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PUBLIC POLICYPSUGRADUATE SCHOOL URDANETACITYFDM 201ABIGAIL PUGAL-SOMERA
Nature of Public Policyand ProcessSome Public Policy DefinitionsTraditionalViews
SOME PUBLIC POLICY DEFINITIONS SOME DEFINITIONS: In any society, governmental entities enact laws,make policies, and allocate resources.This is trueat all levels. Public policy can be generally definedas a system of laws, regulatory measures, coursesof action, and funding priorities concerning a giventopic promulgated by a governmental entity or itsrepresentatives.
SOME PUBLIC POLICY DEFINITIONS Public policy is an attempt by a government toaddress a public issue by instituting laws,regulations, decisions, or actions pertinent to theproblem at hand. Numerous issues can beaddressed by public policy including crime,education, foreign policy, health, and socialwelfare.The process to create a new public policytypically follows three steps: agenda-setting,option-formulation, and implementation; thetime-line for a new policy to be put in place canrange from weeks to several years, depending onthe situation.
Nature and Scope of Public Policy “The authoritative allocation of values for a society.” “The process of deciding who gets what, when,where and how.” “What the government chooses to do or not to doabout a specific problem.” Establish the boundaries of our freedoms & color thecontours of our interactions with other people in ourpolitical, social & economic systems
TRADITIONALVIEWS WoodrowWilson, who is arguably the father of modern publicadministration, contends, “public policy is the laws and regulationswhich are made by legislative statesmen and implemented bypublic administration personnel” (as cited inWu Qiyuan, 1985, p. 4). This definition is obviously characterized by “the dichotomy betweenpolitics and administration,” which narrows the scope and limits therange of public policy makers. First, public policy includes not only laws and regulations, but alsogovernment’s plans, instructions, decisions, and other symbolic systems. Secondly, those who participate in the making of public policy includenot only statesmen, but also representatives of citizens, experts, andscholars. Especially in the modern era of the “administrative state”(Waldo, 1984), with the sharp expansion of governmental function andthe wide application of administrative judicial rights, executiveauthorities’ participation in making public policy has increased steadily
TRADITIONALVIEWS Harold Lasswell andAbraham Kaplan (1970) define public policyas “a projected program of goals, values, and practices”.Theaforementioned definition confuses public policy withprograms, making the latter seem overly extensive. A programcan be public policy, but not all public policies are programs.Ashas been pointed out, public policy also includes instructions,decisions, laws, regulations, and other symbolic systems thatgovernment sends out.
TRADITIONALVIEWS Thomas R. Dye (1987) thinks, “Public policy is whatevergovernments choose to do or not to do”. Dye focuses not only on government action, but alsoon government inaction, and therefore, his definitionshows the obvious character of behavioralism. Itreflects the practical discipline quality of public policyanalysis. “Action” means that government takes measures oruses symbols openly in order to solve some publicproblem. “Inaction” means that government does nottake measures or express active symbols, abiding bythe principle of noninterference. Both are importantsolutions to public problems.
TRADITIONALVIEWS Robert Eyestone (1971) defines public policy mostextensively. He states, “In a broad sense, publicpolicy is the relationship between governmentalorgans and their environment”. It is evident that Eyestone is influenced by thescience of ecological administration. Indeed, public policy is the function of agovernmental system and its living environment,namely P = F (G, E) (here, P refers to public policy,G refers to governmental system, and E refers tothe living environment).
The Philippine PublicPolicy:Past, Present and Future
Public Policy as a Study – A Brief History The post-war years saw the emergence of publicpolicy as a subfield of public administration. In the US, interest in policy studies started in 1950s.In the Philippines, however, it started not to longago, in 1970s in the then Institute of PublicAdministration in the University of the Philippines. Generally, policy studies can focus on the content ofpublic policy, its processes, models, theories andapproaches of public policy its impact as well asevaluation of public programs and projects.
Public Policy as a Study – A Brief HistoryDye (1995) said that certain theoretical approachesand models have been introduced in studying publicpolicy which include institutional, process, group, elite, rational, incremental, game theory, public choice and systems model.
Approaches to Public Policy Analycentric focuses on individual problems and their solutions; itsscope is the micro-scale and its probleminterpretation is usually of a technical nature Policy Process puts its focal point onto political processes andinvolved stakeholders; its scope is the meso-scale andits problem interpretation is usually of a politicalnature Meta-policy Approach systems and context approach; i.e., its scope is themacro-scale and its problem interpretation is usuallyof a structural nature
Public Policy in the PhilippinesThere are several institutional built-in systems of policy-making in the Philippines, some of these are: National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) – forsocio-economic policies National Security Council (NSC) – for security and defense Legislative Executive Development Advisory Council (LEDAC)– general legislative agendas Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) – local levelagencies for concerns affecting basic servicesThe last three agencies mentioned do perform certainstages of the public policy process, none of them have a moredefined and extensive mandate and a more permanent structurethan NEDA.
