Research Methodology
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  • 1. Methodology involves a brief description of the research design to be used including the justification why it is the best method for the study. This chapter covers a comprehensive description of Methodology which includes research design, research locals, samples, and sampling technique/s used in the study as well as instrumentation, research, procedure and complete statistical analysis of the data gathered
  • 2. • Research design refers to a scheme or plan of how the research will be conducted (Menheim et al, 1977). Hence, the quality of research output depends largely upon the research design or method used in the study. • Any researcher should, therefore exercise a great level of judgement in selecting the appropriate and effective method of research in order to attain the main and specific objectives of the study.
  • 3. Any method or a combination of the following research designs could be utilized depending on its appropriateness to the study to be conducted:
  • 4. Descriptive Design Survey Content Analysis Case Study Feasibility Study
  • 5. Descriptive Method Descriptive Method is a general procedure employed in studies that have for their chief purpose the description of phenomena (Good, 1973). Travers (1978) refers this to a design which describes the nature of a situation as it exist at a time of the study and explores the course of a particular phenomenon. This method is used to discover facts on which professional judgement could be based. It involves the description, recording, analysis and interpretation of what it is. It is used in many fields of investigation due to its applicability to solve different kinds of problem.
  • 6. A Survey is used when the objectives of the study is to see a general or specific picture of the population under investigation in terms of their social and economic characteristics, opinions and their knowledge about or behaviour towards a certain phenomenon covering either relatively large population under investigation called “census” or with a limited scope which covers only a portion of population under study called “sample survey” (Ardoles, 1992).
  • 7. Population Rank: 12 % of World Pop: 1.38% The population of the Philippines has been steadily growing for many years. In 2014, it is the 12th most populated country in the world, between Mexico and Ethiopia, and continues to grow at a rate of 1.89% per year. The data provided by the Philippine National Statistics Office. Projecting this data forward, using the 1.89% growth rate, gives us a 2013 population of 98,734,798 and 2014 population of 100,617,630 in The Philippines. Based on the 2010 census results, the population increased nearly 16 million from the 2000 census results. The growth rate has slowed slightly from the previous census, down to 1.89% from 2.34%. The next census in the Philippines is scheduled for 2015. http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/ the-philippines-population/ Example
  • 8. Survey is also used to gather information or preferences about health care, needs, practices, social or political views, beliefs, attitudes, interests, perceptions and other related topics.
  • 9. Did you know? The Philippines is the texting king with over 2 billion messages sent daily http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/ the-philippines-population/ Example
  • 10. The term “normative” is sometimes used in survey to describe the established standards through the study of what is prevalent and made to ascertain the normal or typical practice or condition which is compared to local results with a state or national norm. It is an investigation which ascertains the facts concerning the present status (Good, 1973).
  • 11. Normative survey Good and Scates (1972) stressed that “the term NORMATIVE is sometimes used because surveys are frequently made to ascertain the normal or typical condition for practice, or to compare local test results with a state or national norm”. In the descriptive-normative surveys, the results/findings of the study should be compared with the norm
  • 12. The Real Estate In Hongkong This study utilized the descriptive method of research. As widely accepted, the descriptive method of research is a fact-finding study that involves adequate and accurate interpretation of findings. Descriptive research describes a certain present condition. Relatively, the method is appropriate to this study since it aims to describe the present condition of technical analysis as it is used in the stock market. The technique that was used under descriptive method is the normative survey approach and evaluation, which is commonly used to explore opinions according to respondents that can represent a whole population. The survey is appropriate in this study because it enables the researcher in formulation of generalizations. Specifically, two types of direct-data survey are included in this study. These are questionnaire survey and interviews.Interviews with researchers, venture capital practitioners, and other colleagues in the academy were conducted to provide further insight about the results of the survey. The direct-data type of survey is a reliable source of first-hand information because the researcher directly interacts with the participants. The questionnaire survey respondents were given ample time to assess the challenges facing the real estate in HK. Their own experiences with real estate in practice are necessary in identifying its strengths and limitations.
