electronicresources by emailing the library your membership number and full name and date of birth. Your PINwill be emailed to you. We encourage all students to join!SelectAssess the relevance, accuracy, balance and bias of your sources. Is the author known in the field?Does he or she belong to a well known and reputable institution? Is your information up to date? Doyou need to verify the contents and information on websites? What is the best way to do this? Whatpurpose may the author have, for example, political or commercial in providing this information? Whobenefits from this information? If you are looking at a hot issue, obtain opinions from a representativesample, for example from politicians, government, non government organisations and politicalcommentators.Follow the BSSS guide to help you avoid plagiarism. Copy url’s, titles, authors, publishing details, callnumbers, article titles etc as you go. This will help you construct a reference list or a bibliography list,and it will save you a lot of time if you need to find one of these items again. Remember to save andbackup your computer files as you go and keep your handwritten notes in one main place.OrganiseFaculty and teacher’s requirements should be rechecked, for example, check what is expected from yourpsychology teacher for a report as this will be different from the format expected by a physics teacher.Some examples are included in this study guide. Observe due dates for drafts and handing in roughcopies.Make sure you can easily identify your main points and that they have been given prominence. Are yourideas well sequenced and addressing the question, or do you need to rethink? Avoid repeating yourideas unnecessarily and padding out your work. Check for grammatical errors and omissions. Have youincluded complete citations and bibliographic details? Try using Citation software on the librarycomputers or Reference Generator on the ASLACT site. The default is the Harvard system, but this is notused for all of your bibliographies. Again check with your teacher.
  • 7. CommunicateAre your sentences and paragraphs simple and to the point? Have you answered the question in thenumber of words required and in the format required? Have you rehearsed your oral presentation ormusical item? Have you tried recording your presentation, or, ask a friend whose opinions you value tolisten? Offer to do the same for them. Obtain a cover sheet, submit your work in good time and liaisewith your teacher if you need to, before the due date.AssessDid you communicate your ideas and research effectively? What feedback did you get? What can youlearn from this? Do you agree with it? What did you learn? How effectively did you manage yourtime? Were there some aspects of this task you found harder than others? Reflect on what you haveachieved and learnt and what you would like to improve on next time...be honest, but kind to yourself.ACT Public Library Service databasesWe encourage all students to join the library; membership allows students to borrow librarymaterials and access electronic databases.Email the library and a membership number and a PIN number will be sent to your home address.If you are already a library member but want a PIN number to access these databases, emaillibrary.customerinfo@act.gov.au with your membership number and your full name. A PIN numberwill be emailed back.Databases on the ACT library site available to members.Academic Search™ Premier Academic Search Premier contains full text for over 4,000 scholarlypublications covering academic areas of study including social sciences, humanities, business,education, computer sciences, engineering, language and linguistics, arts & literature, health andmedical sciences. In addition to the full text, this database offers indexing and abstracts for manymore journals and many journals are peer reviewed.Australia New Zealand Newsstand™ A selection of major and regional full-text newspapers andnewswires from Australia and New Zealand, covering both regional and international topics.Publications include: The Canberra Times, The Age, The Australian and The Waikato Times.Australia/NZ Reference Centre™ The Australia/NZ Reference Centre combines Australasian magazines,newspapers, newswires and reference books to create the largest collection of regional full text contentavailable to libraries in Oceania. This database includes leading Australia/NZ periodicals andinternational periodicals in full text; full text reference books; 84,774 full text biographies and an ImageCollection of 235,186 photos, maps and flags.Biography Resource Centre This database integrates award-winning biographies from respected GaleGroup sources with related full-text articles from hundreds of periodicals, as well as tens of thousands ofimages and links to hand-picked web sites. Search for people---both current and historic from all eras andfields of endeavour---based on name, occupation, nationality, ethnicity, birth/death dates and places, orgender, as well as keyword and full text. Or, combine search criteria to create a highly-targeted customsearch.
  • 8. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online® Britannica Online offers unlimited access to full, updated content of the32-volume Encyclopædia Britannica. It also contains thousands of images and videos, over 300 000articles from respected journals and magazines, as well as a Britannica hand-picked guide to the web’sbest sites. All information has been thoroughly checked and validated.General OneFile Formerly called InfoTrac Onefile. A one-stop source for news and periodical articles on awide range of topics: business, computers, current events, economics, education, environmental issues,health care, hobbies, humanities, law, literature and art, politics, science, social science, sports,technology, and many general interest topics. Millions of full-text articles, many with images. Updateddaily.Oxford Art Online contains the full-text of The Dictionary of Art (ed. Jane Turner,1996) — thelandmark encyclopaedia of world art from prehistory to the present in over 45,000 articles. Oxford ArtOnline also includes all 2,800 articles from The Oxford Companion to Western Art [OCWA] (ed. HughBrigstocke, 2001) and continues to offer new content and revisions on a quarterly basis. Oxford ArtOnline offers over 1500 colour images and line drawings; links to the Art Resource searchable imagedatabase; and links to over 40,000 images on museum and gallery websites.Oxford Music Online is the home to Oxford Music Online, access to Grove Music, Oxford Dictionary ofMusic and Oxford Companion to Music. History Reference Center® is the worlds most comprehensive full text history reference databasedesigned for secondary schools, public libraries, junior/community colleges, and undergraduateresearch.Library Press Display Instant access to hundreds of newspapers from 70 countries in 37 languages. PressDisplay provides online access to todays newspapers from around the world in full-colour, full-pageformat. Just like reading the familiar print edition, viewers can browse articles and other key content,such as pictures, advertisements, classifieds, and notices.Naxos Music Library Naxos Music Library is the most comprehensive collection of classical musicavailable online. It includes the complete Naxos and Marco Polo catalogues of over 150,000 tracks,including Classical music, Jazz, World, Folk and Chinese music .Oxford English Dictionary The Oxford English Dictionary is the accepted authority on the evolution of theEnglish language over the last millennium. It is an unsurpassed guide to the meaning, history, andpronunciation of over half a million words, both present and past. It traces the usage of words through2.5 million quotations from a wide range of international English language sources, from classic literatureand specialist periodicals to film scripts and cookery books.Science Reference Centre Science Reference Centre is a comprehensive research database that provideseasy access to a multitude of full text science-oriented content. This database contains full text for nearly640 science encyclopaedias, reference books, periodicals, etc. Topics covered include: biology, chemistry,earth & space science, environmental science, health & medicine, history of science, life science, physics,science & society, science as inquiry, scientists, technology and wildlife.
  • 9. Essay writingDirective words commonly used in essay questionsFrom cite / write see http://www.citewrite.qut.edu.au for more examplesDiscuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrast Research for your essayFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The result Refer to recommended reading, search the library catalogue, databases, search engines and subject directories. Ask if you need help.For concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed Thus Clearly In brief In summaryTake careful notes, include accurate references to the material you use and read.Section notes together, highlight or number the most important points. Work towards a first draft. Put your Marks Comment ScoreTitle back to the set1 Look Specificask investigation are answering it. Throw out irrelevant information. question and to yourself if youAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findings Essay structure 1. Introduction 2. Body Paragraphs 3.ConclusionIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis stated 1 Introduction—covers your main ideas, your position and the scope of discussion or argument. Starts generally and becomes more specific and suggests or points to the order of development of ideas toMethod Usually importantPrelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams follow. 5-10 terms and definitions will be explained. Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense 2 Body paragraphs—these Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension paragraphs are between your introduction and conclusion, they should each method contain a topic sentence and supporting ideas and evidence. Evidence could include examples, quotes,Results and data10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, unitsthe argument of the statistics to support your arguments. The final sentence concludes Qualitative results paragraph and can help the transition quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing Calculated to the next paragraph. representation of relationships: 3 Conclusion—summarises the preceding argument or points you have raised. It should go from graph, LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point” narrow to broad statements of your ideas. It should restate (without simply repeating word for omissions Extension calculations word) your main idea or thesis. It should complete your work and not introduce any new information.Conclusion 4 Conclusions stated Comparison with hypothesisDiscussion 10 Comparison of theoretical and experimental values Reliability of experiment Validity of experiment Extension discussion Possible improvements to investigation
  • 10. Useful linking words and phrases (transitions)—between paragraphs and sentences.From cite / write http://www.citewrite.qut.edu.au for more examplesDiscuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The resultFor concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed Thus Clearly In brief In summarySection Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedEssay conventionsMethoduse formal written language, they are written in paragraphs materials lists and diagramsEssays 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and and sentences and they answer a Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tensequestion. Contain a reference list or bibliography written error analysis, LOBF slopedefault style is Calculation Plan: calculations, in the style required (the ExtensionHarvard). methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results They may include referenced quotes or in text citations. Drafting and proofreading are important parts of Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing the essay writing process. representationexpression helps you to get your message to your reader. Check Clear written of relationships:for typos, errors and omissions. LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point” graph, omissions Extension calculationsConclusion 4 Conclusions stated Comparison with hypothesisDiscussion 10 Comparison of theoretical and experimental values Reliability of experiment Validity of experiment Extension discussion Possible improvements to investigationBibliography 3 Textual references: format, frequency of use, how included Bibliography: format, alphabetical order of authorPresentation 3 Title page, Typed, Correct layout, Spelling, Grammar Numbers:
  • 11. Presenting a talk or oral presentationSpeak clearly and be well prepared.You will be surprised at what good feedback you get and how much you enjoy delivering a talk when youare well prepared and communicate to your audience clearly. Being well prepared and speaking clearlyalso helps you manage your nerves. Also to get off to a good start, be prepared to start and to finish ontime.Just as an essay has a structure and something to say about a topic, so should a talk.Talks need to be well researched, have a structure and include references.1. Introduction 2. Main points 3. Conclusion1 Introduction Try and attract your audience’s attention. For example, you might introduce aninteresting fact or statistic, use some music, include an interesting visual or make a controversialstatement. Or you might simply introduce the main points you are planning to discuss.2 Main points Develops the ideas introduced in your opening presented in a logical sequence. You mayuse supporting audiovisual aids.3 Conclusion Summarises the main points, evaluates and draws conclusions or implications.ChecklistKnow what audio visual aids you can use and how they operate, i.e. laptops, data projectors. Check thatthe equipment you need is available and working. Rehearse your presentation. Is your voice loudenough to be heard? Are you speaking clearly?Write out your notes during practices. This can help you remember what you are saying when youfinally present your talk. When you address an audience try and control distracting gestures, beyourself, breath normally, make eye contact if it helps you, involve your audience with questions oractivities.Have a written plan and stick to it as closely as you can. Don’t be derailed if things go slightlydifferently to the plan. Get back on track. If you are an audience member, help your colleague, bylistening attentively. Practice and rehearse before you present. Have notes (if permitted) butdon’t just read them. Understand what your teacher expects and read the marking schema.
