Public Policy & Program Administration


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DPA 204 L-NU Dagupan City

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Public Policy & Program Administration

  1. 1. PUBLIC POLICY & PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION By: Engr. Rogelio D. Mercado DPA 204
  2. 2. What is Public Policy?• Attempt by the government to address a public issue• Principles & standards regarded by the legislature or by the courts as being of fundamental concern to the State & the whole society• Course of action or inaction taken by governmental entities with regard to a particular issue or set of issues
  3. 3. Meaning of Public Policy• System of courses of action, regulatory measures, laws, & funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives• Commonly embodied in constitutions, legislative acts and judicial decisions; may also be created by an executive order, bureaucratic regulation, or provincial/city/municipal/barangay ordinance
  4. 4. Meaning of Public Policy• Also considered academic discipline as it is studied by professors & students at public policy schools of major universities• Basically the legal framework within which society operates• Composite of decisions that government makes & programs it embarks upon or implements to achieve goals
  5. 5. Meaning of Public Policy• Implies process of formulating & promulgating a program based on a set of principles• Rule of action, manifesting or clarifying specific organization goals, objectives, values, or ideals & often prescribing the obligatory or most desirable ways & means for their accomplishment
  6. 6. Aims of Public Policy• Reconcile conflicting claims for scarce resources• Encourage or foster cooperation that would probably not occur without government influence or encouragement• Prohibit morally unacceptable behavior• Protect the rights of individuals• Provide direct benefits to citizens
  7. 7. Nature & Scope of Public Policy• “The authoritative allocation of values for a society.”• “The process of deciding who gets what, when, where and how.”• “What the government chooses to do or not to do about a specific problem.”• Establish the boundaries of our freedoms & color the contours of our interactions with other people in our political, social & economic systems
  8. 8. Three (3) Parts to Public Policy-Making• Problem – issue that needs to be addressed• Player – individual or group that is influential in forming a plan to address the problem in question• Policy – finalized course of action decided upon by the government; widely open to interpretation by NGO players & private sector including church & cultural institutions
  9. 9. Shaping Public Policy• Complex & multifaceted process• Interplay of individuals & groups (interest) competing/collaborating to influence policy makers• Variety of tools/tactics used to advance aims• Advocating positions publicly – educating supporters/opponents, mobilizing allies
  10. 10. Advocacy• Attempt to influence public policy thru education, lobbying or political pressure• Educate general public/policy makers re: nature of problems, needed legislation & funding required for services/research• Regarded as unseemly but it can clearly influence public policy priorities
  11. 11. Guidance for Policy Makers (Core Principles)• Politicians & public servants are accountable to the public• Elites, in politics & private sector, do not have the right to pursue their interests without constraints• Government bureaucratic & decision processes must be open, accessible, & transparent, as well as responsive to public
  12. 12. Guidance to Policy Makers• Individuals & communities affected by projects have the right to information regarding proposed developments; the right to challenge the need for, and the design of, projects, and the right to be involved in planning and decision-making processes.
  13. 13. Rational Model of Public Policy Making Process• Agenda setting – agencies & government officials meet to discuss the problem at hand• Option-formulation – alternative solutions are considered & final decisions are made regarding the best policy• Implementation – the decided policy is enforced
  14. 14. Stages in the Policy Process (John W. Kingdom, 1984)• Agenda setting• Policy recognition• Policy generation• Political action• Policy formulation• Policy implementation
  15. 15. Agenda Setting• Certain problems are viewed as needing action while others are postponed; competing claims & prioritization gain or decline in prominence over time• Many people contribute – president, members of congress, executive branch officials, political parties, interest groups, media & the general public – in shaping public opinion
  16. 16. Agenda Setting• From many & competing claims, policy makers select issues to be given priority & those to be filtered out• Confluence of 3 streams of events: policy recognition, policy generation, & political action
  17. 17. Policy Recognition• Certain topics emerge as significant issues that demand action due to many influences such as indicators that come to public view, feedback on current programs, or events that demand attention• Policy entrepreneurs invest personal time, energy, & often money to pursue policy changes by using publicity campaigns, direct contacts with decision makers (letters, phone calls) petition drives, etc. Or involve themselves in media, political parties, or interest groups, that provide access to decision makers
  18. 18. Policy Generation• May occur almost simultaneously with policy recognition; likely that many are trying to generate solutions to the problem• Ideas come from decision makers themselves, members of their staff, experts in the bureaucracy, members of the scientific community, policy think tanks, or from the general public
  19. 19. Policy Generation• Proposed solutions swirl around through speeches & articles, papers, & conversations until a few ideas begin to gain special currency• Ideas generated not only seem to correctly address the problem but seem also to be politically acceptable.