  • 13. Ethnicity, Religion and Language in the Philippines. Unsurprisingly for a country that is made up of many islands, the Philippines contains a diverse range of ethnic groups. The latest data available comes from the 2000 census, which reported the following breakdown: Tagalog, 28.1% Cebuano, 13.1% Ilocano, 9% Bisaya, 7.6% Hiligaynon, 7.5% Bikol, 6% Waray, 3.4% Other, 25.3% http://worldpopulationreview.com/ countries/the-philippines- population/
  • 14. • This is used to describe objectively, systematically and quantitatively the content of documents found in business records, minutes of meetings, speeches, newspapers, journals or magazines. It is otherwise known as documentary analysis. An example of a research study that could use this type is “The Attitude of Police Officers Toward Teenage Drug Users in the City of Chicago, 2003-2004”. In this particular study instead of using interview as an instrument to gather data on the topic, an objective, systematic and quantitative analysis of news and articles in news papers, journals, magazines covering a period of time as indicated in the research title may be done.
  • 15. STAGE UN-ASPA Stage Description Specific Characteristics Features to Look for Stage One Emerging Web Presence 􀂉 Telephone Numbers • Sites serve as a public information source 􀂉 Postal Address • Static information on the government is 􀂉 Email Address provided 􀂉 Services Offered • FAQs may be found 􀂉 Mandate, Organizational Structure, • Contact information is provided FAQs, Related RAs Stage Two Enhanced Web Presence 􀂉 Updated in the past 1.5 months • Access to specific information that is 􀂉 Forms are available (html, word, regularly updated sometimes zip, pdf) • A central government homepage may act 􀂉 Search function / Site Map as a portal to other department sites 􀂉 Message Board / Feedback Form • Useful documents may be downloaded or 􀂉 Newsletters or Publications / Purchase ordered online Information • Search features, e-mail and areas for comments are accessible Stage Three Interactive Web Presence 􀂉 Downloadable Forms (pdf, zip) • A National government website frequently 􀂉 Specialized Databases acts as a portal 􀂉 On-Line Forms Submission • Users can search specialized databases 􀂉 Interactive Elements e.g. Chatroom / • Forms can be downloaded and/or Forum / Discussion Board submitted online 􀂉 User Log-in and Password (internal use • Secure sites and passwords begin to or public) emerge UN-ASPA Five Stages of E-Government Digital Philippines Foundation, Inc. - http://www.digitalphilippines.org) Emerging Enhanced Interactive Transactional Seamless
  • 16. www.academia.edu/6660741 Example of Content Analysis “Web content of Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) and its effect to Philippine Digital Strategy 2011-2016
  • 17. STAGE UN-ASPA Stage Description Specific Characteristics Features to Look for Stage One Emerging Web Presence 􀂉 Telephone Numbers • Sites serve as a public information source 􀂉 Postal Address • Static information on the government is 􀂉 Email Address provided 􀂉 Services Offered • FAQs may be found 􀂉 Mandate, Organizational Structure, • Contact information is provided FAQs, Related RAs Stage Two Enhanced Web Presence 􀂉 Updated in the past 1.5 months • Access to specific information that is 􀂉 Forms are available (html, word, regularly updated sometimes zip, pdf) • A central government homepage may act 􀂉 Search function / Site Map as a portal to other department sites 􀂉 Message Board / Feedback Form • Useful documents may be downloaded or 􀂉 Newsletters or Publications / Purchase ordered online Information • Search features, e-mail and areas for comments are accessible Stage Three Interactive Web Presence 􀂉 Downloadable Forms (pdf, zip) • A National government website frequently 􀂉 Specialized Databases acts as a portal 􀂉 On-Line Forms Submission • Users can search specialized databases 􀂉 Interactive Elements e.g. Chatroom / • Forms can be downloaded and/or Forum / Discussion Board submitted online 􀂉 User Log-in and Password (internal use • Secure sites and passwords begin to or public) emerge Mckee and Robertson (1975) define case study as a comprehensive and extensive examination of a particular individual, group or situation in a given period of time. In using this type of descriptive method, the researcher should always practice fairness and objectivity in analyzing and presenting the findings of the study. He/She should act as an observer-participant of the case on hand. He/She also observes actions and records the significant events based on his/her own observations. An example of this study is “A Case Study of Casual Employment in the Philippine Government: the Ministry of Public Works and Highways” (Teodosio, 1979). This is used when an extensively thorough and comprehensive study of a particular individual, group or institution or situation is involved over a period of time. It is a comprehensive study of a person, group or community (Young, 1966).