  • 12. What’s plagiarism? How you avoid itFollow the link on the BSSS site to the latest brochure What’s plagiarism? How you can avoid it.Every student should obtain a copy during library orientations or from the library HELP desk. Thedocument is also on the web at the above address. It is important to be able to recognise whatplagiarism is. Once you are confident you know what it is, it is easy to take the next steps to acknowledgeyour sources. There may be penalties applied if you have plagiarised. Try this exercise.The following is an extract from the ACT Board of Senior Secondary Studies brochure:BSSS Plagiarism PolicyDefinitionPlagiarism is the copying, paraphrasing or summarising of work, in any form, withoutacknowledgement of sources, and presenting this as your own work.Examples of plagiarism could include, but are not limited to:• Submitting all or part of another person’s work with or without that person’s knowledge.• Submitting all or part of a paper from a source text without proper acknowledgement.• Copying part of another person’s work from a source text, supplying proper acknowledgement,but leaving out quotation marks.• Submitting materials that paraphrase or summarise another person’s work or ideas withoutappropriate acknowledgement.• Submitting a digital image, sound, design, photograph or animation, altered or unaltered,without proper acknowledgement.Principles behind the imposition of penalties• Any work that is found to be plagiarised will incur a penalty ranging from a reprimand andwarning, in writing, through to the cancellation of all assessment results for Years 11 and 12.• Students who unintentionally plagiarise must be given appropriate counselling and guidance sothat they do not repeat the offence.* The impact on unit scores of the penalties imposed for serious and repeated instances ofplagiarism will be managed in accordance with the Board of Senior Secondary Studies policies.
  • 13. Studying effectively at Hawker CollegeThe College system in the ACT is quite unlike high school! You’ll be expected to be organised,motivated and productive, for extended periods of time. But you are not alone… there are heaps ofpeople and resources to help you do your best work, and have a great time too.See the tips below. For more information, talk to your GAS, study support teacher, the Collegecounsellor or Year Coordinator (in the Den) or Careers staff. Good luck!Good study habitsMake study a habit—sit down at the same time each day to do your homework, essay writing or revision.Study environment—wherever it is, make your study space quiet, comfortable and distraction-free. Does music help or hinder your concentration? Put up motivating quotes, pictures, or anything else that makes you feel good.Know your peak times—People work best at different times of the day, and only you know when you work most efficiently. Use it for study!Know your learning style—Different people also have different learning styles. Some people work well when they plan things visually, others work best in a group. Once you figure out your personal learning style, you can get your work done more effectively.Usememory aids like notebooks, cue cards, mind maps and cluster maps.Get enough sleep— Its harder to concentrate when you get less than six hours of sleep. Be warned that sleeping the whole weekend makes Monday feel like jet lag!Eat a healthy breakfast every day, so you feel energizedTake a break—if you feel like youre not getting anywhere while studying, take a break and come back to your work a little later. Youre rarely productive if you keep trying to work when youre tired or stressed. But make sure you do come back!Be constructive—when things go wrong, don’t worry too much. One of the best ways to deal with a mark youre not happy with is to ask your teacher for feedback on how you could improve. Celebrate your successes, big and small.Limit Drugs—Caffeine and other drugs may give you a short burst of energy, but this is often before making you sleepy. Instead try getting regular breaks, lots of sleep, and plenty of exercise.ProcrastinationProcrastination is putting off doing something important—like waiting until the last minute to dosomething. Or it might show as being reluctant to take risks or try something new, or having such a busysocial and recreational life that it is hard to get important work done.What to do about it• Start using (and regularly updating) a To-Be-Done List, based on a timetable which shows whenessays, exams, practicals are due• Keep to a daily schedule• Develop a simple record-keeping procedure• Reward yourself
  • 14. Most people have to overcome procrastination gradually. So:• Break big jobs down into manageable tasks and work on "getting started," perhaps by trickingyourself by saying "Ill just do five minutes”, to learn the habit of getting started on a task early. Practicestarting studying several times every day, to make it a routine• Keep a journal of thoughts and feelings associated with studying. This helps you see how fears,excuses, competing needs, and habits divert attention from studying. You can then develop your ownself-talk (will power) to take on scary tasks and do them promptly• Ask friends to nag and push you, maybe even fine you a dollar if you arent on the way to thelibrary or your desk by a set time!• When choosing individual subjects to study, start with the least enjoyable or the most difficult. Atthe very least, you wont have to worry about putting it off until its too late!ExamsPrepare early. If you have not prepared yourself for the test, during the term, and before the test, do not expect a high mark!Practice on exam papers for previous years, and discuss difficulties with your teacher/s.Pace yourself. Too much study can be as bad as not enough study because the mind shuts down when too much information is crammed into it.Stay calm. Mind blanks are possibly the most frightening things to occur in an exam. The only way to overcome mind blanks is to relax the brain. Close your eyes breathe in for 5 seconds and then breathe out through the mouth very slowly. Repeat this until you can feel the facts crawling back into your memory.Be organised. Try and have all your study notes complete at least 2 weeks before the exam. This allows you plenty of time to work through past papers for revision and go over and re-read anything youre a bit hazy on.Get on top of it. If you really suffer from exam stress learn coping techniques as a priority. A frightened mind is not a smart mind, and you can do things that will help. Talk to the Counsellor!Sources: http://www.psychologicalselfhelp.org, http://www.wikihow.com/Main-Page,http://www.vcenet.com.au/, http://au.reachout.com/
  • 15. Steps Learn how to use notebooks, cue cards, mind maps cluster maps and other memory aids Get enough sleep at night. Its harder to concentrate when you got less than six hours of sleep the night before.Relax and take back controlBreathing—Inhale, exhale. Try breathing in and out, slowly and deeply, 10 times per minute.Get perspective—Change the way you think about your stressors. The Counsellor has heaps of ideasthat might help. Companionship—sort out relationship problems, call a friend, love your pet, and tend agarden. Volunteer somewhere. Personal Planning—schedule “worry” time, plan something relaxingMeditation Physical exercise Sources: http://www.youthbeyondblue.com,http://www.seniornet.org/jsnet/Further assistance and readingIn your term 1 year 11 units and your library orientation you will learn more about college writing &research. Study skills classes can help you improve in areas you lack confidence or skills eg studyorganisation, essay & report skills, note taking, referencing, and oral presentations.ESL classes develop academic skills and skills in using the English language Additional tutorials may beoffered, for example in Maths and Science Ask your teachers and the teacher librarians at the HELP deskif you have any queries about yourassignments.Further reading001.42 Arm Tricia Armstrong, Finding Information, Annandale, User Friendly Enterprises, 2004025.04 Sha Shaw, Maura D., Mastering online research : a comprehensive guide to effective and efficientsearch strategies, Cincinnati, Ohio, F&W, 2007.025.5 Ste
  • 16. Stebbins, Leslie F, Student guide to research in the digital age : how to locate and evaluateinformation sources, Westport, Greenwood, 2006025.524 Bid Ian Biddel et al, Information and research skills for assessment success : HSC and preliminarycourse, Pascal, Glebe, 2000025.524 Bra Brasch, Nicolas Students’ research guide, Port Melbourne, Echidna, 2003 nd340.07 Cam Campbell, Enid & Fox, Richard, Students’ guide to legal writing & law exams, 2 edition,Sydney, Federation Press, 2003.Queensland Institute of Technology have excellent guides on note taking, essay writing andreferencing. The QUT write guides are very good.Finding Information on the Internet from the University of Berkeley is excellent. If your psychologyteacher requests the APA style of referencing, you may like to use their guide.
  • 17. Faculty guides HAWKER COLLEGE CANBERRA SCIENCE DEPARTMENT Scientific Major Practical Report Style ManualScience is essentially the study of the interaction of materials with each other and the universe. Thereforea good scientist needs to be able to conduct experimental activities to test these interactions, analysetheir findings and be able to effectively communicate their findings to scientific and non-scientificaudiences. Hence major practicals are designed to test the ability of the scientist to conduct, analyse andpresent their findings in written form. You are assessed on your ability to compile your report in therequested format, clearly and accurately present your experimental findings and discuss the validity ofthose findings.Written reports in Science should therefore follow an expected format and this document is designed tobe a reference to aid the student by explaining the expectations for such written reports. Remember thatindividual experiments will vary and each practical will have specific requirements that need to be used inconjunction with this document. For example, not all sections described herein will be requested forevery report and hence you should pay particular attention to the specific Practical Task Sheet to ensurethat you include all the necessary sections for that experiment without undue time being used on areasthat for that task are considered to have less emphasis.You can self-check using the Marking Sheet – have you included all the necessary components and tosufficient depth?General Expectations:
  • 18. • You must submit your Report with the Marking Sheet attached as the cover page.• You should inscribe your name, group number and group members on the Marking Sheet• Your report must be typed, on A4 paper. Staple the pages or use a clip but do not use plasticpockets or folders with plastic pockets.• Though some experimental activities are completed in groups, reports must be completedindividually – i.e.: no group reports• • All figures are to be: • o Of sufficient size to be clear and showing experimental set up of equipment. • o Labelled, drawn internally to scale, 2D if of chemical apparatus. • o Cited if you are not the author.• Where an experiment(s)’ method is taken directly from a textbook or Practical Task Sheet, it neednot be repeated in your report. However, you must reference the source correctly. If you are referencinga Practical Task Sheet you must include the sheet as an appendix to your report• • Regardless of what section you are writing follow the 3C method • o Correct (make sure what you say is right) • o Complete (include all necessary details) • o Concise (do not include unnecessary details or try to ‘pad out’ your word count)• You can assume a good level of scientific literacy in the reader so standard techniques and tasks(eg: titrations, decanting) need not be elaborated upon and may be simply stated without diagrammaticexplanation. When explaining the background theory, concentrate on the theory specific to thisexperiment and assume the reader is aware of other more general concepts.• Scientific reports require equations, which might be included as part of the Background Theoryand/or Results sections. Equations can be typed in MS Word by Inserting an Object of Type MS Equation.
