Review of Literature


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Review of Literature

  1. 1. Research design John W. Creswell, 2nd Ed SAGE Publications, 2003 Josefina B. Bitonio FDM 204 and ME 204 PSU Urdaneta City
  2. 2. Topic Development My study is about . . . Cooperative Study of Governance and Poverty Alleviation : The Pangasinan Experience Pose the topic as a brief Question. Focus on the key topic as the major sign post for the study Profile of cooperatives, model of governance along accountability, transparency, predictability and participation, services provided in alleviating poverty among its members as well as the problems of cooperative governance
  3. 3. Consider how these questions might be expanded later on for research hypothesis • Is there a relationship in the level of governance practiced and the level of Governance Model predominantly applied by cooperatives? • Is there a significant relationship in the level of governance across their organizational profile variables?
  4. 4. Working title Major road sign in research
  5. 5. Begin with Selecting a topic Writing the topic down so that the researcher can continually reflect on it Moves into the actual process of reviewing the literature
  6. 6. • Begin reviewing scholarly literature and literature reviews • Help researchers limit the scope of their inquiry • Help convey the importance of studying a topic to readers
  7. 7. Step 1 • Begin in identifying key words in locating materials in an academic library. Key words emerge in identifying a topic Cooperative Study of Governance (1) (2) and Poverty Alleviation : The (3) Pangasinan Experience (4)
  8. 8. Profile of cooperatives, model of governance (4) along accountability, transparency, (5) (6) predictability and participation, services (7) (8) provided in alleviating poverty among its (9) members as well as the problems of (10) cooperative governance (11)
  9. 9. Step 2 With those key words in mind, begin searching the library catalog for journals and books. Most major libraries have computerized databases of their holdings. Focus on journals and books related to the topic
  10. 10. Step 3 • Initially locate about 50 reports of research in articles and books related to your topic from the university library or in other universities
  11. 11. Step 4 Look at the articles and photocopy those that are central to your topic. In the selection process, look over the abstract and skim the articles or chapter. Throughout the process, simply obtain a sense of whether the article will make a useful contribution to your understanding of the literature.
  12. 12. Step 5 After identifying useful literature, begin designing your literature map, a visual picture of the research literature on the topic. The pictures will provide a useful organizing device for positioning your study within the larger body of the literature on the topic.
  13. 13. Step 6 Begin to draft summaries of the most relevant articles. These summaries are combined into the final literature review of your research study. Include precise references in the literature using appropriate style used by the university so that you can complete to use at the end of your proposal. Miclat Jr., Eusebio F. How to Develop a Research Project. Monograph No. 1, Uniwide Printing Press, 2007
  14. 14. Step 7 After assembling the literature review, structure the literature thematically or organize it by the important concepts addressed. End with a summary of the major themes found in the literature.
  15. 15. Thematic: In a thematic review, you will group and discuss your sources in terms of the themes or topics they cover. This method is often a stronger one organizationally, and it can help you resist the urge to summarize your sources. By grouping themes or topics of research together, you will be able to demonstrate the types of topics that are important to your research.
  16. 16. A good literature summary  Mention the problem being addressed  State the central purpose or focus of the study  Briefly state information about the sample, population or participants  Review key results of the study  It is a methodological review, point out the technical and methodological flaws in the study
  17. 17. Abstracting Studies
  18. 18. Review of a Quantitative Study Creswell Seagren, and Henry (1979) tested the Biglan model, a three-dimensional model clustering 36 academic areas into hard or soft, pure and applied , life or non life areas, as a predictor or chairpersons’ professional development needs. 80 department chairpersons ;located at four state colleges and one university participated in the study. Results showed that a chairpersons in difference academic areas differed in terms of their professional development needs. Based on the findings, the authors recommended that those who develop in-service programs need to consider differences among disciplines when they plan for programs
  19. 19. Review of a Study Advancing a Typology Ginter, Duncan, Richardson and Swayne (1991) recognize the impact of the external environment on a hospital’s ability to adapt to change. They advocate a process that they call environmental analysis which allows the organization to strategically determine the best response to change occurring in the environment. However, after examining the multiple techniques used to environmental analysis, it appears that no comprehensive conceptual scheme or computer model has been developed to provide a complete analysis of environmental issues. (Ginter et al., 1991). The result is an essential part of strategic change that relies heavily on a quantifiable and judgmental process of evaluation . To assist the hospital manager to carefully assess the external environment, Ginter et al., (1991) have developed the typology given in Figure 2.1. (p 44).
