Theories in PublicAdministration FDM 203 Methods of Social Research ME 204 Industrial Research & Statistical Analysis Jo B. Bitonio, DPA Professor 2nd Sem 2012-2013
Introduction• Public administration has been called many things; a subset of political science or at least its offspring• Public administration is a process and as such has been around as long as governments have existed.• As a discipline, it is primarily an American idea that grew out of the late nineteenth-century movement for government reform Ann Prentice 1984
Introduction PA has a relationship to political science in that its field of endeavor is the body politic, but where political scientists look at the political aspect of an activity, public administrators deal with the implementation of policy for the smooth operation of departments, programs and activities that are the outcomes of policy decisions made by the bodies politic. Public administration may be more profession than discipline, in that it combines theory and practice and is both science and art. Ann Prentice 1984
What is PublicAdministration? Public Administration is a species belonging to GENUS ADMINISTRATION, which genus in turn belongs to a FAMILY which we may call COOPERATIVE HUMAN ACTION (WALDO, 1955)Source: www.ginandjar.com 4
Public Administration Theory PA theory is the amalgamation of history, organizational theory, social theory, political theory and related studies focused on the meanings, structures and functions of public service in all its forms PA often recounts major historical foundations for the study of bureaucracy as well as epistemological issues associated with public service as a profession and as an academic field. Important figures of study include: Max Weber, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Luther Gulick, Mary Parker Follet, Chester Barnard, Herbert A. Simon, and Dwight Waldo. In more recent times, the field has had three main branches: new public management, classic public administration, and postmodern public administration theory. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_administration_theory accessed Feb 2, 2013)
Context Key Values Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes /Principles/Issues /Sub-Concepts1. Classical PA (Late 1800-1950’S) Politicized Politics & administration Frederick Taylor Classical PA is based on the classical bureaucracy Dichotomy (1856 -1915) theories of administration (scientific Corruption Preservation of Robert Owen (1771- management, bureaucratic model and Spoils system Democracy 1858) administration management) Inept Promotion of Efficiency Charles Babbage (1792 Scientific Management government (doing things right), -1871) o Focused on lower level of Popularization effectiveness (doing the Max Weber (1864- management of scientism in right things) and 1920) o One-Best-Way vs. Rule of management economy (least cost) in Herbert Simon Thumb the government o Time & Motion Studies Classical approach o Unity of command, Theory of Bureaucracy hierarchy, division o Max Weber’s ideal Type of labor, one best Bureaucracy or Rational –Legal way rule Bureaucracy (hierarchy, division o Mechanistic view of labor, formally written rules of the organization and procedures, impersonality, o Closed system neutrality) view of the organization Dr. Joel V. Mangahas UP-NCPAG 2004
Context Key Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes Values/Principles/Iss /Sub-Concepts ues1. Classical PA (Late 1800-1950’S) Henri Fayol’s1916 o Henri Fayol’s principles of a French industrialist, is now administration (division of labor, recognized as the Father of authority, discipline, unity of Modern Management. In year command, unity of direction, 1916 Fayol wrote a book subordination of individual entitled "Industrial and interest to general interest, General Administration". In remuneration of employee, this book, he gave the 14 centralization, scalar chain, Principles of Management. order, equity, stability of tenure These 14 principles of of personnel, initiative, esprit de management are universally corps) accepted and used even today. According to Henri Fayol, all managers must follow these 14 principlehttp://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2011/04/henri-fayol-14-principles-of-management.html
What is Administration? ADMINISTRATION is a type of cooperative human effort that has HIGH DEGREE OF RATIONALITY The significance of HIGH DEGREE OF RATIONALITY lies in HUMAN COOPERATION which varies in effectiveness of goal attainment whether we think of formal goals, the goals of leaders, or of all who cooperate (WALDO, 1955)Source: www.ginandjar.com
What is Administration? Administration is a PLANNED APPROACH to solving of all kinds of problems in almost every individual or group activity, both public and private (DIMOCK, DIMOCK, AND KOENIG, 1960)Source: www.ginandjar.com 9
What is Administration? In its broadest sense ADMINISTRATION can be defined as the activities of groups cooperating to accomplish common goals (SIMON, 1991)Source: www.ginandjar.com 10
What is Administration?The study of administration is concerned with questions such as: 1. How the method was chosen? 2. How the men are working towards attainment of goals were selected and induced to cooperate in carrying out such task? 3. How the task was divided between them? 4. How each one learned what his particular job was in the total pattern? 5. How he learned to performed it? 6. How his efforts are coordinated with the efforts of the other? (SIMON, 1991) Source: www.ginandjar.com 11
What is Administration? Most persons, while they are engaged in ADMINISTRATION everyday of their lives , SELDOM think formally about the process. They SELDOM deliberately set out to consider the ways in which the cooperative activities of groups are actually arranged; how the cooperation could nbe made more effective or satisfying; and what are the requirements for the continuance of the cooperative activity (SIMON, 1991)Source: www.ginandjar.com
The Universality of Administration Since ADMINISTRATION is concerned with all patterns of cooperative behavior, any person engaged in an activity in cooperation with other persons is engaged IN ADMINISTRATION Since everyone has COOPERATED with others in his life, he has some basic familiarity with ADMINISTRATION and some of its problems (SIMON, 1991)Source: www.ginandjar.com