  • 19. Order of Sections:The general order for all the sections (if they are to be included) isMarking Sheet with individual and group namesPage 1 with Title Abstract Declaration1. Introduction1.1. Aim1.2. Hypothesis1.3. Background Theory: This includes any pre-laboratory questions and any calculation plan.2. Method:2.1. Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams,2.2. Sequential Steps (Including any variations from appendices)2.3. Any sources of uncertainty to be considered.2.4. Extension work if any3. Results (retain accuracy by using significant figures and/or standard form)3.1. Raw Data in Tabulated Form (Include units and error)3.2. Qualitative results3.3. Calculated Quantities (Include units and calculated absolute error)3.4. Graphical Representation of Relationships3.5. Explanation of “Bad Point” omissions (NOT included in LOBF calculations)3.6. Extension calculations if any.4. Discussion4.1. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results.4.2. Reliability of experiment.4.3. Validity of experiment.4.4. Extension Discussion4.5. Possible improvements to investigation5. Conclusion6. Bibliography7. Appendices
  • 20. Specific Expectations:Marking Sheet A Marking Sheet that shows clearly the distribution of marks for specific sections of the report MUST be attached as the cover page of your report. Your teacher will mark and provide feedback on this sheet to assist you to improve future submissions. Inscribe your name and the names of your experimental group members onto the Marking Sheet.Page One Title This is a description of the task / experiment you are investigating, NOT phrased as a question, but rather as a statement Eg: Determination of the refractive index of crown glass. It should follow the 3C method, usually kept to about 6-10 words. This should be on the first page following the Marking Sheet. Abstract This is a concise statement that is basically a summary of the report. It should briefly cover the goal of the experiment, the results, validity and reliability of the findings and suggestions for future investigations. The validity is often confirmed with a statement showing the theoretical value lies within experimental error of the experimental value. The abstract should be written on the same page as the Title, with the declaration also on that page. Declaration A signed statement that the work within is entirely your own work and is properly cited.1. Introduction This section outlines the purpose of the experiment. 1.1. Aim This is a statement following the 3C method, outlining the task you are investigating. It can be phrased as a question and should not mention specific quantities but should mention specific materials being tested. Keep it to around 1-3 sentences. 1.2. Hypothesis This is a single statement that predicts what you expect to happen in the experiment. It is a statement of the question you are investigating that suggests what you expect the results will be. 2.3. Background Theory This section is for introducing the relevant theory concepts and any previous experimentation or research in the field. You are expected to research this information from more sources than just your standard textbooks. A wide range of sources implies not only other texts but also the use of journals, CD-ROMS and online sources. This section must be correctly referenced (see the College Diary). While this section should be completed with an appropriate amount of information, it is not a chance to write everything you know about every scientific concept. Remember the 3C method. Please note that this does not impose word or page limits, but rather gives you the chance to say what you have to. For example,
  • 21. some practicals will require perhaps two pages of background theory, where others perhapsonly one. Say what you must say, CONCISELY, instead of ‗trying to impress‘ with largequantity when quality is being marked!
  • 22. Include a list of the important variables influencing this investigation and any linking equations. Define the independent, dependent and control variables (include how you will control the control variables). (a) Pre Laboratory Questions Often a series of pre laboratory questions that relate directly to the investigation will be set. These questions and their fully worked solutions should be included here. (b) Calculation Plan Of particular importance in an open ended investigation is a plan of how to process the data. It would be foolish in the extreme to carry out an investigation and then find you have measured the wrong dependent variable. How will the background theory be applied to the raw data which will be logged? What relationship will be graphed and what significance will the slope of the Line of Best Fit hold (it is acceptable to plan to use graphing software like Excel to generate the LOBF rather than carrying out the statistical derivation of its equation yourself).3.0 Method How the investigation was carried out. . 3.1 Experimental Apparatus You should also include correctly drawn scientific diagrams showing the experimental set up of the equipment. Of course there is no need to draw diagrams to show standard procedural tasks such as titrations, decantations and distillations. Setup diagrams are not the procedure in pictures (a pictorial flow chart); they show how to set up the equipment in order to perform the required tasks. 3.2 Sequential Steps If the method is the same or similar to that presented in a textbook or Practical Task Sheet, you do not need to reproduce the method, but it must be referenced correctly from the source. Any major changes MUST also be cited (and if necessary, more fully explained). For example: ‗The procedure for this experiment was taken from the Practical Task Sheet (See Appendix) with the following changes:‘ The Method should be written in point form; numbered steps detailing the sequence of tasks. It must be written in the third person in the past tense. ‗3g of zinc was added to a 500mL conical flask‘—correct ‗We/I added 3g of zinc‘ – st incorrect (1 person),
  • 23. ‗Add 3g of zinc‘ – incorrect (present tense) 3.3 Sources of Uncertainty In this section identify possible sources of error that could influence the results you obtain. Outline briefly how you minimised these errors. 3.4 Extension Work You will on occasion be afforded the opportunity to carry out an additional related investigation, usually with differing independent and dependent variables to the original. A brief altered version of sections 3.2), 3.3), 3.4) addressing your extension investigation can be placed here ( eg 3.5.2) Experimental Apparatus, 3.5.3) Sequential Steps).4.0 Results This section of the report broadly speaking will contain your raw data and qualitative observations as well as the application of section 3.4) to generate derived quantities, graphs, error calculations and final experimental values. 4.1 Raw Data Usually in tabulated format (include error terms and units). Values are to be recorded with the correct number of significant figures (often in scientific notation). 4.2 Qualitative Results Often qualitative observations will need to be recorded as they may have implications on the validity and reliability of the investigation. 4.3 Calculated Quantities Calculated according to section 3.4) of your report, only one actual calculation need be included (include error calculation example where relevant). The values should be tabulated in similar fashion to the raw data. 4.4 Graphical Representation of Relationships Graphs may be created in Excel or similar and should include: a) Title: Clear and Concise b) Axes: Clearly labelled with variable, units, linear/logarithmic scale. c) Zero Breaks: If required should be indicated correctly/clearly. d) Line of Best Fit: Equation for, and correlation coefficient of should be clearly shown. e) Any processing of the gradient of the LOBF should be carried out here according to section 3.4). 4.5 Explanation of Bad Points/Data Any ―bad‖ data points need to: Be recorded faithfully and discussed. Not be included in the calculation of the LOBF Extension Calculations These can be a higher order of data analysis of the raw data or sections 4.1) to 4.5) repeated for an extension investigation.
  • 24. 5.0 Discussion This section is essentially a chance for the writer to address the validity of their results / findings. While your results may seem to be prone to error or unexpected or do not uphold your hypothesis, they can be salvaged with appropriate explanation. 5.1 Comparison of experimental and theoretical results Does the theoretical result lie within the error term of the experimental result. Is the percentage difference between the values low (particularly used if the error is incalculable). 5.2 Reliability of Experiment Does the experiment yield consistent results (tested by repetition)? If not what is the cause (particular and important random error?) 5.3 Validity of Experiment An experiment which is 100% reliable may be totally invalid if it yields the same incorrect result consistently. A valid investigation obtains the physical quantity it set out to find. The validity can be influenced as much by the data processing as by the data logging. If the experiment appears not to be valid describe the probable important systemic errors. 5.4 Extension Discussion Essentially a repeat of 6.1) to 6.3) for the extension investigation if any. 5.5 Possible Improvements to the Investigation Suggestions should be aimed at increasing the reliability or validity of the investigation and should aim to reduce either systemic or random error.6.0 Conclusion A good conclusion ties your findings and their validity, your aim and your hypothesis together into one concise statement. Often results obtained will be compared to given or generally accepted values and the percentage error should also be included. Remember the 3C method. No explanations need to be given as these will be addressed in the discussion section. 1-3 sentences should be the limit for this section.7.0 Bibliography Your bibliography should be set out correctly according to the format requested in the College. Essentially this means that you should use the Harvard system. It is an expectation that you would use a variety and range of sources. This means NOT to use only your textbook! It DOES mean though that you should not just use only books or only internet sites. You should aim to actually use some internet / online sources AND some books AND some journals as necessary to provide your background reading and research. You should expect that your teacher will be using your bibliography to confirm your information.
