Power, Influence and Politics

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Power, Influence and Politics

  1. 1. Power, Politics, and Influence Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior 2e Andrew J. DuBrin PowerPoint Presentation by Rogelio R. Corpuz M.M.E Chapter 11
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Identify sources of power for individuals and subunits in organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the essence of empowerment. </li></ul><ul><li>Pinpoint factors contributing to organizational politics. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and describe a variety of political and influence tactics. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how managers can control dysfunctional politics. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between the ethical and unethical use of power, politics, and influence. </li></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  3. 3. The Meaning of Power, Politics, and Influence <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the potential or ability to influence decisions and control resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the informal approaches to gaining power through means other than merit or luck. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles power, but tends to be more subtle and indirect. </li></ul></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  4. 4. Sources of Individual and Subunit Power <ul><li>Socialized Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the use of power to achieve constructive ends. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personalized Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the use of power primarily for the sake of personal aggrandizement and gain . </li></ul></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  5. 5. Sources of Individual and Subunit Power <ul><li>Power Granted by the Organization (Position Power) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate power is based on the manager’s formal position within the hierarchy of the firm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power is enhanced by establishing polices and procedures that increase the scope of the position’s control. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive power is controlling others through the fear of punishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To be effective, employees must fear the punishment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward power is controlling others through rewards or the promise of rewards . </li></ul></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  6. 6. Sources of Individual and Subunit Power <ul><li>Power Stemming from the Individual (Personal Power) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert power is the ability to influence others because of one’s specialized knowledge, skills, or abilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent power is the ability to influence others that stems from one’s desirable traits and characteristics . </li></ul></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  7. 7. Sources of Individual and Subunit Power <ul><li>Power from Providing Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Dependence Perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subunits or individuals within an organization who control or provide the resources that the organization needs on a continuing basis can become quite powerful. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control of resources equals power for managers . </li></ul></ul></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  8. 8. Empowerment of Group Members <ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process of sharing power with group members, thereby enhancing their feelings of self-efficacy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic benefits of distributing power: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improved productivity, quality, and satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keys for the transition to effective empowerment: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing more structure (training and support) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gradually replacing traditional organizational structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing individuals and teams to determine how to achieve objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Above all, trusting in employees to do the right thing </li></ul></ul></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  9. 9. Five Stages in the Process of Empowerment A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 – Organizational factors Supervision Reward system Nature of job Participative management Goal setting Feedback system Modeling Contingent/ competence- based reward Job enrichment Enactive attainment Vicarious experience Verbal persuasion Emotional arousal Strengthening of effort— performance expectancy or belief in personal efficacy Initiation/ persistence of behavior to accomplish task objectives Remove conditions listed under Stage 1 Stage 1 Conditions leading to a psychological state of powerlessness Stage 2 The use of managerial strategies and techniques Stage 3 To provide self-efficacy information to subordinates, using four resources Stage 4 Results in empowering experience of subordinate Stage 5 Leading to behavioral effects and Source: Jay A. Conger and Rabindra N. Kanungo, “The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice,” Academy of Management Review (July 1988): p.475. EXHIBIT 11-1
  10. 10. Signs of Empowerment and Disempowerment <ul><li>Empowered Employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take initiative in ambiguous situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify opportunities in ambiguous situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply critical thinking skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer judgments about how decisions support shared purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and act on opportunities to improve systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimize resources by reducing expenses and finding opportunities to invest in new resources </li></ul></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  11. 11. Signs of Empowerment and Disempowerment <ul><li>Disempowered Employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait for a designated authority to take charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address problem but fail to see opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept decisions without questioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss but not able to apply information about shared purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt consensus but yield to higher authority when failing at consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on resource questions only when directed to do so </li></ul></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  12. 12. Factors Contributing To and Examples of Political Behavior <ul><li>Organizations have a political nature due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalitions of interests competing for resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A pyramidal power structure that concentrates power at the top of the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downsizing and team structures limit upward mobility for ambitious managers with a strong need for power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralization disperses power in the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machiavellian manipulation of others and the organization for personal gain by some managers . </li></ul></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  13. 13. Effective Use of Organizational Politics <ul><li>Ethical Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Develop power contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Manage your impression </li></ul><ul><li>Control vital information </li></ul><ul><li>Keep informed </li></ul><ul><li>Be courteous, pleasant, and positive </li></ul><ul><li>Ask satisfied customer to contact your manager </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid political blunders </li></ul><ul><li>Use flattery sincerely </li></ul><ul><li>Unethical Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in backstabbing </li></ul><ul><li>Embrace-or-demolish </li></ul><ul><li>Set a person up for failure </li></ul><ul><li>Play territorial games (turf wars) </li></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  14. 14. Organizational Influence Tactics <ul><li>Leading by example </li></ul><ul><li>Assertiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Ingratiation </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Inspirational appeal and emotional display </li></ul><ul><li>Joking and kidding </li></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  15. 15. The Control of Dysfunctional Politics and Ethical Considerations <ul><li>Excessive politics and influence tactics can harm an organization and its members. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to control these activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on objective measures of performance tied to proper and significant goals for the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Align individual goals and objectives to be congruent with those of the organization to increase commitment and performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice open communications to remove the political value of information and to increase the overall understanding of the organization. </li></ul></ul>A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –
  16. 16. end of presentation A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior , Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 11 –

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