  20. 20. Political Action• To reach the top of policy agenda, proposal must be consistent with emerging political realities – Consistent with prevailing political climate – Favored by incumbent administration & legislative majority – Support of interest groups
  21. 21. Policy Formulation• Development of formal policy statements (legislation, executive orders, administrative rules, etc.) that are viewed as legitimate• Procedure in legislation: a bill is introduced & referred to a committee ( & perhaps a sub- committee), hearings are held, the committee reports to the larger body, a vote is taken in both houses, a conference committee works out differences in the 2 versions, & the bill is sent to the chief executive for his signature
  22. 22. Policy Formulation• President has formal & informal means of influencing legislation thru program initiatives & budget proposals• Other government officials interact with Congress on a regular basis & may also affect policy outcomes• Individual citizens & interest groups also seek access & influence
  23. 23. Policy Formulation• Government agencies usually send program proposals to the legislature for its consideration• Agency personnel are often called upon to provide testimony regarding particular proposals due to their expertise on public issues
  24. 24. Policy Formulation• When relationship among interest groups, agency personnel, & members of Congress become strong, frequent & intense, the resulting alliance is called sub-governments or iron triangles that often exert great influence
  25. 25. Policy Implementation• Legislation is general & lacks details• Legislators cannot foresee questions that may come up during implementation• Legislation leaves great deal of discretion to public managers in working out details of particular program• Managers develop administrative rules or policies to give detail to legislation or fill in the gaps
  26. 26. Types of Policy• Regulatory policy – designed to limit the actions of persons or groups so as to protect the general public or a substantial portion of the public• Distributive policy – most common form of government policy, uses tax revenues to provide benefits to individuals or groups by means of grants or subsidies
  27. 27. Types of Policy• Redistributive policy – take taxes from certain groups & give them to another group – Income stabilization – support to unemployed or retired – Social welfare – providing direct payments to indigents – Health care programs - Medicare
  28. 28. Types of PolicyConstituent Policy – intended to benefit the public generally or to serve the governmentForeign & defence policiesPolicies affecting the structure & function of government agencies like government re- organization, etc.
  29. 29. Steps in Making Public Policies (Roy Sylvan)• Identify problem that needs improvement or solution• Develop alternative solutions that can improve or solve the problem• Adopt an alternative or combination of alternatives• Implement the adopted policy• Evaluate the effect of the policy on the problem it addresses & on the people affected
  30. 30. Steps in Passage of Bill in Philippine Legislature• 1st reading – principal author may propose additional authors; contains title, number & names of authors• Bill referred to appropriate committee for study; if disapproved by committee, dies• 2nd reading – after favorable committee evaluation, bill forwarded to Committee on Rules for calendar; read for 2nd time in entirety
  31. 31. Steps in Philippine Legislature• Debates – general debate & amendments proposed in accordance with rules• Printing & distribution – after approval on 2nd reading, bill printed in final form & distributed to members 3 days before passage• 3rd reading – last reading where only title is read; no amendment allowed & votes (yeas & nays) entered in journal; member may abstain; majority of quorum can pass bill
  32. 32. Steps in Philippine Legislature• Bill referred to other house – same procedure• Bill forwarded to President – if approved on 3rd reading by both houses, bill printed in final form & transmitted to the President for appropriate action; no action within 30 days means the bill becomes law; bills re-passed over veto automatically becomes law.
  33. 33. Local Legislative Body (Sanggunian) Critical Tasks• Formulating & managing the legislative agenda• Crafting ordinances & resolutions• Enacting ordinances & codes of ordinances• Evaluating the implementation of ordinances
  34. 34. Crafting Ordinances & Resolutions• Identifying & analyzing a policy problem to be addressed by legislation• Gathering research-based information• Drafting the legislative proposal – requires knowledge of its parts or elements, rules of construction such as grammar & usage, form & style; civil society groups can influence this cycle by drafting proposals & giving them to legislators
  35. 35. Enactment of Legislation• Deliberation• Consultation• Codification• Consideration
  36. 36. Legislative Oversight• Evaluation of how the policy was carried out; that funds were not wasted
  37. 37. Elements of Effective Local Legislation• Efficient institution or organization• Participatory legislation process• Development perspective; addresses development objectives: poverty reduction, environmental protection, gender equality, peace & unity, accountability & transparency, citizen participation
  38. 38. Citizen Participation• Awareness-raising on areas & mechanisms for participation• Making existing legislative mechanisms for participation work• Developing innovative tools to encourage & sustain participation in legislative decision making
  39. 39. Mechanisms for Legislative Participation• Committee meetings• Committee hearings• Legislative agenda formulation – public consultations & workshop• Budget hearings• Accreditation (research, writing, information)
  40. 40. Methods to Solicit Input /Comment from Public• Public hearing• Public consultation• Focus group discussion• Community needs assessment survey• Consultation by individual legislators
  41. 41. Tools To Reach Out Public• Legislative digest• Sanggunian brochure• Media tools• Website• Letters to constituents• Barangay or purok hopping• Study visits for students