  • 25. Hawker College Canberra Subject Major Practical: Sample Marking Scheme (Note: A similar but specific form will be generated for the marking of each practical)Name: ____________________________________________ Due Date: ___________ Title: Weighting: %Discuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The resultFor concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed Thus Clearly In brief In summarySection Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedMethod 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing representation of relationships: graph, LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point”
  • 26. Discuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The resultFor concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed Thus Clearly In brief In summarySection Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedMethod 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing representation of relationships: graph, LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point” omissions Extension calculationsConclusion 4 Conclusions stated Comparison with hypothesisDiscussion 10 Comparison of theoretical and experimental values Reliability of experiment Validity of experiment Extension discussion Possible improvements to investigationBibliography 3 Textual references: format, frequency of use, how included Bibliography: format, alphabetical order of authorPresentation 3 Title page, Typed, Correct layout, Spelling, Grammar Numbers: significant figures, units, standard form, formatTotal Mark 48-58Hawker College CanberraSample Scientific Practical: Marking Scheme (Note: A similar but
  • 27. HAWKER COLLEGE CANBERRA SCIENCE DEPARTMENT Scientific Practical Report Style Manual Science is essentially the study of the interaction of materials with each other and the universe. Therefore a good scientist needs to be able toconduct experimental activities to test these interactions, analyse their findings and be able to effectivelycommunicate their findings to scientific and non-scientific audiences. Hence practicals are designed totest the ability of the scientist to conduct, analyse and present their findings in written form. You areassessed on your ability to compile your report in the requested format, clearly and accurately presentyour experimental findings and discuss the validity of those findings.Written reports in Science should therefore follow an expected format and this document is designed tobe a reference to aid the student by explaining the expectations for such written reports. Remember thatindividual experiments will vary and each practical will have specific requirements that need to be used inconjunction with this document. For example, not all sections described herein will be requested forevery report and hence you should pay particular attention to the specific Practical Task Sheet to ensurethat you include all the necessary sections for that experiment without undue time being used on areasthat for that task are considered to have less emphasis.
  • 28. General Expectations:• You must submit your book with all practicals in it.• You should inscribe your name, group number and group members on each practical.• Though some experimental activities are completed in groups, reports must be completedindividually – ie: no group reports• • All figures are to be: • o Of sufficient size to be clear and showing experimental set up of equipment. • o labelled, drawn internally to scale, 2D if of chemical apparatus.• Where an experiment(s)’ method is taken directly from a textbook or Practical Task Sheet, it neednot be repeated in your report. However, you must reference the source correctly.• • Regardless of what section you are writing follow the 3C method • o Correct (make sure what you say is right) • o Complete (include all necessary details) • o Concise (do not include unnecessary details or try to ‘pad out’ your word count)Order of Sections:The general order for all the sections (if they are to be included) isMarking Sheet with individual and group names1. Introduction1.1. Aim1.2. Hypothesis2. Method:2.1. Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams,2.2. Sequential Steps (Including any variations from hand outs)3. Results (retain accuracy by using significant figures and/or standard form)3.1. Raw Data in Tabulated Form (Include units and error)3.2. Qualitative results3.3. Calculated Quantities (Include units and calculated absolute error)3.4. Graphical Representation of Relationships3.5. Explanation of “Bad Point” omissions (NOT included in LOBF calculations)4. Discussion4.1. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results.4.2. Reliability of experiment.4.3. Validity of experiment.5. Conclusion
  • 29. Specific Expectations:Page One Title This is a description of the task / experiment you are investigating, NOT phrased as a question, but rather as a statement Eg: Determination of the refractive index of crown glass. It should follow the 3C method, usually kept to about 6-10 words. This should be on the first page following the Marking Sheet.2. Introduction This section outlines the purpose of the experiment. 2.1. Aim This is a statement following the 3C method, outlining the task you are investigating. It can be phrased as a question and should not mention specific quantities but should mention specific materials being tested. Keep it to around 1-3 sentences. 2.2. Hypothesis This is a single statement that predicts what you expect to happen in the experiment. It is a statement of the question you are investigating that suggests what you expect the results will be.1.0 Method How the investigation was carried out. . 1.1 Experimental Apparatus You should also include correctly drawn scientific diagrams showing the experimental set up of the equipment. Of course there is no need to draw diagrams to show standard procedural tasks such as titrations, decantations and distillations. Setup diagrams are not the procedure in pictures (a pictorial flow chart); they show how to set up the equipment in order to perform the required tasks. 1.2 Sequential Steps If the method is the same or similar to that presented in a textbook or Practical Task Sheet, you do not need to reproduce the method, but it must be referenced correctly from the source. Any major changes MUST also be cited (and if necessary, more fully explained). For example: ‗The procedure for this experiment was taken from the Practical Task Sheet (See Appendix) with the following changes:‘ The Method should be written in point form; numbered steps detailing the sequence of tasks. It must be written in the third person in the past tense. ‗3g of zinc was added to a 500mL conical flask‘—correct st ‗We/I added 3g of zinc‘ – incorrect (1 person), ‗Add 3g of zinc‘ – incorrect (present tense)
  • 30. 2.0 Results This section of the report broadly speaking will contain your raw data and qualitative observations as well as the application of section 3.4) to generate derived quantities, graphs, error calculations and final experimental values. 2.1 Raw Data Usually in tabulated format (include error terms and units). Values are to be recorded with the correct number of significant figures (often in scientific notation). 2.2 Qualitative Results Often qualitative observations will need to be recorded as they may have implications on the validity and reliability of the investigation. 2.3 Calculated Quantities Calculated according to section 3.4) of your report, only one actual calculation need be included (include error calculation example where relevant). The values should be tabulated in similar fashion to the raw data. 2.4 Graphical Representation of Relationships Graphs may be created in Excel or similar and should include: a) Title: Clear and Concise b) Axes: Clearly labelled with variable, units, linear/logarithmic scale. c) Zero Breaks: If required should be indicated correctly/clearly. d) Line of Best Fit: Equation for, and correlation coefficient of should be clearly shown. e) Any processing of the gradient of the LOBF should be carried out here according to section 3.4). 4.5 Explanation of Bad Points/Data Any ―bad‖ data points need to: Be recorded faithfully and discussed. Not be included in the calculation of the LOBF3.0 Discussion This section is essentially a chance for the writer to address the validity of their results / findings. While your results may seem to be prone to error or unexpected or do not uphold your hypothesis, they can be salvaged with appropriate explanation. 3.1 Comparison of experimental and theoretical results Does the theoretical result lie within the error term of the experimental result. Is the percentage difference between the values low (particularly used if the error is incalculable). 3.2 Reliability of Experiment Does the experiment yield consistent results (tested by repetition)? If not what is the cause (particular and important random error?) 3.3 Validity of Experiment
  • 31. An experiment which is 100% reliable may be totally invalid if it yields the same incorrect result consistently. A valid investigation obtains the physical quantity it set out to find. The validity can be influenced as much by the data processing as by the data logging. If the experiment appears not to be valid describe the probable important systemic errors.Discuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead 4.0 Conclusion Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing causeconclusion ties Therefore Consequently their validity, your aim and your hypothesis together A good and effect Following your findings and In response As a result of The reaction The result into one concise statement. Often results obtained will be compared to given or generally accepted values and the percentage error should also be included. Remember the 3C method. No explanations need to be given as these will beThus Clearly In briefthe discussion section. 1-3 sentencesFor concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed addressed in In summary should be the limit for this section.Section Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedMethod 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing representation of relationships: graph, LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point” omissions Extension calculationsConclusion 4 Conclusions stated Comparison with hypothesisDiscussion 10 Comparison of theoretical and experimental values Reliability of experiment Validity of experiment Extension discussion Possible improvements to investigationBibliography 3 Textual references: format, frequency of use, how included Bibliography: format, alphabetical order of authorPresentation 3 Title page, Typed, Correct layout, Spelling, Grammar Numbers:
  • 32. Discuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The resultFor concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed Thus Clearly In brief In summarySection Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedMethod 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing representation of relationships:
  • 33. Discuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The resultFor concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed Thus Clearly In brief In summarySection Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedMethod 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing representation of relationships: graph, LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point” omissions Extension calculationsConclusion 4 Conclusions stated Comparison with hypothesisDiscussion 10 Comparison of theoretical and experimental values Reliability of experiment Validity of experiment Extension discussion Possible improvements to investigationBibliography 3 Textual references: format, frequency of use, how included Bibliography: format, alphabetical order of authorPresentation 3 Title page, Typed, Correct layout, Spelling, Grammar Numbers: significant figures, units, standard form, formatTotal Mark 48-58Hawker College CanberraSample Scientific Practical: Marking Scheme (Note: A similar but
  • 34. HAWKER COLLEGE CANBERRA SCIENCE DEPARTMENT Scientific Research Report Style ManualScience is essentially the study of the interaction of materials with each other and the universe. Thereforea good scientist needs to be able to conduct research activities to test current knowledge of theseinteractions, analyse their findings and be able to effectively communicate their findings to scientific andnon-scientific audiences. Hence research assignments are designed to test the ability of the student todefine, find, analyse and present their findings in written form. You are assessed on your ability tocompile your report in the requested format, clearly and accurately present your findings and discuss thevalidity of those findings.Written reports in Science should therefore follow an expected format and this document is designed tobe a reference to aid the student by explaining the expectations for such written reports. Remember thatindividual assignments will vary and each assignment will have specific requirements that need to beused in conjunction with this document. For example, not all sections described herein will be requestedfor every report.You can self-check using the Marking Sheet – have you included all the necessary components and tosufficient depth?
  • 35. General Expectations:• You must submit your Report with the Marking Sheet attached as the cover page.• You should inscribe your name, group number and group members on the Marking Sheet• Your report must be typed, on A4 paper. Staple the pages or use a clip but do not use plasticpockets or folders with plastic pockets.• Though some topics are common, reports must be completed individually – ie: no group reports• • All figures are to be: • o Of sufficient size to be clear and showing experimental set up of equipment. • o labelled, drawn internally to scale, 2D if of chemical apparatus. • o Cited if you are not the author.• • Regardless of what section you are writing follow the 3C method • o Correct (make sure what you say is right) • o Complete (include all necessary details) • o Concise (do not include unnecessary details or try to ‘pad out’ your word count)• You can assume a good level of scientific literacy in the reader so standard techniques and tasks(eg: titrations, decanting) need not be elaborated upon and may be simply stated without diagrammaticexplanation. When explaining the background theory, concentrate on the theory specific to this topic andassume the reader is aware of other more general concepts.• Scientific reports require equations, which might be included as part of the Background Theoryand/or Results sections. Equations can be typed in MS Word by Inserting an Object of Type MS Equation.