Characteristics of Administration The characteristics of administration are best subsumed under two terms ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT are the two faces of the same coin (WALDO, 1955)Source: www.ginandjar.com 14
Characteristics of Administration ORGANIZATION is the ANATOMY, MANAGEMENT THE PHYSIOLOGY, of administration ORGANIZATION IS THE STRUCTURE; MANAGEMENT IS THE FUNCTIONING of administration (WALDO, 1955)Source: www.ginandjar.com
Context Key Values Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes /Principles/Issues /Sub-Concepts1. Classical PA (Late 1800-1950’S) I. Gulick – POSDECORB In 1937, Luther Gulick and Lyndall (Planning, organizing, staffing, Urwick published their classic collection directing, coordinating, of Papers on the Science of reporting, budgeting Administration. Gulick was the president of the Institute of Public Administration and a leader in the effort to make public administration more, well, scientific. In the opening essay in this collection, Gulick asked the question: “What is the work of the chief executive? What does he do?” Gulick summarized his answer in the acronym POSDCORB, which stands for: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, COordinating, Reporting, and Budgeting. Indeed, into these seven “functional elements,” Gulick argued “can be fitted each of the major activities and duties of any chief executive.”www.hks.harvard.edu/thebehnreport/All%20Issues/July2011.pdf
Context Key Values Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes /Principles/Issues /Sub-Concepts1. Classical PA (Late 1800-1950’S) Herbert Simon – o Administrative Behavior: a Study of Administrative Man Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization is a book written by Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001). It asserts that “decision- making” is the heart of administration, and that the vocabulary of administrative theory must be derived from the logic and psychology of human choice," and it attempts to describe administrative organization "in a way that will provide the basis for scientific analysis. The first edition was published in 1947; the second, in 1957; the third, in 1976; and the fourth, in 1997. As summarized in a 2001 obituary of Simon, the book "reject[ed] the notion of an omniscient economic man capable of making decisions that bring the greatest benefit possible and substitut[ed] instead the idea of administrative man who satisfices” -- looks for a course of action that is satisfactoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative_Behavior
PA Toward Systems Analysis This change in viewpoint, which was a response tosocial and technological change, poses problems inoutlining the intellectual boundaries of publicadministration. Administration of activity in the publicsector is still at the core, but the full implications of thiswork are not fully recognized. The concern of the 1930swith budgets became, in the 1960s, work with thedevelopment of techniques for analyzing costs andbenefits of programs. This is only one indication of theshift in public administration away from structures andprocesses and toward systems analysis. Ann Prentice 1984
Context Key Values Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes/Sub- /Principles/Issues Concepts Neo-Classic Neo –Classical NEOCLASSICAL THEORY OF Approach Mary Parker Follet (1868- ORGANIZATION (1920’s to 1930s) – o Importance of 1933) Neoclassical PA derived its concepts human behavior Barnard (1886-1961) from this school o Socio-psychological Elton Mayo Commonly referred to as the human dimension of the Abraham Maslow relations or human behavior school organization Frederick Herzberg Attempted to improve on the o Interdependency to Douglas McGregor classical concepts its internal parts and Chris Argyris Follet – importance of the informal relation to the Rensis Likert system and exercising leadership external part rather then wielding power to environs were not motivate workers taken into account Elton Mayo (late 1920s to 30’s) experiments – worker’s anchor of security and productivity has greater influence on employee productivity rather than management demands; workers are obliged to adhere to their group norms Reference: Dr. Joel V. Mangahas UP-NCPAG 2004
Context Key Values Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes/Sub- /Principles/Issues Concepts NEOCLASSICAL THEORY OF ORGANIZATION (1920’s to 1930s) – Neoclassical PA derived its concepts from this school Barnard – Function of the Executive (1938) – viewed organization as a cooperative system whereby workers make contributions to it and management provide inducements to encourage workers to contribute to the organization. He highlighted the importance of social and psychological incentives like prestige, pride, and loyalty over economic considerations Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs (1943) – psychological, safety, social, ego, self-actualization Frederick Herzberg – (1959) Motivation hygiene theory Douglas McGregor – Theory X & Theory Y (1960) Reference: Dr. Joel V. Mangahas UP-NCPAG 2004
Context Key Values/Principles/Issues Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes/Sub- Concepts Abraham H. Maslow felt as Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy though conditioning theories of Needs (1943) – did not adequately capture the psychological, safety, social, complexity of human behavior. ego, self-actualization In a 1943 paper called A Theory Abraham H. Maslow felt as of Human Motivation, Maslow though conditioning theories presented the idea that human did not adequately capture actions are directed toward goal the complexity of human attainment. Any given behavior behavior. In a 1943 paper could satisfy several functions called A Theory of Human at the same time; for instance, Motivation, Maslow going to a pub could satisfy presented the idea that one’s needs for self-esteem and human actions are directed for social interaction. toward goal attainment. Any given behavior could satisfy several functions at the same time; for instance, going to a pub could satisfy one’s needs for self-esteem and for social interaction.