  • 18. Introducing participatory planning practices with local governments: A Philippines case study, Demetrio Imperial Jr., Philippines The bottom-up, dialogue-oriented approach of PP has opened new possibilities and perspectives for the very people and institutions involved in going through this development process. This applies both to the MPTFs and the VPTs and other concerned residents who can be considered as the 'insiders' (those who are the main actors and managers of local government development) in their own respective barangays. They have started to produce results but the more serious concern now is how to sustain their interest and commitment to the work and make functional and beneficial to the barangays and the municipality the PP process. Added to this the MPTF, whose staff were drawn from various LGU departments and line agencies, have started to realize the value of teamwork and collaboration, which is often just taken for granted as they become engrossed in their daily routine. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/ac158e/ac1 58e0f.htm
  • 19. Introducing participatory planning practices with local governments: A Philippines case study, Demetrio Imperial Jr., Philippines To date, the PRISP-PP approach has been proven to work in the pilot municipalities and villages of Nueva Ecija. There is a need to reiterate that the primary concern for those who were and will still be involved is how to continuously invigorate their efforts. The challenge remains the same: meaningful people's participation in development planning and its sustainability As a new breed of planners, they have learned to integrate with one another and the people in the villages. Remarkably, this was done through a systematic yet flexible manner which is a pre-requisite in achieving convergence of program interventions and resources that go with process all the above elements are indispensable in the pursuit of participatory development planning http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/ac158e/ac1 58e0f.htm
  • 20. Decentralizing government in the Philippines, Roel Ravanera, Philippines Shift from national to local Shift from state to private (business) sector Shift from state to civil society http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/ac158e/ac158e0f.htm
  • 21. Decentralizing government in the Philippines, Roel Ravanera, Philippines The decentralization processes are of three major types: Shift from national to local aims to "bring the government closer to the people" involving deconcentration and devolution. Deconcentration or administrative or sectoral decentralization involves central government transfers of power, authority and responsibility or discretion to plan, decide, manage to lower or local levels that are within the central or national government itself. Devolution, or political decentralization, involves the transfer of power and authority from the national government to Local Government Units (LGUs), defined in the 1987 Constitution as the territorial and political subdivisions of the state. In this context, devolution is inherently tied to the concept of local autonomy. Shift from state to private (business) sector, where state assets, programmes and services are contracted to private corporations. Shift from state to civil society, by which civil society participates directly in government programmes and systems of governance, characterized by 1) the focus on self-organized sectors of civil-society (e.g. NGOs, POs, professional associations, academia, etc.) and 2) instituting participatory mechanisms going beyond elections and similar traditional norms. The intention here is to address issues of equity for disadvantaged sectors and to increase direct participation in governance. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/ac158e/ac1 58e0f.htm
  • 22. This descriptive method is used to find the viability of a proposed undertaking on the establishment of either a certain institution, an infrastructure or a business venture. This study involves an extensive and systematic analysis of all factors affecting the possibility of success of a proposed project (Development Academy of the Philippines, 1978). An example is “The Establishment of a Marine Biological Station for the University of the East: A Proposal” (Rivera, 1980).
  • 23. Technological Innovation in Urdaneta City University www.slideshare.net/jobitonio/technol Sep 03, 2012 · A Masteral Thesis in MPA Urdaneta City Enrolment System of the Urdaneta City University (UCU
  • 24. Feasibility Study on Internet Cafe
  • 25. Experimental Method can be used inside and outside laboratory conditions. It is the most prestigious method of advancing scientific knowledge (Travers, 1978). This method is defined by Kerlingen as a “design which is used for variation concomitant for the manipulation of independent variables”. It is a technique of discovering information through experimentation (Chaplin, 1978). It is a procedure involving a manipulation or control of conditions for the purpose of studying the relative effects of various treatments applied to members of a sample or of the same treatment to members of different samples (Good, 1976).
  • 26. Experimental method describes and analyzes variables under controlled conditions for purposes of arriving into a conclusion. It is specifically made up of manipulating experimental variables under highly controlled conditions to determine how and why a particular event occurs (Manuel et al, 1980).
  • 27. • The variables mentioned are referred to anything or any process or condition that may change or may be qualitatively or quantitatively changed from one condition to another like weight, IQ, age, capacity, height, teaching methods, language, time, etc. A dependent variable is anything or any of the observed. • An independent variable is anything or any condition manipulated or controlled by the researcher which is applied and observed or assessed as determinants of behaviour.
  • 28. • The experimental method usually uses two groups of subjects. One is identified as the experimental group whose members are subjected to the experimental process while the other, the control group, has members who are not subjected to any experiment, but they have some qualities that are otherwise similar to the experimental group in all significant aspects.