  • 36. Order of Sections: The general order for all the sections (if they are to be included) is Marking sheet AND completed “Hunting and Gathering” sheet Page 1 with Title Abstract Declaration 6. Introduction 7. Background Scientific Theory: General scientific underpinnings of your research assignment.8. Application/Phenomena:8.1. History of application/Discovery of phenomena.8.2. Mechanism of Application/Phenomena8.3. Current Usage 9. Current Research the Future and …. 10. Conclusion 11. Bibliography Specific Expectations: Marking Sheet A Marking Sheet that shows clearly the distribution of marks for specific sections of the report MUST be attached as the cover page of your report. Your teacher will mark and provide feedback on this sheet to assist you to improve future submissions. Inscribe your name and the names of your experimental group members onto the Marking Sheet. Page One Title This is a description of the task / experiment you are investigating, NOT phrased as a question, but rather as a statement Eg: Determination of the refractive index of crown glass. It should follow the 3C method, usually kept to about 6-10 words. This should be on the first page following the Marking Sheet. Abstract
  • 37. This is a concise statement that is basically a summary of the report. The abstract should be written on the same page as the Title, with the declaration also on that page. Declaration A signed statement that the work within is entirely your own work and is properly cited.8.0 Bibliography Your bibliography should be set out correctly according to the format requested in the College. Essentially this means that you should use the Harvard system. It is an expectation that you would use a variety and range of sources. This means NOT to use only your textbook! It DOES mean though that you should not just use only books or only internet sites. You should aim to actually use some internet / online sources AND some books AND some journals as necessary to provide your background reading and research. You should expect that your teacher will be using your bibliography to confirm your information.
  • 38. Hunting and GatheringThis page is to be submitted along with the assignment. Please fill in site/book names of referencesources located
  • 39. Discuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The resultFor concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed Thus Clearly In brief In summarySection Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedMethod 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing representation of relationships: graph, LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point” omissions Extension calculationsConclusion 4 Conclusions stated Comparison with hypothesisDiscussion 10 Comparison of theoretical and experimental values Reliability of experiment Validity of experiment Extension discussion Possible improvements to investigationBibliography 3 Textual references: format, frequency of use, how included Bibliography: format, alphabetical order of authorPresentation 3 Title page, Typed, Correct layout, Spelling, Grammar Numbers:
  • 40. Have you considered asking the teacher librarian a reference question?
  • 41. Hawker College CanberraDiscuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The resultFor concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed Thus Clearly In brief In summarySection Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedMethod 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing representation of relationships: graph, LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point” omissions Extension calculationsConclusion 4 Conclusions stated Comparison with hypothesisDiscussion 10 Comparison of theoretical and experimental values Reliability of experiment Validity of experiment Extension discussion Possible improvements to investigationBibliography 3 Textual references: format, frequency of use, how included Bibliography: format, alphabetical order of authorPresentation 3 Title page, Typed, Correct layout, Spelling, Grammar Numbers: significant figures, units, standard form, format
  • 42. Discuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The resultFor concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed Thus Clearly In brief In summarySection Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedMethod 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing representation of relationships: graph, LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point” omissions Extension calculationsConclusion 4 Conclusions stated Comparison with hypothesisDiscussion 10 Comparison of theoretical and experimental values Reliability of
  • 43. Discuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The resultFor concluding or summarising Therefore In conclusion Indeed Thus Clearly In brief In summarySection Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedMethod 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing representation of relationships: graph, LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point” omissions Extension calculationsConclusion 4 Conclusions stated Comparison with hypothesisDiscussion 10 Comparison of theoretical and experimental values Reliability of experiment Validity of experiment Extension discussion Possible improvements to investigationBibliography 3 Textual references: format, frequency of use, how included Bibliography: format, alphabetical order of authorPresentation 3 Title page, Typed, Correct layout, Spelling, Grammar Numbers: significant figures, units, standard form, formatTotal Mark 48-58Hawker College CanberraSample Scientific Practical: Marking Scheme (Note: A similar but
  • 44. HELMS Faculty Survival Guide 2011 What you need to know about assessment, moderation and the rest.1. What is HELMS?HELMS is the name of the History, English, Languages, Media and ESL Faculty.2. Unit OutlinesFor every HELMS unit you will be given a Unit Outline, which explains the unit’s objectives, content,assessment items and due dates. Keep your Unit Outline for reference.3. Deadlines, Submission of Work, Identifying Your Work and Final Dates for SubmissionHanding work in on time will help you maximise your outcomes from each unit. Hand work to yourteacher; do not leave it on their desks. Keep a copy of the work you submit, we suggest a hard copy aswell as an electronic backup.Drafts – HELMS teachers require that you engage in the editing process and draft your work. One draftwill be accepted per assessment item. On the final version of a piece of work, do not write your name.Write only your student ID number.The HELMS Faculty take deadlines seriously. Penalties will be imposed if work is late (see your UnitOutline for details), unless an Extension has been negotiated prior to the due date with your teacher.Late penalties are applied to a maximum of 35% of the possible mark for each piece of work (5% per daylate). Work will not be accepted more than two weeks after the due date.Summary of Late Penalties:Discuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The result
  • 45. Discuss Explain the item, give brief details about it with supporting information , examples, points for and against, plus explanations for the facts put forward from various points of viewInvestigate Research, study and carefully survey all areas of the subjectExplore or Examine Explore a subject thoroughlyExplain Offer a detailed and exact explanation of an idea or principle, or a set of reasons for a situation or attitude. The explanation should increase the reader’s understanding of a topic or idea.Assess This requires a judgment about an idea of subject. You may need to state whether the idea or subject being discussed is valuable or relevant after acknowledging points for and against it. Your judgment should be influenced by other authors’ views as well as your own opinionFor continuing an idea or introducing another idea Similarly Inaddition Furthermore Continuing this idea Consequently Because Also In the same wayFor providing a contrasting or alternative view WhileOn the other hand Even thoughInstead Contrary to these findingsAlthough In contrastFor showing cause and effect Following Therefore Consequently In response As a result of The reaction The result *Work can be submitted via email on Saturday or Sunday, or by post on Sunday.For concluding speak to your Thereforeabout an extension as soon asClearly In brief In summary be a problem completing your You should or summarising teacher In conclusion Indeed Thus you know that there may work on time. ‘Request for Extension’ forms are available from the Den. It is highly advisable to get your teacher‟s agreement to an extension in writing. There is a Final Date for the submission of work each semester. Generally, no work will be accepted after this date. Work submitted after this date will be reviewed by the HELMS Faculty Late Committee.Section Marks Comment ScoreTitle 1 Specific to investigationAbstract 4 Goal of experiment Main result Validity and reliability of findingsIntroduction 8 Background theory: historical, theoretical, Background theory: variables Aim stated Hypothesis statedMethod 5-10 Prelaboratory questions Apparatus and materials lists and diagrams Sequential steps: ordered, numbered, third person past tense Calculation Plan: calculations, error analysis, LOBF slope Extension methodResults 10-15 Raw data: tabulated, significant figures, error, units Qualitative results Calculated quantities: one example calculation, units, error Graphing representation of relationships: graph, LOBF, gradient/area, correlation coefficient. “Bad point” omissions Extension calculationsConclusion 4 Conclusions stated Comparison with hypothesisDiscussion 10 Comparison of theoretical and experimental values Reliability of experiment Validity of experiment Extension discussion Possible improvements to investigationBibliography 3 Textual references: format, frequency of use, how included Bibliography: format, alphabetical order of authorPresentation 3 Title page, Typed, Correct layout, Spelling, Grammar Numbers: significant figures, units, standard form, formatTotal Mark 48-58Hawker College CanberraSample Scientific Practical: Marking Scheme (Note: A similar but
  • 46. 4. ModerationModeration occurs on many items of student work. This usually means that a sample of work from your class will becross-marked by another teacher from the Faculty. In some cases, teachers will have to retain your work to createportfolios of student work for System moderation (cross-marking by other colleges).5. Unhappy with Your Mark?If you are unhappy with the result that you get on a piece of work, you have several options:Requested Review – you can request your teacher to review an item of work, or for another teacher toreview your work. The Faculty Head will choose the teacher to review your work.Appealing – if you are unhappy with the outcome of a Review, after discussing the item with yourteacher, approach the Faculty Head to discuss the matter.Any of these procedures may result in your mark going up or down.6. DraftingThe drafting of written work is an important part of the learning process. Therefore, it is expected that you will draft allmajor pieces of work. Teachers have the right to see your notes and draft(s) prior to final submission of the item. Marksmay be attached to the presentation of drafts. Drafts should be submitted with the final version of your work. Teachers have theright to withhold an assessment where the authenticity of the work has not been demonstrated by the drafting process.7. Plagiarism (Unacknowledged Use of Others‟ Work)Plagiarism is a form of theft. Plagiarism is using the ideas or work of someone else, either in part ofwhole. It includes copying material from a source, including copying from books, the Internet, otherstudents (or their work), or magazines without acknowledging that the information/ideas originallybelonged to someone else.Plagiarism applies to all forms of assessment – including orals, poetry, creatives and rationales.The forms plagiarism can take include:• direct copying, or substantial unacknowledged paraphrasing of a work• cutting and pasting from a website• using ideas without acknowledging their source• using pictures/images without acknowledging their source.• loss of some marks on the plagiarised item• cancellation of your score on that particular piece of work• if particularly serious, or on a second (or more) occasion, the cancellation of your enrolment in aparticular unit, a particular course, or even enrolment at Hawker College!Plagiarism or malpractice can result in:
  • 47. Always print out the first page of any website you use and attach it to your bibliography. Always reference your sources!8. Submission of the Same Work in More than One UnitNo piece of work may be submitted for more than one unit (either HELMS units, or units from other Faculties). Such workwill not be marked.9. Content of Student WorkAny material that might be restricted by the Australian Office of Film and Literature Classification(i.e. R or X rated) should not appear in assignments or class activities of any type. If students are indoubt about the content of their assignments, they must consult their teachers. Teachers will notaccept such inappropriate material and may refuse to mark it on the basis that it may offend teachersor students, or violate the College’s harassment policy.10. More than “Full Marks”If a student performs outstandingly on a piece of work, beyond what could normally be expected of acollege-level student, more than full marks may be awarded for the item. In such cases, marks up to110% of the weighting of the item may be awarded.11. Participation in ClassHELMS teachers expect all students to fully participate in all class activities, whether assessed ornon-assessed. Involving yourself in class discussions, excursions, journals and homework will improveyour understanding of issues, and therefore your performance on assessable items. 12. In Class Assessment Items
  • 48. In class items (e.g. essays) are essentially tests: they must be done on the scheduled date unless there is an acceptablereason for the absence. However, if you advise a teacher in advance and the absence is acceptable an halternative will benegotiated. If you miss the scheduled assessment piece due to illness you must have a medical certificate. If you are absentwithout an acceptable reason, you will receive a notional zero for an in class assessment item.13. Breaks During Double LessonsDuring a double lesson, your teacher may allow a very short break for you to stretch your legs. Thisbreak is NOT mandatory. Please respect the duration of this break.14. Staff and StaffroomsMost of the staff teaching HELMS units are either in the ‘English’ staffroom (Room 79/80) or the ‘Multifaculty’staffroom (Room 74).Room 80 -Helen Flaherty (SLC), Ellie Mayne (Year 12 Co-ordinator), Fiona James, Carolyn Lovgren (IPS), Simone Haddad, Kate Blattman and Annie Nethery.Room 74 -Stephen Brown, Graham Levi, Fay Matthews, Jing Yu, Chris Kenna, Ilona Horvath, Paul van Diemen, Linda White (French, Italian). Nick Carey-Ide & Kirk Zwangobani BLITSS staff room. Alanna MacLean & Rodney Callihan ARTS staffroom.15. Problems or IssuesAny problem or issue arising from a HELMS unit (eg content, assessment, class interaction, or expectations) should first bediscussed with the class teacher. If the matter is not resolved, you can approach Helen Flaherty, the Faculty Head. The members of the HELMS staff are keen to help you enjoy your time here, learn a lot, and succeed.