Context Key Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes/Su Values/Principles/Issues b-Concepts Frederick Herzberg – (1959) The Father of "Job Enrichment" Motivation hygiene theory and the originator of the "Motivation-Hygiene Theory In 1959, Frederick Herzberg developed a list of factors which were developed a list of actors which were closely based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, except it more closely related to work. Herzberg theorized that hygiene factors must be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate the workers: Hygiene or Dissatisfiers: Working conditions •Policies and administrative practices •Salary and Benefits •Supervision •Status •Job security •Fellow workers •Personal life Motivators or Satisfiers: •Recognition •Achievement •Advancement •Growth •Responsibility •Job challengehttp://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/history/herzberg.html
Context Key Values/Principles/Issues Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes/Sub- Concepts Douglas McGregor – Theory X & Douglas McGregor, an American social Theory Y (1960) psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book The Human Side Of Enterprise. Theory x and theory y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregors X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregors XY Theory remains central to organizational development, and to improving organizational culture. McGregors X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. McGregors ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develophttp://www.businessballs.com/mcgregor.htm
Integration After World War 11,public administrators went througha period of self-doubt and self-criticism. For many of them,being good policy implementers and managers was nolonger enough. Theoretical questions concerning thediscipline were posed. The scope of their role and concernschanged from that of being responsible for the traditionalplanning, organizing, staffing, reviewing, and budgetingactivities to a much broader charge. Public administratorsrealized that study of the organization should encompassthe study of human behavior and study of budgeting shouldinclude the study of theory as well as practice. Publicadministrators became aware of inter-connections betweenscience and technology and between policy andadministration. Ann Prentice 1984
Context Key Values/Principles/Issues Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes /Sub-Concepts Perspective Woodrow Wilson – integrates classical approach with o Organizations are viewed as composed (1887) social-psychological perspective of of interrelated and interdependent parts Frank Goodnow human relations; this represents Looks at these parts or subsystems of the (1900) modern PA organization in relation to its environment Luther Gulick (1933) Decision-Making Theory W.F. Willoughby o Rational decision-making (1936) o Herbert Simon – bounded Leonard White rationality, satisficing (1948) Industrial Humanism Paul H. Appleby o Theories of motivation (1949) (McGregor, Argyris, Dwight Waldo Maslow, Likert) (1952) Open Systems Theory oOrganizations as open systems oOrganizations responds to internal and external forces Contingency Approach oAttempts to integrate the various schools of management ideas oProposes no single technique or method is applicable to all situations Reference: Dr. Joel V. Mangahas UP-NCPAG 2004
Modern Public Administration A postmodern epistemology is explored in terms of its consequences for writing about organizations The indicative period of modern public administration in the 50s. The sub phases include: (a) development administration; (b) new public administration; (c) new public management and reinventing government; and PA as governance. http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/modern-public-administration
New Public Management The ideas of “new public management” and “reinventing government” were essentially born out of the continuing search for solutions to economic problems in 1970s and to produce a government that “works better but costs less.” (Denhart 2004: 136)http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/new-public-administration
Reinventing Government The idea of “reinventing government” was advanced by Osborne and Gaebler in 1992. Their concept of NPM was sparked by the use of business model prescriptions for government i.e. using private sector innovation, resources, and organizational ideas to improve the public sector. Reinventing Government provided ten principles through which public entrepreneurs might bring about massive governmental reform principles that has remained at the core of the new public management.http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/new-public-administration
Reengineering Organizations Another similar movement was“reengineering organizations.” This term wascoined by Michael Hammer (1990) in an articlepublished by the Harvard Business Review.Reengineering offers an approach forimproving performance, effectiveness, andefficiency of organizations regardless of thesector in which they operate.http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/new-public-administration