  20. 20. For a qualitative or mixed methods review 1. Introduce the section by telling the reader about the sections included in the literature review There is an extensive literature on the economic justification of cooperatives, legal foundations, and role of cooperatives around the world, as well as the structure and scope of cooperatives. The present study reviews literature and studies of authorities, scholars and researchers along the key variables with a view to obtain qualitative insights on collective action, governance for successful management performance of cooperative businesses. The reviewed materials will provide a broader understanding of the research problems being pursued as well as guide in the conceptualization of the research design. The review will likewise provide some authority in the discussion and presentation of findings.
  21. 21. 2. Review topic 1 which addresses the scholarly literature about the independent variable/s. Consider the subsections of the variable.
  22. 22. 3. Review topic no. 2 which incorporates the scholarly literature about the dependent variable/s. Write subsections about each variables. Contribute to Cooperative Services Poverty Alleviation
  23. 23. 4. Includes the scholarly literature that relates the independent variables to the dependent variables
  24. 24. • This section should be relatively short and contain studies that are extremely close in topics to the proposed study Review of Studies
  25. 25. • Divide the review into sections according to major variables (A qualitative approach) or major subthemes of the central phenomenon (a qualitative approach) that you are studying. Review of Studies
  26. 26. Synthesis of the Literature and Studies Reviewed to the Present Study It is a narrative that it should flow from the beginning to the end with a single coordinated theme. It should not contain a series of disjointed summaries of research articles. Such unrelated and disconnected summaries generate confusion rather than understanding
  27. 27. Analyze research reports by key words. There maybe a plenty of articles that provide information for a key word. As you write your findings for each of your key words, you will draw from all of the articles addressing the key words simultaneously. Synthesis
  28. 28. Synthesis The synthesis of related literature focuses on recent research. The rule of thumb is defining recent is ten years. Select articles and include research articles which are less than ten years old. Major emphasis should be placed on research conducted in the past five years.
  29. 29. Synthesis: Research title Tourism Development Plan of Urdaneta City The reviewed literatures have shed light that enabled the researcher to have adequate background and substantiate the concept of the foregoing study. They are in certain level provides direction and idea in developing tourism program which is the main purpose of the present study. The reviewed literature provided the researcher the necessary insights pertaining to tourism, its legal basis as well as its social impact and benefits. Worthy to mention are the literature and laws such as the UN millennium Development Goals, the World Tourism Organization Report, Tourism Act of 2009 and the Philippine Medium Term Development Plan of NEDA that discusses legal issues and the concurrent initiatives in tourism and tourism industry.
  30. 30. Similarly, this research will be guided by the reviewed studies since the reviewed studies are either parallel or distinct with the present research work in terms of respondents, locale of the study, subject areas/discipline, instruments, objectives and statistical measures and methodology employed. Mentions can be made of the study of Muhammad Rudy Khairudin Mohdnor (2009), which examines the perceptions of tourism as a graduate career from the view of key stakeholders of tourism – the government, industry, educators and students. This study is somewhat related to the foregoing study in the sense that the present study determined the level of involvement of the government, NGOs and private business establishment owners.
  31. 31. Though Abyareh (2007) looked into the influence of tourism attractions to handicraft employment the present study looked into the involvement of the respondents towards tourism. Moreover, study of Sik Jin (2000) focused on Tourism Industry Development in Seoul, South Korea. Likewise both the local studies of Umaning (2005) and Mayos (2009) are parallel with the present study since it employed descriptive and developmental method of research. The study of Umaning also employed environmental scanning and presented physical condition of the Sagada Cave. Output of which is the framework for protection and preservation of the cave which is somewhat similar to the foregoing study whose aim is to develop tourism development plan. Although, aforesaid study differs with the present study in terms of local and respondents.