- expert-driven, assumes a linear process of decision-making , levels to treat the organization as a “black box” and severely limits the numbers of variables examined to quantifiable indicators of educations effects.
- recognizes education as an open human system located in a social environment too indefinite and inconstant to allow easy generalizations.
Model Process Structure Technology Technicist Analytical and administrative activities by oligarchy of specialist Centralized planning offices; clear lines of authority Systems analysis, cost benefit studies, programming techniques, MIS Political Exchange, negotiation, cooptation by various stakeholding groups Centralized goal and policy mechanism; diffuse means of articulation and less formal and aggregation of interests Combination of formal analytical and information systems and less formal information exchange Consensual Dialogue, consciousness-raising Decentralized small face to face groups Delphi, team intervention
- framed, more specific policy statements and strategies formulated for each area of concern to as social, economic, physical, political and developmental administrative aspects for a particular period.
- devised and used extensively by a number of business companies in the US providing different products.
Information flow Expectations of inside group Society community Stockholders Customers Suppliers creditors The Plan to plan Decisions and Evaluation rules Evaluation of environment Opportunities Threats Company Strengths Expectations of inside groups Top managers Hourly workers staff Data Base Past Perform Current Sit Forecasts Expectations of inside groups Top managers Hourly workers staff Master Strategies Mission Purposes Objectives Program Strategies Medium Range Programming and Programs Short range planning and plans Implementa-tion of plans Review and evaluation of plan Strategic planning Tactical Planning
- developed by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory in cooperation with the Oregon Education Coordinating Council to increase both intra-system and inter-system planning effectiveness in the state.
INFORMATION SYSTEM STRATEGIC PLANNING CONTROL TACTICAL PLANNING Program Monitoring and Evaluation Needs ID Problem Definition Problem Analysis Program Selection Generate Alternative Strategies Program Design Program Implementation
-focuses on a school or school district as the frame of planning reference
Mission SWOT Analysis V I S I O N #1 Critical Success Factors Internal Scanning External Scanning Beliefs and Values Vision #2 Needs Assessment What is? What should be Strategic Goals Strategic Objectives Priority Selection Decision Rules Achievable Affordable Meaningful 80% Success Develop Action Plans -Brainstorming -Force Field Analysis -Cost benefit -Select best alternative Allocate Resources and Operate Plans