  • 29. Ebola outbreak: Is it time to test experimental vaccines? By Meera Senthilingam, for CNN August 22, 2014 -- Updated 1948 GMT (0348 HKT)
  • 30. Hawthorne Studies Experiments Post : Gaurav Akrani Date : 4/21/2011 09:41:00 PM IST Part I - Illumination Experiments (1924-27) These experiments were performed to find out the effect of different levels of illumination (lighting) on productivity of labour. The brightness of the light was increased and decreased to find out the effect on the productivity of the test group. Surprisingly, the productivity increased even when the level of illumination was decreased. It was concluded that factors other than light were also important. http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2011/04/hawthorne- studies-experiments-4-parts.html
  • 31. Under these test two small groups of six female telephone relay assemblers were selected. Each group was kept in separate rooms. From time to time, changes were made in working hours, rest periods, lunch breaks, etc. They were allowed to choose their own rest periods and to give suggestions. Output increased in both the control rooms. It was concluded that social relationship among workers, participation in decision making, etc. had a greater effect on productivity than working conditions. Part II - Relay Assembly Test Room Study (1927-1929) http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2011/04/hawthorne- studies-experiments-4-parts.html
  • 32. 21,000 employees were interviewed over a period of three years to find out reasons for increased productivity. It was concluded that productivity can be increased if workers are allowed to talk freely about matters that are important to them Part III - Mass Interviewing Programme (1928-1930) http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2011/04/hawthorne- studies-experiments-4-parts.html
  • 33. A group of 14 male workers in the bank wiring room were placed under observation for six months. A worker's pay depended on the performance of the group as a whole. The researchers thought that the efficient workers would put pressure on the less efficient workers to complete the work. However, it was found that the group established its own standards of output, and social pressure was used to achieve the standards of output. Part IV - Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment (1932) http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2011/04/hawthorne- studies-experiments-4-parts.html
  • 34. Historical Method is a useful design which involves a critical writing of past experiences, events, and developments in order to provide helpful information and direction for present and future action. Kerlingen (1986) defines Historical Research as a critical investigation of past events, experiences, and developments and the meticulous examination of evidence of the validity of sources of past information and interpretation of weighted evidences. Knowing the past will enable us to understand ourselves as people. We also learn to appreciate the things we have done in the past which contribute to what we enjoy or suffer today. This also enables us to learn from the mistakes of the past and assist us to avoid them not only in the present but also in the future.
  • 35. • This method will shed light on the issues under study which will eventually lead to the discovery of the truth and enrichment of knowledge. • Historical embraces various fields of human endeavour namely, science, technology, education, economics, engineering, medicine, psychology, sociology, including art, literature, culture and sports. It aims for critical search for truth in any specific area by taking into consideration the actual events without distortion and exaggeration of facts.
  • 36. Historical Source • Good and Gates (1972) give two (2) basic sources of historical data, namely: (1) documents which are reports of events made up of impressions in the past that have been consciously recorded with the purpose of transmitting information, and (2) remains or relics which are physical objects or written materials of historical value and produced without the purpose of deliberately • It is recommended that researchers use the primary sources which are the original repository of historical information such as authentic and official records of personal data, photographs, writings, painting, sculptural pieces, slides, relics, minutes of meetings, records of speeches, interviews, and proceedings of conferences. The secondary source refers to information given by a person who is not a direct participant in the event.
  • 37. The investigator however, should subject these sources of information into external and internal criticisms. Kerlingen (1986) identified internal criticisms as textual evaluation focused on checking the meaning and accuracy of the content of the documents that present historical facts. It weighs the testimony of the documents in relation to the truth. External criticisms, on the other hand, involve a critical examination of the veracity, validity and genuineness or authenticity of the source of materials as compared to the original.
  • 38. Reason and Postmodernity: The Historical and Social Context of Public Administration Research and Theory Jay D. White and Guy B. Adams Administrative Theory & Praxis Vol. 17, No. 1 (1995), pp. 1-18 Published by ME Sharpe, Inc. Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25611102 « Previous Item
  • 39. Computer: A History of the Information Machine Martin Campbell-Kelly; William Aspray. Westview Press, 2014 (3rd edition) Inventing the Electronic Century: The Epic Story of the Consumer Electronics and Computer Industries Alfred D. Chandler Jr. Harvard University Press, 2005
  • 40. Rivera, Jr M and Rivera Roela Victoria Practical Guide to Thesis and Dissertation Katha Publishing Inc. Quezon City, Philippines (2007) Jennifer Villanueva Types of Descriptive Research http://www.slideshare.net/jeanniferbvillanuev a/types-of-descriptive-research (2013)