A Presentation on
(microsat, nanosat & picosat)
ASHISH KUMAR SINGH
M.Tech. (IIIRD Semester)
(CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF ALLAHABAD)
A satellite is a station in space that is
used for telecommunication, radio ,
television signals and several other
Most of the satellite have a
Satellite is broadly classified in two
• Passive Satellite
• Active Satellite
And active satellite further classified as
• Non-GEO Satellite (in LEO,MEO etc.)
• GEO Satellite (in Geo Stationary orbit)
History of Satellites :
The world's first artificial satellite is the SPUTNIK-I
was launched in 1957 by RUSSIA ,But first active
satellite was launched in 1962 named as TELSAT.
India have launches 72 (as of 5 November 2013)
satellites up to till now but First satellite that was
launched and used for communication purpose in INDIA
-ARYABHATTA (19 April 1975)
In 2011 ISRO launched First Indian nano
satellite with the help of IIT Kanpur named as
Recently ( 5th Nov.2013) India has launched a
Satellite for Mars Mission named as
The first geostationary communication satellite
was -SYNCOM 3(19 Aug 1963).
Father of geostationary communication satellite
KEpLEr’S Law for satellite
• 1st Law:The orbit of every
planet is an ellipse with the
Sun at one of the two foci.“
• 2nd Law:A line joining a
planet and the Sun sweeps
out equal areas during
equal intervals of time.“
• 3rd Law: The square of
orbital period (T) of the
planet is directly
proportional to the cube
root of semi major axis (D)
of the orbit.
How Satellites Work :
A Earth Station sends
message in the form of
signal in GHz range
Satellite Receive the
signal and after
retransmit signals back.
• The ground segment consists of
– Earth Stations
– User terminals & interfaces
– Network control centre
– Transmit equipment.
– Receive equipment.
– Antenna system.
Satellite Frequency Bands :
• Most of the satellites works in Super high frequency range but
with different frequency bands.
L–Band: 1 to 2 GHz,
S-Band: 2 to 4 GHz
C-Band: 4 to 8 GHz
X-Band: 8 to 13 GHz
Ku-Band: 12 to 18 GHz
K-Band: 18 to 28 GHz
Ka-Band: 28 to 40 GHz
The Small Satellite
(micro,nano & picosat)
Small Satellite (also known as nano-satellites )are the new-age
satellites prepared for specific purposes.
The weight of small satellite is less than 100 kg and have
smaller electronic components.
It is working towards cost-effective future space missions.
Over the last 50 years, more than 860 microsatellites (10–
100 kg), 680 nano-satellites (1–10 kg), and 38 pico-satellites
(0.1–1 kg) have been launched worldwide.
Small satellites are being used to record data on the terrestrial
and space environment near the moon and Earth, and
demonstrated various telecommunications systems that we
enjoy today. .
There are several small satellite which makes a revolution in
satellite industry of India like
JUGNU, SRMSAT, YOUTHSAT, STUDSAT,ANUSAT,HAMSAT etc.
Dr. D Raghava Murthy, project director, small satellites
projects, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore
STUDSAT is a Indian small satellite weighed just 1 kg, and
has a camera which can take pictures of the earth from
space, helping in weather prediction.
Other institutes have got in the act as well. A 3.5-kg
satellite called Pradhan is being built by students of IITMumbai.
In Vellore Institute of Technology University
(VITU), Vellore, the students have just designed the
TubeSat, which is a pico-satellite, weighing less than 1
For space exploration, small satellites can provide an
efficient and economical means to identify regions of
interest before sending larger space systems with more
In 2010 the student of IIT Kanpur develop
first nano-satellite of the India and given a
name JUGNU, which later launched in
October ,2011 by ISRO with PSLV-18 from
Jugnu is 1 foot long, 10 cm wide and will
weigh less than 3 kg.
It is equipped with near IR(Infra Red)
camera and will transmit images to a base
station at the IITK campus.
'Jugnu’ was the cheapest price satellite at
Details of All small Satellites
Launched by India
SRE – 1
Technology Payload (RTP)
Continue (Recent launching)…….