According to Hammer and Champy (1993),“reengineering is the fundamental rethinking andradical redesign of business processes to achievedramatic improvements in critical contemporarymeasures of performance, such as cost, quality,service, and speed.” (Hammer and Champy 1993as cited in Halachmi 1995: 330).http://www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/new-public-administration
Context Key Values/Principles/Issues Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes/ Sub-Concepts2. Development Administration 1950’s – 1960’s Goswami Concept of DA was Underdevel Nation building (1955) coined by Goswami and opment Economic Development Riggs popularized by Riggs and Poverty Institutional Strengthening Weidner Weidner Soft states Involvement of people in Roman Dubsky Refers to almost development J.Net exclusively to developing O.P. Dwivedi countries in Asia, Africa, George Gant Conceptual foundations were western (US) particularly, influenced largely by scientific management and administrative reform (traditional PA)
Context Key Values Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes/Sub- /Principles/Issues Concepts3. New Public Late 1960s to 70’sAdministration Widening gap between Equity Minnowbrook Disparities existed because PA the rich & poor Responsiveness Conference has focused less on social Racial discrimination Relevance H. George purposes or values of government Watergate scandal Adequacy Frederickson policies and programs on the Cold War Client-orientedness economy and efficiency of Vietnam War – protect & promote execution welfare of the The value-free and neutral stance disadvantaged of traditional PA has alienated the groups less privileged and deprived groups in society According to New PA Proponents, public administrators should not be neutral; they should be committed to both good management and social equity as values to be achieved Advocated: client-oriented administration, non bureaucratic structures, participatory decision- making, decentralized administration, and advocate administrators Dr. Joel V. Mangahas UP-NCPAG 2004
Context Key Values/Principles/Issues Proponents Dominant/Theories/Themes/Sub-Concepts4. New Public Management Poverty Sustainable human Hammer & Reengineering Low standards of living development Champy o Fundamental rethinking and radical Globalization Improving human Ted Osborne and change of processes (Hammer and Economic Integration conditions David Gaebler Champy) Participation and UNDP o Improvement (and, if necessary, overhaul) empowerment of ADB of systems stakeholders WB Reinventing Improve government o Catalytic government: Steering than operations rowing Streamline bureaucracy o Community-owned Government – Rational public Empowering rather than serving policymaking o Competitive government : injecting Strong democracy competition into service delivery Rule of law o Mission-Driven Government: Funding outcomes, not inputs o Customer-Driven Government: Meeting the needs of the customers, not the bureaucracy o Enterprising government: Earning rather than spending o Anticipatory government: Prevention rather than cure o Decentralized government: From hierarchy to participation and teamwork o Market-oriented government: leveraging change through the market Public Choice Theory Governance o Accountability o Transparency o Predictability o participation Dr. Joel V. Mangahas UP-NCPAG 2004
Deductive approachTypically used in Quantitative Research Researcher tests or verify a theory Researcher tests hypotheses with research ?s from the theory Researcher defines and operationalizes variable derived from the theory Reearcher measures or observe variables using an instrument to obtain Source: Leonardo R. Estacio Jr., MPH, Ph.D.
Deductive Approach• Placement of a theory in quantitative research only• General guide:• Introduce the theory early in the study:• in the intro, in the review of lit,• immediately after the hypotheses or research ?s (as a rationale for the connection among the variables)• Or as a separate section of the study (ideal so that researcher can clearly identify the theory vis-à-vis the study) Leonardo R. Estacio Jr., MPH, Ph.D. Source:
Quantitative Theory Perspectives (Cresswell, 2009:59)• “The theory that I will use is____ (name of theory). It was developed by ____ (identify the origin, source or developer of the theory), and it was used to study ___ (identify the topics where one finds the theory being applied). This theory indicates that ___ (id the propositions of hypotheses in the theory). As applied to my study, this theory holds that I would expect my independent variable/s ___ (state independent variables) to influence or explain the dependent variable/s (state dependent variables) because ___ (provide a rationale based on the logic of the theory) Source: Leonardo R. Estacio Jr., MPH, Ph.D.
Example of Theories• Theory on delivery of services, implementation of programs.• A theory that relates performance with organizational structure
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.