NEDA The highest policy making body responsible for allaspects of the development program NEDA Board is headed by the President withselected Cabinet secretaries and other executivestaff officers and members. NEDA Secretariat is the research arm of the NEDAboard. NEDA Director-General heads the Secretariat, and isalso the Social-Economic Planning Secretary (perEO#230)
Policy StreamAgenda• Actual performance during the preceding year• New developments and emerging issues in the local and international economies• Shifts in the policy emphasis of the administrationPolicy Formulation• Econometric Models• Input-OutputAnalysis• Accounting Frameworks• Project Evaluation and PrioritizationLegitimation• Medium-Term Development Plan (MTDP)• State-of-the-NationAddress (SONA)ImplementationForge a consensus at the pre-implementation phase since it is thedifferent departments who are actually tasked to implement the variousprograms stipulated in the MTPDP and other policy declarationsEvaluationFeedback and monitoring mechanisms through its attached agencies
Stakeholders in Philippine Public PolicyPhilippineGovernmentExecutiveBranchPoliticalPartiesLegislativeBranchCitizensJudicialBranchMediaLocalGovernmentsInterestGroupsPoliticalConsultants
Problems and Criticisms New Influence Players Catholic Church – with two EDSAs’ to their credit Mass Media – compelling instrument tomanipulate and /or direct public opinion Civil Society – takes it upon themselves to rise upand partake of the largesse of power
“A problem wellformulated is a problemhalf solved.”
We want to learn how tolook at problems frommultiple perspectives toachieve the best problemdefinition and possible /feasible solutions
Not all Public Problems are amenable topolicy analysis, but when they are, theanalysis can support decision making to: Determine whether a new policy is required to address theproblem If a policy already exists, determine whether it needs to bemodified or terminated Analyze one policy (retrospectively or prospectively) Compare two or more policies that address a similar problem Assess future implications of current or new policies Explore stages in the development of particular policies
Challenges of Public Policy problems May show up in ways that are difficult to address “Inherently multidimensional”, overlap & contradict Are ill defined, so “wicked problems” The consensus over social goals may be illusory Decision-makers have different preferences andvalues, often conflicting The definition of a policy problem is not completelyscientific or systematic: creativity, sagacity, sociallyconstructed
ThreeApproaches to Policy AnalysisApproach Primary Question Type of InformationEmpirical Does it and will it exist? (facts)Descriptive andpredictiveValuative Of what worth is it? (values) ValuativeNormative(value-critical)What should be done? (action) Prescriptive
Five types of Policy relevant information:interrelated and interdependentS. No. Types Importance1Policy Problems Conceptualizing problem from different angles-viable solutions2Policy Futures Identifying consequences of future course ofaction3PolicyActions Forecasting & evaluating consequences of actionbased on different alternatives4PolicyOutcomes Ensuring an observed consequences of policyactions5PolicyPerformanceFinding the degree of value contributed by policyoutcome (useful in forecasting policy future)
Five Info is obtained by the means of -PolicyAnalysis Process of InquiryS. No. Procedure Information1 Definition (ProblemStructuring)Conditions giving rise to a policy problem2Prediction(Forecasting)Future consequences of acting on policyalternatives, including doing nothing3Prescription(Recommendation)Future course of action4Description(Monitoring)Present and Past causes and consequencesof acting on policy alternatives5 EvaluationValue or worth of consequences in solvingthe problem
Three Elements of Policy SystemPolicyStakeholdersPolicyEnvironmentPublic PolicyCrimeInflationUnemploymentDiscriminationUrban SqualorPolicyAnalystsCitizens’GroupsLabor UnionsPartiesAgenciesLaw EnforcementEconomicWelfarePersonnelUrbanSource: Adapted fromThomas R. Dye, Understanding Public Policy 3rd ed.
Dunn’s Integrated Framework:Problem Centered Policy AnalysisAdapted from Public PolicyAnalysis:An Introduction byWilliam N. Dunn
Forms of PolicyAnalysis Prospective Policy Analysis Retrospective Policy Analysis Integrated Policy Analysis
Prospective Policy Analysis The production and transformation of informationbefore policy actions are initiated and implemented. Tends to Characterize the operating styles ofeconomists, systems analysts, and operationsresearchers. Synthesizes information to draw policy alternativesand preferences.
Criticism on Prospective AnalysisOften creates large gapPreferredSolutions toProblemsEfforts ofGovt. toresolve theproblemGapsAdapted from Public PolicyAnalysis:An Introduction byWilliam N. Dunn
Retrospective Policy Analysis Confined to the production and transformation ofinformation after policy actions have been taken. Operating styles of three major groups of analysts:1. Discipline oriented analysts2. Problem oriented analysts3. Application oriented analysts
Retrospective Policy AnalysisDiscipline OrientedAnalysisProblem Oriented AnalysisApplication OrientedAnalysisPolitical Scientists &Sociologists – seeks todevelop and test disciplinebased theories.Political Scientists &Sociologists - seeks todescribe the causes andconsequences of policies.Also persons from socialwork, public administration& evaluation research.Seeks to describe causesDescribe the causes andconsequences of thepolicies.Less concerned with thedevelopment and testing oftheories. Discipline OrientedAnalysisWhat affected the policiesNot concerned with dev.And testing of disciplinebased theories.Seldom attempts toidentity specific goals andobjectives of policymakers(does not distinguish“policy variables”).Seldom provides info aboutspecific goals and objectivesof policymakers. Coz theproblem they analyze areusually of general nature.They are concerned withthe identification of goalsand objectives of policymakers and otherstakeholders. Good info forevaluating policy outcome.