12 October 2011
Nano-satellite weighing 3 kg developed
by IIT Kanpur
26 April 2012
Nano-satellite weighing 10.9 kg
developed by SRM University.
25 February 2013
SARAL is a joint Indo-French satellite
mission for oceanographic studies.
IRNSS-1A is the first satellite in the
1 July 2013
5 November 2013
Indian Regional Navigation Satellite
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM),
PSLV-XL-C25 informally called Mangalyaan is India's
first Mars orbiter.
Mission profile for a group of
GSAT-6 & 6A
GSAT-6 is a high power S-band communication satellite that will be co-located with GSAT-12, INSAT-4A and GSAT-10 at 83ºE.The
satellite is configured around I-2K bus with a lift-off mass of 2200 kg. It is configured with CxS and SxC transponders. This
satellite will also provide a platform for developing technologies such as demonstration of large unfurlable antenna in satellites,
handheld ground terminals and network management techniques that could be useful in future satellite based mobile
GSAT-9 satellite is configured with 12 Ku-band transponders and to be positioned at 48ºE. The satellite is configured with 2000
Kg class (I-2K) bus with a power handling capability of around 2.8 KW and a lift-off mass of 2350 kg. Configuration of the satellite
system has been finalised and realization is in progress.
GSAT-11 is an advanced communication satellite employing a 4000 Kg–6000 Kg class bus and is proposed to carry 32 Ku band
user beams with corresponding gateway links operating in Ka band. The satellite will have power handling capability of around
10 KW. Spacecraft level Preliminary Design Review (PDR) has been completed and System level interfaces are _inalized. Activities
for the development of structural and subsystem-qualification models are in progress.
GSAT-14 satellite with 6 Extended C band and 6 Ku band transponders is envisaged to enhance communication transponder
capacity. The satellite employs the standard 2000 Kg class bus (I–2K) with a power handling capability of around 2.5 KW and a
lift-off mass of 1980 kg. The spacecraft will be launched onboard GSLV-D5.
GSAT-15 is a communication satellite planned to be positioned at 93.5ºE with a lift-off mass of about 3100kg and 6.8 KW power
generation capacity. It is expected to function with a mission life of more than 12 years. The satellite will carry 18 Ku Band
operational transponders and two channel GAGAN payload. GSAT-15 is planned to be launched onboard a procured launcher.
GSAT-16 is a communication satellite planned to be positioned at 55ºE with a lift-off mass of about 3100 kg and 6.8 KW power
generation capacity. It is expected to function with a mission life of more than 12 years. The satellite will carry 12 Ku, 24 C and
12 Extended C-band transponders. GSAT-16 is planned to be launched onboard a procured launcher.
Smaller: So the cost of satellite and its handling is low.
Easy launching: Due to less weight ,several small satellite can be launch with
Small satellite allowing non-spacefaring nations, corporations, educational
institutions, and even individuals low-cost access to space.
Self dependency: Every nation can develop such satellite and can perform
their own task self.
Versatile: it can be used in various useful field like weather
measurement, coverage of area etc.
FAST: Due to less complexity the small satellite networks can be set up
quickly, companies can be fast-to-market with new services.
High Quality Transmission and reception
Mobile and Emergency Communication
Suitable for both Digital and Analog Transmission
Small Satellite can be used for broadcast purpose ( one to many) within
the particular coverage area.
These Satellites are capable of handling very high bandwidth.
It is possible to provide a moderate coverage using small satellite
Satellite can provide signal to terrestrial uncovered pockets like valleys
and mountainous regions of any country.
Single unit Launching of small satellites into orbit is
The coverage is not much wide.
Satellite bandwidth is gradually becoming used up.
Due to less power ,noise interference in satellite
communication may occur.
Very difficult to repair and maintain in the space.
“Electronics For You” magazine, November 13 adition
Digital satellite communication by Tri T Ha.
Satellite communications by Timothy Pratt, Charles bostian & Jeremy Allnut
Google image (www.google.com/image)
Geostationary Satellite(Author- Louis E. Frenzel)
(Publication- Tata McGraw-Hill)