  • 49. Writing a psychology reportVCE psychology for units 1 & 2 /Valerie Clarke and Susan Gillet, South Melbourne :Nelson, 1992 pp.14-15. This extract is copied under section 200AB Flexible Fair Dealing. This book is available in thelibrary 150 CLAReports are generally divided into a number of sections. These include the title, abstract, introduction,method, results, discussion, and references. Some reports will combine some of these sections; forexample, a short report may combine the Results and Discussion sections. Let us consider each of thesesections in turn.TitleThe title should give a clear indication of the contents of the report. The title is often sufficient toattract a person to read the paper, or to skip it and go on to something else. A few examples of cleartitles for the 1991 Annual Meeting of Australian Social Psychologists will illustrate the point:• ‘Effects of suntan on judgements of healthiness and attractiveness by adolescents’• ‘Safe sex strategies: changing patterns among university students’• Reducing stress with the theatre technique’• ‘Gender stereotypes in sport’• ‘Influence of parent discipline style on adolescent delinquent behaviour’• ‘Predictors of loneliness among residential college students’AbstractAlthough the abstract appears at the beginning of the paper, it is often the last part of the paper to bewritten. The abstract should provide a clear statement of (1) the problem (2) the size of the sampleand means of selecting that sample, (3) the methods used to obtain the data, (4) the results of the study,and (5) any limitations of the study, applications of the findings, or other relevant comment.Most people read the abstract to decide whether or not it is worth spending time reading the paper. Ifthe abstract is badly written you may lose your audience. Abstracts are also used in computerisedsearches. Most of these searches print the abstract as the full bibliographical details of all the articlesidentified using a given set of keywords. Researchers read these outputs and then decide whether it isworth finding the full report.As students, an abstract gives your assessor an indication of the issues that you addressed in yourreport. It may serve to put the assessor in a positive of negative frame of mind before he or she readsthe rest of your report. Therefore, it is important to spend time to ensure that the abstract is the bestpart of your report.The style of the abstract is also important. Most abstracts are short (100-150 words) so they arepresented in a single paragraph. The abstract is reporting what has been found so it is generally writtenin the past tense. Like all other aspects of the report, objectivity is also important. Until you havedeveloped the habit of writing objectively, you might find it helpful to write in the third person, that is,use the pronoun ‘they’, rather than ‘I’, or ‘you’.
  • 50. IntroductionThe introduction follows immediately after the abstract, and does not have a heading. It is thebeginning of the report, so it cannot assume that the reader has information about what is beingdone and why. This means that ordering of information is important. Each new idea must beintroduced before it is alluded to in a more general discussion of the present study or of relatedissues.The introduction provides the background to the study. There are two types of background information :theoretical and empirical. The theoretical background describes the theoretical issue that will beaddressed and shows how the study will test existing theory, or further develop that theory. Theempirical information is simply a summary of other research that addresses this issue. It should presentresearch that is consistent with the argument being developed as well as that which has reportedrecently that are contrary to the present argument. Although some introductions may containtheoretical or empirical information, most introductions contain both types of material.The introduction should conclude with a statement of the aims of the study preferably, a statement ofthe hypotheses being tested. These should develop from material presented in the earlier part of theintroduction. Hypotheses should be operational and stated in operational terms. In some exploratorystudies or evaluations it is possible to state hypotheses, so the author states the aims of the study.MethodThe method should be sufficiently clear for another researcher to be able to repeat the study. Thissection is usually divided into sub-sections which are given sub-headings. The most common sectionsare subjects, materials and procedure.Subjects The selection of the sample, the size of the sample, and any other available demographiccharacteristics should be described. In most studies in these two units the sample selection is likely tobe described by inserting on or two words to tell the reader whether you are using a convenience sample,a quota sample, or a random sample.The number and gender of the subjects must be stated. If the sample is relatively large, it is useful toalso state the percentage of subjects who are male and female. It is essential to state the range ofages and the average age if you are dealing with children. In some studies of adults, this informationmay not be available.Materials Describe any particular equipment or measuring instruments that you used. You canassume that people have everyday objects like pens and pencils, but if you have used a stopwatch, acomputer, or a specialised piece of equipment, briefly mention or describe it. For example, if you haveused a questionnaire or interview schedule, state the number of questions, the areas of informationcovered and the time taken to complete the task.
  • 51. Procedure This is a general narrative describing, as concisely as possible, what you did. Describe thesteps involved in testing one subject and assume that all other subjects were tested the same way.Include a step-by-step statement of the procedure, quoting all instructions. However, lengthydescriptions can be placed in an appendix with a brief description provided in the procedure.Mention any ethical issues, such as gaining of informed consent and debriefing of subjects (theseterms are discussed later in this chapter). As you are reporting about a piece of research that youhave completed, this section is generally written in the past tense.ResultsThe results section may contain several sets of results, especially if there are two or more aims orhypotheses. However, for each set of results, the order within the set is the same. Start by referringyour reader to the table or figure which represents the summary of the data. This may be a generalstatement such as ‘The mean scores on each of the stress measures are presented in table 1’. Thendescribe the trends in the data. It is your job to tell your reader what these results show, it is not thereader’s job to try to work it out! If you know how to test for the statistical significance of the results,include your statistical findings. If you have not yet studied statistics, omit this step.Within the results section, each table and figure should be numbered and given a descriptive title. Thetitles of tables are presented above the tables, the titles of figures are written below the figures. See thistextbook for examples.DiscussionStart by stating whether you have supported or not supported your hypotheses or by showing how thedata satisfied the aims of the study. Then state whether the reported findings are consistent with therelevant theory or with other research findings in the literature. This is usually done by comparing thereported findings with those mentioned in the literature review in the introduction.Critically evaluate both the design and the implementation of the study. Suggest if either of thesestages of the project could be improved in another study, and other ideas that could be addressed in laterresearch. Identify the main limitations and difficulties in the interpretation of the results.Discuss the implications of the findings. Show how a knowledge of the results might be useful to you orto other people.ReferencesThe references section lists all the items to which you have referred in your reports. Any reference thatis cited in your report must appear in the references. The reference list will not include things that youhave read but have not cited in your report. The items included are presented in alphabetical orderand in standardised format. The author’s surname is presented first, followed by the initials. Theyear of publication is placed in brackets and the title of the book is underlined (or written in italics).Finally, list the place of publication and the name of the publisher. For example:Baron, R. A. & Byrne, D (1991). Social psychology: Understanding human interactions Sydney: Allyn andBacon.
  • 52. For other examples, and examples of journal articles, look at the list of references in the FurtherReading sections at the ends of the chapters in this book, or at the list of references at the back of thetext.AppendicesAttach the raw data (your lists on which you recorded your information), copies of ratings scales orquestionnaires, and your statistical computations. As your reader may not be aware of the existence ofthis material, remember to refer your reader to appendices at the appropriate place in the report. Thismaterial is not included in published reports, but is included in student reports so that your teachers cancheck you have completed this work correctly.Citations Within the TextTo cite references within the text, list the author’s surname and the year of publication in brackets. Ifyou have only read about the study in a secondary text, acknowledge that by noting that theinformation was ‘cited by’ another author, for example (Leonard, cited by Clarke & Gillet, 1992). Again,while reading this textbook, observe the way in which sources are acknowledged. Note that when citingreferences in brackets generally use an ampersand (&), but when including the names within thecontext of the sentence you use the word ‘and’.Failure to acknowledge your sources is a serious academic crime. If you copy from a text and leave thereader to think that this is your own work, it is described as plagiarism. This is unacceptable at anyacademic level. You may use another’s ideas in your work but you must take care to acknowledge thesource of these ideas.