Integrated Policy AnalysisProspective PolicyAnalysisSuffers from inadequate &unreliable info. About changes invalues , goals and objectiveswhich occur after policies havebeen implemented.Integrated PolicyAnalysisBuilds on the strengths ofboth Prospective &Retrospective Analysis –multidisciplinary in full senseof the worldMultidisciplinary framework,concerns with the production &transformation of information bothbefore and after policy actions havebeen taken.Provides methodology for policyanalysis (rules & procedures)Retrospective PolicyAnalysisSuffers from its nature i.e.confined with passive reporting ofinformation about theconsequences of implementedpoliciesAdapted from Public PolicyAnalysis:An Introduction byWilliam N. Dunn
Integrated Policy Analysis FrameworkAdapted from Public PolicyAnalysis:An Introduction byWilliam N. Dunn
Methodology of Policy Analysis Descriptive DecisionTheory: set of logically consistentpropositions that describe action. Primary aim is to understanda policy problem rather than to solve it. Normative DecisionTheory: set of logically consistentpropositions that provide a basis for improving theconsequences of action.Appropriate for predicting andrecommending different courses of action before they haveoccurred. Aim is to solve the problem - “Problem Solving”methodology.
Institutional Model Public policy is determined by political institutions, which givepolicy legitimacy. Government universally applies policy to all citizens of societyand monopolizes the use of force in applying policy. The legislature, executive and judicial branches of governmentare examples of institutions that give policy legitimacy.
Process ModelIdentification of a problem and demand forgovernment actionFormulation of policy proposals by variouspartiesPolicy Legitimation - Selection andenactment of policyImplementation of the chosen policyEvaluation of policy
Group Model The political systems role is to establish and enforcecompromise between various, conflicting interests insociety.
Elite Model Public policies are viewed as preferences and valuesof governing elite Policies flow down-ward from elites to masses; theydo not arise from mass demands
Rational Model process for making logically sound decisions in policymaking in the public sector, although the model isalso widely used in private corporations. HerbertA. Simon, the father of rational models,describes rationality as “a style of behavior that isappropriate to the achievement of given goals,within the limits imposed by given conditions andconstraints”
Rational Model1• Defining the problem by analyzing the data and the informationgathered2• Identifying the decision criteria that will be important in solving the problem.The decisionmaker must determine the relevant factors to take into account when making the decision3• A brief list of the possible alternatives must be generated; these could succeed to resolvethe problem4• A critical analyses and evaluation of each criterion is brought through. For examplestrength and weakness tables of each alternative are drawn and used for comparativebasis.The decision maker then weights the previously identified criteria in order to givethe alternative policies a correct priority in the decision.5• The decision-maker evaluates each alternative against the criteria and selectsthe preferred alternative.6• The policy is brought through.
Incremental Model Under this model, policy is a continuation of previouspolicy with minimum changes Existing programmes, policies and expenditures areconsidered as a base Policy makers accept the legitimacy of previouspolicies because of uncertainty about theconsequences of new policies
GameTheory It is a study of rational decisions in situations where two ormore participants have choices to make and outcome dependson the choices made by each. GameTheory is an abstract and deductive model of policymaking. It does not describe how people actually make decisions butrather how they should go about making decisions incompetitive situations if they are rational.
Public Choice This model assumes that all political actors, voters,tax payers, legislatures, bureaucrats, political parties,etc. seek to maximize their personal benefits inpolitics as a market place. Individuals come together in politics for their mutualbenefit, just as they come together in a market place.
Why PolicyAnalysis Models areImportant They: Create order and simplify reality Identify what is significant Can be congruent with reality Can provide meaningful communication Direct Enquiry and Research Suggest Explanations
Why PolicyAnalysis Models areImportant Also, Model are not competitive; anyone of the can notbe judged as best Each one provides a separate focus and each canhelp understand different things about publicpolicy Most policies are a combination of all modelsmentioned
What PolicyAnalysis Can and CannotDo… Policy analysis can assist decision makers in choosinga preferred course of action from complexalternatives and under uncertain conditions. Policy analysis is not a panacea or a substitute forinadequate policymaking processes, defects ofpublic decisions, bad judgment on the part ofanalysts or policymakers, an exact science or a toolfor advocacy by the analyst for his/her own views.Adapted from Public PolicyAnalysis:An Introduction byWilliam N. Dunn
Adapted from Public PolicyAnalysis:An Introduction byWilliam N. Dunn
REFERENCES http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-public-policy.htm http://www.musc.edu/vawprevention/policy/definition.shtml Public policy by William N. DunnAssociate Dean and ProfessorUniversity of Pittsburg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Policy_analysis June 2013 The Philippines: Public Policy and National EconomicDevelopment by Frank Golay Understanding the Philippine Public Policy Process:AnExecutive Branch Perspective by .Antonio F.Trillanes IV PNOctober 2002