  • 53. Library pamphlets 48
  • 54. What is a college essay? There is no such thing as a typical college essay. Each subject may have differentrequirements. However, all essay writing is part of an inquiry process. You will be asked to reflect upon the topicgiven, to combine your thoughts and ideas and the acknowledged ideas of others to create a new understanding. Theprocess of writing the essay will involve asking questions, researching and then developing an argument, or thesis,and coherently arguing that, using evidence from the appropriate sources.When you investigate a topic, you are asked to find resources on your topic, read and analyse or ask questions andcome to a conclusion. You are not just describing, summarising or paraphrasing what you have read.You will need to demonstrate that you have read widely. You are expected to access a number of resources, notjust read the set text and no more. Essay writing is a process involving thinking and learning. You convey yourunderstanding in a structured and unique way.Conclusions are often the starting point for your essay. You will, in your introduction state what your conclusions oryour main arguments are. The rest of the essay then convinces the reader that your conclusions are valid.Steps in the essay writing process To understand the question, first you need to define key terms and phrases inthe essay question. Check the meaning of unfamiliar words, using a specialist subject dictionary for technical words,and a good general dictionary for non-technical words. Underline the instruction words in the essay and checktheir meanings i.e. words such as ‗compare‘, discuss‘, ‗critically evaluate‘, explain etc Clarify your thoughts and askyourself, what is difficult or confusing about the topic? Check the marking criteria, as it should help youunderstand what you are required to do to answer the question. Do the research – locate the necessary material.Critically analyse the resources you find. Develop your argument. Discuss your interpretation of the questionwith your teacher and the teacher/librarians. Plan a structure for the essay. Write a first draft – aim for anappropriate style and content. Write a reference list. Review, rewrite and edit. Present your essay well – leaveadequate time to overcome computer or printing problems.
  • 55. Fin erials on writi okay ure the Internet. (see thedin held Myclasses. ng to a sites listed at the end and http://www Jot revise for of this sheet)g availa .hawkerc.ac your ma down Writingres ble t.edu.au/my your plan. l paragraphs Aear from classes ideas Use ess paragraphch the in a the ay library ONLINE plan for generally containsma logica a main idea, is – these databases l to colter could are help leg supported by order,ials be available make you e. examples, books, through a check Ex evidence or videos, ACTPLS diagr that am details. TheO CD http://www. am or you ple main idea is givenL ROMS, library.act. a plan have s magaz gov.au cover ca in the topicI forV ines, ed all n sentence, often yourE websit THE essay of the be the first sentenceR es etc INTERN as main fou of the paragraph.– ET – look this points, nd Paragraphs arec LIBR at the helps witho in the buildingat ARY search tips you ut too the on the blocks of youral MYCL work much lib ASSES library repeti rar essay writing,o outg – Myclasses tion. y which help whereu library pages you at convey youre inform need There LI meaning clearly.f ation DIGITAL are a B too can be VIDEO numb 80 findr accesse CONTEN er of 8.0 moreal d using T differ 42 inforl the matio ent anm library Planning n. It ways dat @hawk your is to on er link struct
  • 56. Ev d to be sources you your bibli th LP desk for an galu able to use, secon ogra e explanation of the uati decide whatever d phy H Harvard System of i what their draft,ng is a referencing. Be d material format check:Int esse w aware of any special e is should be editinern ntial ke requirements in for s relevant, appropriat g, example, a law essayet reliable e, relevant gram in a r or a science report.sit and and mar, colle C R This guide has beenes accurate. authoritati spelli ge oll e compiled usingNot Check ve. ng, essa eg a several sources,eve whether punct d it is uatio y. It e which areryt Editing acknowledged, at i current n, cont Sthin and the end of this page. ng or out of irrele ains ud g date and revision vant your y To avoid plagiarismon Editing and read the BSSSthe it is conte ackn G a revision What‘s plagiarism?Inte importan nt and owle ui n take time. How you can avoidrnet t to the dge de decide Always constr it Brochure – dis plan to ment or available at thesuit what the uctio leave time of lib library HELP desk. wabl purpose n of to read over the rar re to of the sente author is. and change nces. sour y O iuse what you tin Check ces ha n the have icoll written. Refe of nd lin Hawker nege Your class renc your ou e gassi Study teacher and e list ideas ts esgn Guide for tips the teacher A and at sa gme librarians to use to refer argu th y unts. will assistYo evaluate ence ment e wr i websites. you. iti du When you list s. Hnee All or a See E ng e prepare
  • 57. s htm om Writi argu htt studygs.net/wrtstr4.h Melbourne. Guide to ng menta p:// tmi writing a Argument persu tive w LAS (ESL)n basic ative asive essay w Effective academic 2003,d essay essays / s w. writing : the Essaye http://me argument writing [Onx mbers.tri http://www.unc.edu/ –line] pod.com depts/wcweb/handou http://wwwhttp /~lklivin ts/argume nt.html .latrobe.edu://w gston/es .au/lasesl/dww say/ References Guest, ae/writing/.stu Essay Vic et al 2000, 14wyedyg info:essa Nelson Senior _content.hts.n y English : a practical mlet/ writing skills based course, accessedwrt center Nelson IT 03/02/2011str. http://ess Publishing, South ayinfo.cEss Ha ay wkWr er Col iti leg ng eGu Libide rar y
  • 58. Ho A bibliography is an alphabetical list of the http:/ y more help W h Uni name e.g.w sources – books, magazines, newspapers, /ww please ask at i e ver Johnson, Christo CD-ROMs, internet sites, interviews, etc – that w.asl the HELP desk e sity et al. If there is you have used to prepare a piece of work. It aact. in the library. c f Pre an editor - usewr is usually placed at the end of your work. org.a e o ss, ‘(ed.) ’ e.g.ite Why do we write bibliographies? u/ref k r Me Jenkins, Susan Bibliographic entriesa gen. - Books , c lbo (ed.)bi • To acknowledge our sources. html C e urnbli • To give our readers information to • Name of . s e. Pamphlets identify and consult our sources. author (surname, firstog I 1 • To make sure our information is name) • Titlera f 9 o If accurate. • Year of 9 f • Year ofph publication, there publication,y- y 4 li are What if we don’t include a bibliography? • Title, • PublishHa o , f more • We may be accused of plagiarism • Publisher, P e er, u thanrv (that is, stealing another person‟s ideas or • Place of h , • Place of publication. twoar writing). n y O publication. authod • If so, we may lose some or all of the e s x rs,Sy marks for an assignment or a course. Adams-Smith, Patsy Electoral e i f use 1978, The Anzacs, enrolment 2000,st d c o ‘et al’ These resources may assist - the Citation 5 Nelson, Melbourne. Australiane s r after program on the library computers and the Electoralm a : d the reference generator available at: Zealey, B. and Commission, n t first Canberra.Poems/Stories/Chapter in books that verse of the Great War Magazine articlesare anthologies or collections 1914-1918, Robert Anderson, • Name of author Malvern, p 115-6• Author of chapter/poem/story • Year of publication,• Year the work was first published (if • „Title of article‟,known), Encyclopedias • Magazine Name,• „Title of poem/story/ chapter‟ • Title • Month/volume/ issue• in Editor‟s name • Year of publication, no.,• Year of publication, • Publisher, • Page numbers.• Title, • Place of publication,• Publisher, • Volume no., Copley, R. 2002, „Images of• Place of publication, and page • Page numbers. China‟, Australiannumbers. Photography, February, pp. The new encyclopedia britannica 10-31.Bean, Charles E W 1916, „Abdul‟ in Holloway, D 2008, Encyclopedia Britannica,(ed.) 1987, Dark Somme flowing: Australian Chicago, vol.3, pp.18-19.Newspaper articles • „Title of article‟, p.9. • Newspaper name, McCulloch-Uehlin S. 2002,• Name of author • Date and month, „Painter of the dreaming‟,• Year of publication, • Page numbers. The Australian, 24 June, CD-ROMs
  • 59. • Title Videos / DVD BBC, London. • <Internet address• Year of publication (URL)> • Title• CD-ROM, Internet • Year of publication,• Publisher, Shrorter, Damian 2000, Up in • Video / DVD, • Name of author• Place of Publication. smoke : tobacco, health and • Publisher, OR organisation hunger in Africa, viewed 29 • Place of • Year ofThe Old Melbourne November 2002, publication. publication / update,Gaol 2002, CD-ROM, <http://www.abc.net.au/science/RMIT, Melbourne. • Title slab/tobacco/default.htm> Sabre tooth 2001, Video, • Date accessed
  • 60. Internet - continued Email • Person interviewed • Year of interview, • Name of authorIf there is no author • Position or relationship, • Year of • Topic of interview• „Title‟ publication, • Interviewer• Year of publication/update, • Title / subject • transcript/audio recording/video recording,• Title of web page, • [Personal duration.,• Date accessed, e-mail], • Date of interview.• <Internet Address (URL)> • Date of access. Jane, Norma 1997, Yass firefighter, Firefighting, „About Mem Fox‟ , 2005, Smith, John 2002, Good interviewed by John Doe, video recording, 20 min., 21Mem Fox , viewed 25 August games [Personal e-mail], February.2007, 24 March 2002.<http://www.adelaide.sa.gov.a Informal discussion/s that have had a substantialu/childrenslibrary/authors/ Interviews effect on your assessment taskmemfox.htm> Formal interview Seth, Indira 2005, friend, Wedding customs in India, (Transcript/audio/video) discussion of what is involved, 20 August. B atsy 1978, The Anzacs, Nelson, your work and is arranged in 200 w you i Melbourne. alphabetical order. can to ar b • Underlining or 2, avoid it, d l Copley, R. 2002, „Images of China‟, Australian Photography, February, pp. 10-31. italicising are both AG 2008, wr i acceptable PS, ACT ite sy o Hartnett, Sonja 2001, Forest, Penguin, • All references BSSS, g Melbourne. cited in the text of your Ca Canberr ste r essay should be included nbe a a m) a Jane, Norma 1997, Yass firefighter, with full details in your p Firefighting,interviewed by John Doe, video recording, bibliography rra. For bi h 1x20 min., 21 February. • Collect the Call y information you need for no R more study bli The new encyclopedia britannica 2002, 15th edition, your bibliography, while you 808. Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago, vol.3, pp. 18-19. are researching. 027 guides - Visit og A STY d Shrorter, Damian 2000, Up in smoke : tobacco, health References and Further Hawker College ra a and hunger in Africa, viewed 29 November 2002, reading m <http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/tobacco/default.h http://www.library.uq.edu.au/ Wh at’s Library online ph s tm> training/citation/agps.pdf - pla gia http://ha wkerc.a y S Zealey, B. & Wiecek C. 1994, Physics - the forces of m life, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. Australian Government Publishing Service 2002, ris m? ct.edu.a (H u it Style Manual for Authors, : arv h, P • Your bibliography is included at the end of Editors and Printers, 6 th ed., ho How
  • 61. H awker College
  • 62. T xt locates as by is s ne else: o whene cit where pa "dependent h p they in your rt on his o In her l werex ati essay of parents for w discus e drunk.t o these a everything th sion of ..andu ns have se he needs" at alcoho i thousa (H been nt (Baldwin th lism, n andsl ar used. en 1978, p. e Baldwi of ce 151). For w n p peopl va It is a : instance, if h draws r e stayr rd short he gets ol attenti i awaye sy entry B hungry, e on to s fromf st that a cold or p the o worke e include l lonely, he a social n each s the d cries until s aspect dayr m authors w s of his needs s c becaue ) surnam i are a the o sen e, the n satisfied. g proble m theyc In text date of h e m: m drank citations or publicat a For longer c i tooe textual ion and s direct o A t muchs references the n quotes: b m t the are used in page o e o e nighto the body of number t If the quote s u d before.r your essay s from e is longer, fr t (Bald or discussion. which d place it in o h c win They show the t from the m a r 1978,i that you quote is h margin of lf s i p.155)n have used taken. a your page o t m another t with an m h et person‟s Citing a empty line e e s ideas or direct b above and o pe words and quotes a below it to eA l b o s w l p e rl o k cited i l a p a
  • 63. i l a en prevent the pol Liberal . Diffe sn n, you spread of itic … 1 rent o d L put disease in al 2 date 1 tt e o what closely ins Two ) s of 9 hh t n you populated areas, ta author publi 9 ee a d have it is necessary bili s with … catio 8 r i o read to take many ty the ( n: a sb l n into precautions. in same T ,i s . your Drinking water Au surnam h … p 2b : own must be clean, str e: o ( . 0l Re words, food must be ali m M 9 0i fer use a handled by a … a c 8 1o Bal rin see methods that (W ( s D ) bg dwi g, refere minimise orl T o ,r n, bu nce. bacterial growth d h B n … pa D. t This and disease Bo o . a ( .p 197 no ackno carrying insects ok, m 1 l M 2h 8, t wledg must be 19 a 9 d c )y Hu dir es controlled (see 95, s 9 D ma ec that Baldwin, pp. vol 2 a ow n tly your 241-261). .3, D , n ni biol qu ideas p. . p d at ogy oti are No author (the 19 1 . lh and ng not title may be 1) 9 4 o d hea : origin abbreviated): bu 8 3 tf lth, al: t 9 ) h au Lon W Throughout this th , e nl gm h To period there was e p r dM n a in one poi dy been S u itatione u o sentence nt argued u e s–n t t n : ha (Pomad b n citatiot h h c s erry s t nsi e o e Pomaderry has alr 1997, e fromo r argued this point ea p.45)… q c secon (1999, p.45)… This
  • 64. d ions of (cited Wilson man‟s hand….” n … If ab airs anda the work by (cited c ( there le Trade…r of one Gunn by Internet citations h M is no fro (http://wwy author as Stark Gunn in c e auth m w.smartras cited in ey Starkey The same rules l m or or th veller.gov.o another (Ed.), Ed., apply for internet i title, e au/do-u author‟s 1990) 1990, sites (but without f F use De not.html).r work, wrote p176) page number/s) – f o the pac provide about wrote author, date OR e x URL. rte both the that title, date. If no , , ms authors‟ art of „wealth date is available 1 2 Acco en. names. rheto without use „n.d.‟ 9 0 rding t For ric…. wit is 9 0 to ofFor example: . like a … 8 5 travel Foin-te OR sword ( ) ) advic reixt Thomas Tho in a H e gncitat Wilson mas naked i avail Aff
  • 65. Visit bstaffthe BibliHawk ograer phy,Colle citatige onWebs and printite edhttp:/ guide/haw sCitkerc. ationact.e In_tedu.a xt_citu/my ationclass _09_es print. docH:LiTextual (Harreferen vard ces syst and em) in-textcitation s
  • 66. A An annotated of the value of the item for your way, making anN bibliography topic. alphabetical listN is different of the resourcesOT from a While researching your assignment, used in writingAT standard take special notes for: the assignment.ED bibliography 1 Content: What are the main (See the HawkerBI because it points in the item (eg book chapter or College brochureBL gives magazine article)? How to write aIO information 2 Your assessment: Evaluate the bibliographyG about qualifications of the author and/or {HarvardR content of an Compare this item with others on the system}). AfterAP item and it topic and/or Describe how it has been each entry add theHI also gives useful to your research. annotation.ES your Create your bibliography in the usual assessmentCheck the sent les More U out http://wactual ence of inform n h ww.unisformat s to ann ation i Aus a.edu.au/requested a ota and v tral ltu/studeby your shor tio exampl e ia – nts/studyteacher. t ns es can r Lea /They may para are be s rni referenciask for grap on found i ng ng/biblio‘dot h. the at the t and graphy.apoints’. bac followi y Tea spThe length So k of ng chimay vary me this sites: o ng Charlesfrom one exa she f Uni Sturtor two mp et. The S t Universit
  • 67. y otate Ac Resourc .au/onlib Queensland t.edu.au/http://www d/ ad es – The /annotate University write/ann.csu.edu.au em Learning d of o/division/st U ic Centre _bib.htm Technology tated_bibudserv/le NS Ski http://www. l http://www. .jsparning/ann W lls lc.unsw.edu citewrite.quMurdoch Universityhttp://wwwmcc.murdoch.edu.au/ReadingR oom/film/Annot.htmThis annotated bibliography begun by Tom ORegan contains books and reference works that areuseful in finding information about Australian Cinema.
  • 68. Examples You will Hart, C. M. W., & Pilling, A. R. (1960). Example 2of notice The Tiwi of North Australia. New York: Stoddart, W.annotated considerabl Holt, Rinehart & Winston. S. (1972).bibliograp e variation This book describes the traditional Art andhies among ceremonies, social organisation, and daily Architectureadapted annotations.from life of the Tiwi people, and the Tiwi in in Medieval Note how it the 1960s. It is particularly useful in France. Newhttp://www is possible.csu.edu.au providing an insight into various forms of York: to describe social control which operate in the Harper &/division/st andudserv/ community. Row. evaluate alearning/an source in a This annotation gives the contents of thenotated/#p few words. work, comments on its value as a source,urpose and emphasises its particular relevance. Example 1This text explores the history of on the same topic. repeats twomedieval art in France. It is obvious exampespecially useful for its discussion Example 3 informa les.of architectural techniques and Stoddart, W. S. (1972). Art tion This isits analysis of earlier publications. and Architecture in from notHowever, much of the discussion Medieval France. New the commis outdated, and its overview York: Harper & Row. book’s onneeded to be augmented by the title. practicrelated material in Calkins. A history of medieval art and e but architecture. An informative Note the someThis annotation clarifies the and useful book. use of assignscope of the book, its usefulness This is a very poor first mentsand relevance to the topic, and annotation. Ii is too brief, person in maycompares it with another source not evaluative and simply the next allow
  • 69. this. Example 4 arthritis Keefe, F.J. (1996). Pain in andmusculoskeletal disorders. Journal of Sewell, W. (1989). Weaving aOrthopedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2, program: Literate programming in279-290. WEB. New York: Van NostrandI got all the facts about exercising with Reinhold.arthritis and the different types of exercise Sewell explains the code languagefrom this source. The author is very readable within these pages including certainand includes a detailed bibliography. lines of code as examples. OneThe expression is too casual for an annotated useful idea that Sewell uses is tobibliography. The reviewer has however explain characters and how theyinformed the reader of the content and work in the programming of a Webrelevance of the material, and evaluated the Page. He also goes through andreadability of the text and extent of supporting describes how to make lists and aevidence. Tthe annotation is too short for most title section. This will be very useful assignments. because all Web Pages have a title section. Example 5
  • 70. This book will not be the basis (110 words)of my manual but will add Goldschneider, F. K., Waite, L. J., & Witsberger, C.some key points, which are (1986). Non-family living and the erosion ofdescribed above. traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51, 541-554.This is an informativeannotation. It gives The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporationinformation about the overall and Brown University, use data from the Nationalcontent of the source including Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Youngspecial features. The Men to test their hypothesis that non-family livingannotation contains a by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans,description of the source and and expectations, moving them away from theiralso an evaluation of its belief in traditional sex roles. They find theirusefulness of the source. (118 hypothesis strongly supported in young females,words) while the effects were fewer in studies of youngExample 6 males. Increasing the time away from parentsindividualism, self-sufficiency, before marrying increasedand changes in attitudes aboutfamilies. In contrast, an earlierstudy by Williams cited belowshows no significant genderdifferences in sex role attitudesas a result of non-familyliving.This annotation also providesa comprehensive summary ofthe article and signals that thefindings do not support thefindings of an earlier study.

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